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Pomegranate Juice Controversy

June 20, 2012 Written by JP       [Font too small?]

Pomegranate juice has been in the news lately for all the wrong reasons. In September 2010, the Federal Trade Commission filed a complaint against POM Wonderful LLC, a leading manufacturer of pomegranate extract and juice. In May 2012, an initial decision was announced which stated that some of the claims made in POM advertisements were deceptive in nature and/or overreaching. The order, put forth by Chief Administrative Law Judge D. Michael Chappell, specifically took note of representations that pomegranate extract and juice were capable of preventing, reducing or treating erectile dysfunction, heart disease and prostate cancer.

Rather than quibbling about who’s right and who’s wrong in the current battle between the FTC and POM, I’m going to share ten important, scientific studies about pomegranate juice itself. Take a look at the data presented in the following paragraphs and then read the studies via the links at the end of this column. After doing so, you should have enough information to make up your own mind.

In 2012, two peer-reviewed studies on pomegranate juice (PJ) appeared in the medical literature. The first revealed that drinking 330 ml or 11 oz/day of PJ for 4 weeks effectively lowered diastolic, mean arterial and systolic blood pressure by -2.33 mmHg, -2.60 mmHg and -3.14 mmHg respectively. Another trial determined that thrice-weekly pomegranate juice consumption significantly lowered atherosclerotic progression and infection risk in kidney patients undergoing hemodialysis – a group at high risk for heart disease and hospitalizations due to infections.

Other studies from the last several years report that pomegranate juice: a) lowers inflammation and improves flow-mediated dilation, a measure of circulatory health, in adolescents with metabolic syndrome; b) does not stimulate insulin secretion, and may discourage weight gain in the form of body fat; c) “attenuates weakness and reduces soreness” caused by strenuous exercise; d) may slow carotid intima-media thickness and hardening of the arteries in individuals with increased oxidative stress and those with high triglycerides and low HDL (“good”) cholesterol. This last point may have particular relevance for diabetics because they frequently present this precise cardiometabolic profile – elevated oxidative stress/triglycerides and below average HDL cholesterol. The good news is that preliminary studies indicate that pomegranate extract and juice safely reverse this unwelcome profile in adult onset diabetics.

One of the primary selling points of pomegranate juice is that it possesses more potent antioxidant activity than other common fruit juices. A study from February 2008 evaluated whether this was, in fact, accurate. In the research, the antioxidant potential of apple vs. pomegranate juice was measured in a group of elderly men and women. A series of before and after blood tests concluded that PJ had a significantly greater impact on antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress than apple juice. Nevertheless, there are some people (myself included) who don’t want to get their antioxidants from fruit juice that contains a lot of sugar – naturally occurring or otherwise. Fortunately, it appears that encapsulated pomegranate extracts, which are sugar-free, provide equivalent concentrations of the therapeutic polyphenols contained in pomegranate juice. What’s more, the absorption or bioavailability of pomegranate extract is comparable to pomegranate juice. That’s why I suggest pomegranate extract as a viable alternative for those on low carbohydrate diets and who would rather avoid concentrated sources of fructose.

Note: Please check out the “Comments & Updates” section of this blog – at the bottom of the page. You can find the latest research about this topic there!

To learn more about the studies referenced in today’s column, please click on the following links:

Study 1 - Effects of Pomegranate Juice Supplementation on Pulse Wave Velocity … (link)

Study 2 - One Year of Pomegranate Juice Intake Decreases Oxidative Stress (link)

Study 3 - Acute and Long Term Effects of Grape and Pomegranate Juice (link)

Study 4 - Effect of Pomegranate Juice on Insulin Secretion and Sensitivity (link)

Study 5 - The Effect of Pomegranate Juice Supplementation on Strength and (link)

Study 6 - Effects of Consumption of Pomegranate Juice on Carotid Intima(link)

Study 7 – Pomegranate Juice Polyphenols Increase Recombinant Paraoxonase … (link)

Study 8 – Consumption of Wonderful Variety Pomegranate Juice and Extract by (link)

Study 9 - Pomegranate Juice is Potentially Better Than Apple Juice in Improving (link)

Study 10 - Pomegranate Juice and Extracts Provide Similar Levels of Plasma and (link)

Pomegranate Juice Benefits Blood Vessel Function/Health

Source: J Res Med Sci. 2011 March; 16(3): 245–253. (link)

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19 Comments & Updates to “Pomegranate Juice Controversy”

  1. rob Says:

    Good info, it seems all juice should come with a caveat, even vegeatble juice that the sugar can cause issues as there is no fiber to slow the degestion of the sugars.

    Maybe drinking these juices during meals that include fat would help.

  2. JP Says:

    Hi Rob,

    I suspect it would. Even so, it’s not for me. I’ll occasionally have a glass of homemade lemonade (sweetened with stevia) or 100% cranberry juice (stevia-tized). Apart from that, I avoid fruit juices. But, for those who choose to include fruit juice in their diets, pure pomegranate juice is probably one of the better options.

    Be well!

    JP

  3. rob Says:

    Apparently they thinking of banning cranberry juice out of vending machines at some schools. But sodas are still good to sell

  4. JP Says:

    Updated 07/21/15:

    http://www.nature.com/pcan/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/pcan201532a.html

    Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2015 Jul 14.

    A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the effects of pomegranate extract on rising PSA levels in men following primary therapy for prostate cancer.

    BACKGROUND: The primary objective of this study was to compare the effects of pomegranate juice on PSA doubling times (PSADT) in subjects with rising PSA levels after primary therapy for prostate cancer.

    METHODS: Double-blind, placebo-controlled multi-institutional study, evaluated the effects of pomegranate liquid extract on serum PSA levels. The primary end point of this study was change in serum PSADT. Additional secondary and exploratory objectives were to evaluate the safety of pomegranate juice and to determine the interaction of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) AA genotype and pomegranate treatment on PSADT.

    RESULTS: One-hundred eighty-three eligible subjects were randomly assigned to the active and placebo groups with a ratio of 2:1 (extract N=102; placebo N=64; juice N=17). The majority of adverse events were of moderate or mild grade. Median PSADT increased from 11.1 months at baseline to 15.6 months in the placebo group (P<0.001) compared with an increase from 12.9 months at baseline to 14.5 months in the extract group (P=0.13) and an increase from 12.7 at baseline to 20.3 in the juice group (P=0.004). However, none of these changes were statistically significant between the three groups (P>0.05). Placebo AA patients experienced a 1.8 month change in median PSADT from 10.9 months at baseline to 12.7 months (P=0.22), while extract patients experienced a 12 month change in median PSADT from 13.6 at baseline to 25.6 months (P=0.03).

    CONCLUSIONS: Compared with placebo, pomegranate extract did not significantly prolong PSADT in prostate cancer patients with rising PSA after primary therapy. A significant prolongation in PSADT was observed in both the treatment and placebo arms. Men with the MnSOD AA genotype may represent a group that is more sensitive to the antiproliferative effects of pomegranate on PSADT; however, this finding requires prospective hypothesis testing and validation.

    Be well!

    JP

  5. JP Says:

    Updated 07/21/15:

    http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs13318-015-0263-8

    Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 2015 Feb 27.

    Pomegranate juice does not affect the disposition of simvastatin in healthy subjects.

    Previous in vitro and in vivo investigations reported controversial results for the inhibitory potential of pomegranate on Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A activity. This study evaluated the effect of pomegranate juice on the disposition of simvastatin, a CYP3A4 substrate, and simvastatin acid, its active metabolite, compared with grapefruit juice in healthy subjects. A single oral pharmacokinetic study of 40 mg simvastatin was conducted as a three-way crossover (control, pomegranate, and grapefruit juices) in 12 healthy male subjects. The subjects took pomegranate or grapefruit juice three times per day for 3 days (900 mL/day) and on the third day, the pharmacokinetic study was executed. Blood samples were collected to 24 h post-dose and the pharmacokinetic parameters of simvastatin and simvastatin acid were compared among the study periods. In the period of grapefruit juice, the mean C max and AUCinf of simvastatin [the geometric mean ratio (90 % CI) 15.6 (11.6-21.0) and 9.1 (6.0-13.7)] were increased significantly when compared with the control period, whereas they were not significantly different in the period of pomegranate juice [C max and AUCinf 1.20 (0.89-1.62) and 1.29 (0.85-1.94)]. The mean C max and AUCinf of simvastatin acid were increased significantly after intake of grapefruit juice, but not pomegranate juice. These results suggest that pomegranate juice affects little on the disposition of simvastatin in humans. Pomegranate juice does not seem to have a clinically relevant inhibitory potential on CYP3A4 activity.

    Be well!

    JP

  6. JP Says:

    Updated 07/21/15:

    http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11130-014-0455-4

    Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2015 Mar;70(1):9-14.

    Regular consumption of an antioxidant-rich juice improves oxidative status and causes metabolome changes in healthy adults.

    An improvement in oxidative status is associated with a reduction in the incidence of several chronic diseases. However, daily intake of antioxidants in Western diets is decreasing. This study evaluates the effect of daily consumption of an antioxidant-rich juice (ARJ) on oxidative status, cardiovascular disease risk parameters, and untargeted plasma and urine metabolomes. Twenty-eight healthy young adults participated in an 8-week clinical trial by drinking 200 mL of ARJ (pomegranate and grape) daily. At the end of the study, the subjects showed a significant decrease (-29%) in plasma lipid oxidation (malondialdehyde concentration), and a significant increase (+115%) in plasma antioxidant capacity. Plasma and urine metabolomes were also significantly modified and some ions modified in urine were identified, including metabolites of polyphenols, ascorbic acid and biliary acids. No significant changes were observed in lipid profile, inflammation, blood pressure or glycaemia. These results show that incorporating antioxidant-rich beverages into common diets may improve oxidative status in healthy subjects.

    Be well!

    JP

  7. JP Says:

    Updated 07/21/15:

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25255587

    J Pak Med Assoc. 2014 Jul;64(7):785-90.

    Effect of pomegranate juice supplementation on matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 following exhaustive exercise in young healthy males.

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of pomegranate juice supplementation on matrix metalloproteinases2 and 9 serum levels and improving antioxidant function in young healthy males during exhaustive exercise.

    METHODS: The study was conducted at Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Iran, in 2010-11 and comprised 28 healthy subjects in 18-24 age bracket. They were randomly divided into control and supplemented groups. One cup of pomegranate juice and one cup of tap water were given to supplemented and control groups daily for two weeks respectively. Fasting blood samples were taken at baseline and at the end of two weeks of intervention. The subjects were given one exhaustive exercise and then fasting blood samples were taken for testing blood glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase and serum levels of high sensitivity C-reactive protein, zinc, ceruloplasmin, matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9, malondialdehyde and total antioxidant capacity. Data was analysed using descriptive statistical tests, paired and independent sample t-test.

    RESULTS: The blood levels of glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase and serum levels of total antioxidant capacity after exhaustive exercise in the supplemented group were significantly increased (p < 0.05), while the content of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9, ceruloplasmin and malondialdehyde showed a significant decrease in comparison to the control group (p < 0.05). Besides, there were no significant changes in other biochemical factors.

    CONCLUSION: Regular intake of pomegranate juice significantly modulates matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9and serum levels of some inflammatory factors and thus protects against exhaustive exercise-induced oxidative injury in young healthy males.

    Be well!

    JP

  8. JP Says:

    Updated 07/21/15:

    http://www.nrjournal.com/article/S0271-5317%2814%2900140-7/abstract

    Nutr Res. 2014 Oct;34(10):862-7.

    Fresh pomegranate juice ameliorates insulin resistance, enhances β-cell function, and decreases fasting serum glucose in type 2 diabetic patients.

    Although the effects of pomegranate juice (PJ) on type 2 diabetic (T2D) conditions have been reported, a clinical study focusing on the short-term effects on different diabetic variables is still needed. We hypothesized that PJ consumption by T2D patients could reduce their insulin-resistant state and decrease their fasting serum glucose (FSG) levels, 3 hours after juice ingestion. This study demonstrated the direct effect of fresh PJ on FSG and insulin levels in T2D patients. Blood samples from 85 participants with type 2 diabetes were collected after a 12-hour fast, then 1 and 3 hours after administration of 1.5 mL of PJ, per kg body weight. Serum glucose was measured based on standard methods using the BS-200 Chemistry Analyzer (Shenzhen Mindray Bio-Medical Electronics Co Ltd, Shenzhen, China). Commercially available immunoassay kits were used to measure human insulin. Generally, the results demonstrated decreased FSG, increased β-cell function, and decreased insulin resistance among T2D participants, 3 hours after PJ administration (P < .05). This hypoglycemic response depended on initial FSG levels, as participants with lower FSG levels (7.1-8.7 mmol/L) demonstrated a greater hypoglycemic response (P < .05) compared with those who had higher FSG levels (8.8-15.8 mmol/L). The effect of PJ was also not affected by the sex of the patient and was less potent in elderly patients. In conclusion, this work offers some encouragement for T2D patients regarding PJ consumption as an additional contribution to control glucose levels.

    Be well!

    JP

  9. JP Says:

    Updated 07/21/15:

    http://pubs.rsc.org/en/Content/ArticleLanding/2015/FO/C5FO00669D#!divAbstract

    Food Funct. 2015 Jul 20.

    Pomegranate extract induces ellagitannin metabolite formation and changes stool microbiota in healthy volunteers.

    The health benefits of pomegranate (POM) consumption are attributed to ellagitannins and their metabolites, formed and absorbed in the intestine by the microbiota. In this study twenty healthy participants consumed 1000 mg of POM extract daily for four weeks. Based on urinary and fecal content of the POM metabolite urolithin A (UA), we observed three distinct groups: (1) individuals with no baseline UA presence but induction of UA formation by POM extract consumption (n = 9); (2) baseline UA formation which was enhanced by POM extract consumption (N = 5) and (3) no baseline UA production, which was not inducible (N = 6). Compared to baseline the phylum Actinobacteria was increased and Firmicutes decreased significantly in individuals forming UA (producers). Verrucomicrobia (Akkermansia muciniphila) was 33 and 47-fold higher in stool samples of UA producers compared to non-producers at baseline and after 4 weeks, respectively. In UA producers, the genera Butyrivibrio, Enterobacter, Escherichia, Lactobacillus, Prevotella, Serratia and Veillonella were increased and Collinsella decreased significantly at week 4 compared to baseline. The consumption of pomegranate resulted in the formation of its metabolites in some but not all participants. POM extract consumption may induce health benefits secondary to changes in the microbiota.

    Be well!

    JP

  10. JP Says:

    Updated 09/14/15:

    http://www.foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/28551

    Food Nutr Res. 2015 Sep 8;59:28551.

    Pomegranate (Punicagranatum) juice decreases lipid peroxidation, but has no effect on plasma advanced glycated end-products in adults with type 2 diabetes: a randomized double-blind clinical trial.

    INTRODUCTION: Diabetes mellitus characterized by hyperglycemia could increase oxidative stress and formation of advanced glycated end-products (AGEs), which contribute to diabetic complications. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of pomegranate juice (PJ) containing natural antioxidant on lipid peroxidation and plasma AGEs in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D).

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 44 patients (age range 56±6.8 years), T2D were randomly assigned to one of two groups: group A (PJ, n=22) and group B (Placebo, n=22). At the baseline and the end of 12-week intervention, biochemical markers including fasting plasma glucose, insulin, oxidative stress, and AGE markers including carboxy methyl lysine (CML) and pentosidine were assayed.

    RESULTS: At baseline, there were no significant differences in plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels between the two groups, but malondialdehyde (MDA) decreased levels were significantly different (P<0.001). After 12 weeks of intervention, TAC increased (P<0.05) and MDA decreased (P<0.01) in the PJ group when compared with the placebo group. However, no significant differences were observed in plasma concentration of CML and pentosidine between the two groups.

    CONCLUSIONS: The study showed that PJ decreases lipid peroxidation. Therefore, PJ consumption may delay onset of T2D complications related to oxidative stress.

    Be well!

    JP

  11. JP Says:

    Updated 1/26/16:

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26804926

    J Sci Food Agric. 2016 Jan 25.

    The effect of pomegranate juice on clinical signs, matrix metalloproteinases and antioxidant status in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the commonest forms of musculoskeletal disorders that leads to joint degeneration and has a major impact on patients’ quality of life. Experimental and in vitro studies have suggested the protective roles of pomegranate juice (PJ) as a rich antioxidant source for mitigating cartilage inflammation. In this interventional study, 38 patients with knee OA were randomly divided into two groups: PJ or control for 6 weeks to evaluate the effect of this intervention on clinical signs, inflammation and antioxidant status.

    RESULTS: Significant decreases in Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis index (WOMAC) total score (P= 0.01), stiffness score (p=0.00) and physical function score (p=0.01) were observed in PJ group after the intervention. The means of serum levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) -13 was significantly decreased (p=0.02) and glutathione peroxidase was increased in the intervention group compared with the control group after the study period (p=0.02).

    CONCLUSIONS: According to the findings of this clinical trial, PJ consumption can improve physical function and stiffness, decrease breakdown cartilage enzymes and increase antioxidant status in patients with knee OA.

    Be well!

    JP

  12. JP Says:

    Updated 06/11/16:

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27279834

    Int J Endocrinol Metab. 2016 Jan 30;14(1):e33835.

    Effects of Concentrated Pomegranate Juice on Subclinical Inflammation and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes: A Quasi-Experimental Study.

    BACKGROUND: The health benefits of pomegranate juice have been reported in several studies. However, limited clinical trials have examined the effects of concentrated pomegranate juice (CPJ) on inflammatory factors.

    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the effects of CPJ on metabolic risk factors, including inflammatory biomarkers, in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PATIENTS AND METHODS: In a quasi-experiment trial, 40 type 2 diabetic patients were asked to consume 50 g of CPJ daily for 4 weeks. Anthropometric indices, dietary intake, blood pressure measurements, and fasting blood samples were conducted at baseline and 4 weeks after the intervention.

    RESULTS: The intake of CPJ produced a significant increase in both total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (4.7% and 3.9%, respectively) from baseline (P < 0.05). However, changes that were observed in serum triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), fasting blood glucose, and blood pressure were not statistically significant. Administration of CPJ caused significant reduction in serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) (P < 0.05), but tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) remained unchanged during the study. The mean value of serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was substantially increased (~ 75%) from 381.88 ± 114.4 at baseline to 1501 ± 817 after 4 weeks of CPJ consumption.

    CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of CPJ (50 g/day) appears to have favorable effects on some markers of subclinical inflammation, and to increase plasma concentrations of antioxidants in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Be well!

    JP

  13. JP Says:

    Updated 08/02/16:

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27476699

    J Sci Food Agric. 2016 Aug 1.

    POMEGRANATE JUICE CONSUMPTION DECREASE BLOOD LIPID PEROXIDATION AND LEVEL OF ARACHIDONIC ACID IN WOMEN WITH METABOLIC SYNDROME.

    BACKGROUND: Pomegranate juice is rich source of polyphenols and thus promising dietary antioxidant with numerous health-promoting effects. This includes beneficial impact on cardiovascular health that could be partly attributed to the polyphenols’ effects on lipid metabolism. The aim of this study was to investigate whether 6-week long pomegranate juice consumption could modify lipid peroxidation and phospholipid fatty acid composition of plasma and erythrocytes in subjects with metabolic syndrome. Twenty three women, aged 40-60, were enrolled and randomly assigned into two groups: intervention group- consuming 300 ml of juice per day for 6 weeks- and the control one.

    RESULTS: Statistically significant decrease in relative amount of arachidonic acid (p < 0.05) and increase in relative amount of saturated fatty acids (p < 0.05) were observed in intervention group at the end of consumption period. In addition, pomegranate juice significantly increased relative amount of total monounsaturated fatty acids (p < 0.05), and significantly decreased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances levels in erythrocytes (p < 0.05).The status of blood lipids and blood pressure’ values were not changed during the study.

    CONCLUSION: The obtained results indicate positive impact of pomegranate juice consumption on lipid peroxidation and fatty acid status in metabolic syndrome subjects and suggest potential anti-inflammatory and cardio-protective effects.

    Be well!

    JP

  14. JP Says:

    Updated 09/01/16:

    http://www.nature.com/ejcn/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/ejcn2016151a.html

    Eur J Clin Nutr. 2016 Aug 31.

    Pomegranate extract alleviates disease activity and some blood biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress in Rheumatoid Arthritis patients.

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Since the main characteristics of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) are joint dysfunction caused by inflammation and serious pain, anti-inflammatory agents may alleviate the clinical symptoms in RA. Pomegranate juice is rich in polyphenolic compounds that possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. This study aimed to determine the beneficial effects of pomegranate extract (POMx) in RA patients.

    SUBJECTS/METHODS: A total of 55 RA patients were enrolled and randomly allocated to an intervention group (n=30) or a control group (n=25). The intervention group received 2 capsules of 250 mg POMx and the control group 2 capsules of 250 mg cellulose per day for 8 weeks. At the beginning of the study and after 8 weeks, Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) and Disease Activity Score (DAS) 28 were completed and serum concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), matrix metalloproteinases 3 (MMP3), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were analyzed using standard methods and compared between the two groups.

    RESULTS: Compared with the placebo group, POMx supplement significantly reduced the score of DAS28 (P<0.001) which could be related to the decrease in swollen (P<0.001) and tender joints (P=0.001) count, pain intensity (P=0.003) and ESR levels (P= 0.03). POMx consumption also decreased HAQ score (P=0.007) and morning stiffness (P=0.04) and increased GPx concentrations (P<0.001). There were no differences in the change in mean MMP3, CRP and MDA levels between two groups.

    CONCLUSIONS: POMx alleviates disease activity and improves some blood biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress in RA patients.

    Be well!

    JP

  15. JP Says:

    Updated 09/21/16:

    http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/17461391.2016.1230892?journalCode=tejs20

    Eur J Sport Sci. 2016 Sep 20:1-9.

    Effects of pomegranate extract on blood flow and vessel diameter after high-intensity exercise in young, healthy adults.

    The effects of pomegranate extract (PE) supplementation were evaluated on high-intensity exercise performance, blood flow, vessel diameter, oxygen saturation (SPO2), heart rate (HR), and blood pressure (BP). In a randomized, crossover design, nineteen recreationally resistance-trained participants were randomly assigned to PE (1000 mg) or placebo (PL), which were consumed 30 min prior to a repeated sprint ability (RSA) test and repetitions to fatigue (RTF) on bench and leg press. The RSA consisted of ten six-second sprints on a friction-loaded cycle ergometer with 30 s recovery. Brachial artery blood flow and vessel diameter were assessed by ultrasound. Blood flow, vessel diameter, SPO2, HR, and BP were assessed at baseline, 30 min post ingestion, immediately post exercise (IPost), and 30 min post exercise (30minPost). With PE, blood flow significantly increased IPost RSA (mean difference = 18.49 mL min-1; P < .05), and IPost and 30minPost RTF (P < .05) according to confidence intervals (CI). Vessel diameter increased significantly 30minPost RSA according to CI and resulted in a significant interaction IPost and 30minPost RTF (P < .05). With PE, according to CI, average and peak power output increased significantly in sprint 5 of the RSA (P < .05). There was no significant difference between PE and PL for bench (P = .25) or leg press (P = .15) repetitions. Acute PE supplementation enhanced vessel diameter and blood flow, suggesting possible exercise performance enhancement from increased delivery of substrates and oxygen. The acute timing and capsule form of PE may be advantageous to athletic populations due to ergogenic effects, taste, and convenience.

    Be well!

    JP

  16. JP Says:

    Updated 12/21/16:

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27994825

    Int J Prev Med. 2016 Nov 29;7:124. eCollection 2016.

    Effects of Pomegranate Seed Oil on Metabolic State of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    BACKGROUND: Rapid increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus is a serious health concern in the world. New data determined that the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus is chronic low-grade inflammation, resulting insulin resistance. Pomegranate seed oil (PSO) has anti-inflammatory effects; though it may reduce insulin resistance and improve glycemia in diabetes mellitus. The present study has been designed to investigate the effects of PSO as a natural dietary component on metabolic state of patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    METHODS: In a randomized double-blind clinical trial study, 80 patients (28 men) with Type 2 diabetes were randomly allocated to the intervention and control groups. The intervention group consumed PSO capsules, containing 1000 mg PSO twice daily (2000 mg PSO), whereas controls take placebo for 8 weeks. The participants followed their previous dietary patterns and medication use. Dietary factors and metabolic factors including lipid profile, fasting plasma sugar, and insulin and were assayed at the baseline and after 8 weeks.

    RESULTS: Participants in two intervention and control group were similar regarding anthropometric and the dietary factors at baseline and after trial (P > 0.05). Mean level of total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein was not different significantly between groups after trial (P > 0.05). Consumption of PSO did not significantly affect the levels of parameters such as fasting blood sugar (FBS), insulin, HbA1c, alanine transferase, and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance.

    CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of 2000mg PSO per day for 8 weeks had no effect on FBS, insulin resistance and lipid profile in diabetic patients.

    Be well!

    JP

  17. JP Says:

    Updated 03/20/17:

    http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11130-017-0605-6

    Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2017 Mar 16.

    Effects of Pomegranate Juice on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome: a Double-Blinded, Randomized Crossover Controlled Trial.

    The aim of this study is to investigate the simultaneous effect of pomegranate juice on components of the metabolic syndrome, including high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) as an inflammatory index and glycemic and lipid profile indices in patients with metabolic syndrome. In a double- blind 2*2 crossover study, 30 individuals suffering from metabolic syndrome received a daily dose of 500 mL pomegranate juice for a period of one week. After one week of wash out period, they received a placebo for one week. Lipid profile, blood glucose control indices including fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and hs-CRP were measured at the beginning and end of the study. To analyze the data, a repeated measure analysis of variance and a t-test were performed. The results indicated that in comparison to the placebo, pomegranate juice was more effective in reducing the systolic and diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.00) and hs-CRP (p = 0.018). The level of triglyceride (p = 0.030) and very low-density lipoproteins cholesterol (VLDL-C) (p = 0.014) were increased after the consumption of pomegranate juice, as opposed to the baseline condition. The rest of lipid profile, fasting blood glucose (FBS), insulin, and HOMA-IR of the participants did not show any significant difference. Natural pomegranate juice supplementation lowered the level of systolic and diastolic blood pressure in patients with metabolic syndrome as well as their blood hs-CRP. However, it also increased their triglyceride and VLDL-C.

    Be well!

    JP

  18. JP Says:

    Updated 08/07/17:

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28781633

    Exp Ther Med. 2017 Aug;14(2):1756-1762.

    Effect of pomegranate juice consumption on biochemical parameters and complete blood count.

    Pomegranate has been used therapeutically for centuries. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of pomegranate juice (PJ) supplementation on complete blood count (CBC), glucose, blood lipids and C-reactive protein (CRP) in healthy subjects. A total of 5 males and 5 females (aged 31.8±6.6 years, weighing 66.2±12.9 kg) were randomly assigned into one of two groups and either consumed 500 ml PJ/day or no PJ for 14 days. Blood samples were obtained from participants prior to and following the experimental period. PJ consumption resulted in a significant increase in red blood cell count (P<0.05), hemoglobin levels (P<0.001) and hematocrit levels (P<0.05). Other CBC parameters, glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein and CRP levels did not significantly change following PJ consumption. These results indicate that PJ intake for a short period of time may result in increased erythropoiesis or decreased degradation without any significant alterations in factors associated with metabolic health and inflammation in healthy individuals.

    Be well!

    JP

  19. JP Says:

    Updated 09/20/17:

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28913846

    Phytother Res. 2017 Sep 15.

    Cardioprotective Effects of Pomegranate (Punica granatum) Juice in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease.

    Ischemic heart disease is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cardioprotective effects of pomegranate juice in patients with ischemic heart disease. One hundred patients, diagnosed with unstable angina or myocardial infarction, were randomly assigned to the test and the control groups (n = 50, each). During 5 days of hospitalization, in addition to the conventional medical therapies, the test groups received 220 mL pomegranate juice, daily. During the hospitalization period, the blood pressure, heart rate, as well as the intensity, occurrence, and duration of the angina were evaluated on a regular basis. At the end of the hospitalization period, the serum levels of malondialdehyde, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha were measured in all patients. The levels of serum troponin and high-sensitive C-reactive protein levels were also assayed in patients diagnosed with myocardial infarction. Pomegranate juice caused significant reductions in the intensity, occurrence, and duration of angina pectoris in patients with unstable angina. Consistently, the test patients had significantly lower levels of serum troponin and malondialdehyde. Other studied parameters did not change significantly. The results of this study suggest protective effects of pomegranate juice against myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury.

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    JP

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