Thought Field Therapy

December 5, 2012 Written by JP       [Font too small?]

Thought Field Therapy (TFT) is an inexpensive and rapid treatment used to address psychological challenges such as anxiety, phobias and post traumatic stress. The practice of TFT involves tapping oneself with your fingers, on select acupuncture points, while recalling traumatic experiences. According to TFT proponents, doing so releases negative emotions or perturbations in the bioenergic or thought field, thereby decreasing or resolving psychological symptoms.

Until recently, interest in TFT was largely based on anecdotal accounts, published case studies and uncontrolled trials. The evidence presented from these limited sources clearly demonstrates a positive affect in conditions as diverse as bereavement, chronic fatigue and even post traumatic stress related to genocide. However, virtually all members of the psychological establishment have expressed concern and/or disbelief about these findings due to a lack of well designed clinical studies and a poorly defined mode of action. Simply put, the concept of a “thought field” isn’t widely accepted in modern medicine. What’s more, there is profound disagreement about some of the proposed physiological effects that TFT may or may not cause, including changes to heart rate variability.

In November 2012, a study published in Explore, a peer reviewed medical journal, finally put TFT to a scientific test – a randomized, controlled trial. A group of Norwegian scientists enrolled a total of 45 patients with anxiety in a study that compared changes in symptom severity brought about by TFT or being on a waiting list (i.e. a control group). In the second leg of the study, those initially assigned to the waiting list took part in TFT. Before and after comparisons indicate that Thought Field Therapy resulted in “a significantly better outcome on two measures of anxiety and one measure of function”. The authors of the trial go on to point out that the “significant improvement seen after treatment was maintained at the 3-month and 12-month assessments”. While preliminary, this publication provides a valuable step in possibly establishing TFT as an efficient, low-cost adjunct or alternative to the conventional management of anxiety and, perhaps, other psychological conditions.

Note: Please check out the “Comments & Updates” section of this blog – at the bottom of the page. You can find the latest research about this topic there!

To learn more about the studies referenced in today’s column, please click on the following links:

Study 1 – Thought Field Therapy Clinical Applications: Utilization in an HMO (link)

Study 2 - Thought Field Therapy and Trauma Recovery (link)

Study 3 - Brief Trauma Intervention w/ Rwandan Genocide-Survivors Using TFT (link)

Study 4 - Treatment of PTSD in Rwandan Child Genocide Survivors Using (link)

Study 5 - Thought Field Therapy—Soothing the Bad Moments of Kosovo (link)

Study 6 - Unprecedented Improvements in Short-Term Heart Rate Variability (link)

Study 7 - The Impact of Thought Field Therapy on Heart Rate Variability (link)

Study 8 - Regarding the October 2001 Journal of Clinical Psychology Special (link)

Study 9 - Callahan Fails to Meet the Burden of Proof for Thought Field Therapy (link)

Study 10 - Thought Field Therapy (TFT) as a Treatment for Anxiety Symptoms (link)

Manipulating Acupressure Points May Reduce Anxiety

Source: Anesthesiology. 2003 Jun;98(6):1328-32. (link)

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Posted in Alternative Therapies, Detoxification, Mental Health

15 Comments & Updates to “Thought Field Therapy”

  1. JP Says:

    Update: Some research on a related therapy known as EFT or Emotional Freedom Technique …

    http://ijaai.tums.ac.ir/index.php/ijaai/article/view/1131

    Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2015 Feb;14(1):37-47.

    Emotional Freedom Technique (EFT) Effects on Psychoimmunological Factors of Chemically Pulmonary Injured Veterans.

    Emotional Freedom Technique (EFT) as a new therapeutic technique in energy psychology has positive effects on psychological and physiological symptoms, and quality of life. In this research we studied the effect of this treatment on immunological factors. This study tested whether 8-week group sessions of EFT (compared to a wait-list control group) with emphasis on patient’s respiratory, psychological and immunological problems in chemically pulmonary injured veterans (N=28) can affect on immunological and psychological factors. Mixed effect linear models indicated that EFT improved mental health (F=79.24, p=0) and health-related quality of life (F=13.89, p=0.001), decreased somatic symptoms (F=5.81, p=0.02), anxiety/insomnia (F=24.03, p<0.001), social dysfunction (F=21.59, p<0.001), frequency and severity of respiratory symptoms (F=20.38, p<0.001), and increased lymphocyte proliferation with nonspecific mitogens Concanavalin A (Con A) (F=14.32, p=0.001) and Phytohemagglutinin (PHA) (F=12.35, p=0.002), and peripheral blood IL-17 (F=9.11, p=0.006). This study provides an initial indication that EFT may be a new therapeutic approach for improving psychological and immunological factors.

    Be well!

    JP

  2. JP Says:

    Update: More EFT data …

    http://www.explorejournal.com/article/S1550-8307%2812%2900260-1/abstract

    Explore (NY). 2013 Mar-Apr;9(2):91-9.

    Effect of the emotional freedom technique on perceived stress, quality of life, and cortisol salivary levels in tension-type headache sufferers: a randomized controlled trial.

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the short-term effects of the emotional freedom technique (EFT) on tension-type headache (TTH) sufferers.

    DESIGN: We used a parallel-group design, with participants randomly assigned to the emotional freedom intervention (n = 19) or a control arm (standard care n = 16).

    SETTING: The study was conducted at the outpatient Headache Clinic at the Korgialenio Benakio Hospital of Athens.

    PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-five patients meeting criteria for frequent TTH according to International Headache Society guidelines were enrolled.

    INTERVENTION: Participants were instructed to use the EFT method twice a day for two months.

    OUTCOME MEASURES: Study measures included the Perceived Stress Scale, the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale, and the Short-Form questionnaire-36. Salivary cortisol levels and the frequency and intensity of headache episodes were also assessed.

    RESULTS: Within the treatment arm, perceived stress, scores for all Short-Form questionnaire-36 subscales, and the frequency and intensity of the headache episodes were all significantly reduced. No differences in cortisol levels were found in any group before and after the intervention.

    CONCLUSIONS: EFT was reported to benefit patients with TTH. This randomized controlled trial shows promising results for not only the frequency and severity of headaches but also other lifestyle parameters.

    Be well!

    JP

  3. JP Says:

    Update: A comparison of EFT, a modified form of EMDR and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) …

    Explore (NY). 2009 Nov-Dec;5(6):338-40.

    Pilot study of emotional freedom techniques, wholistic hybrid derived from eye movement desensitization and reprocessing and emotional freedom technique, and cognitive behavioral therapy for treatment of test anxiety in university students.

    OBJECTIVE: This study explored test anxiety benefits of wholistic hybrid derived from eye movement desensitization and reprocessing and Emotional Freedom Techniques (WHEE), Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFTs), and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT).

    PARTICIPANTS: Canadian university students with severe or moderate test anxiety participated.

    METHODS: A controlled trial of WHEE (n = 5), EFT (n = 5), and CBT (n = 5) was conducted. Standardized anxiety measures included the Test Anxiety Inventory and Hopkins Symptom Checklist-21.

    RESULTS: Despite small sample size, significant reductions in test anxiety were found for all three treatments. In only two sessions, WHEE and EFT achieved the same benefits as CBT did in five sessions. Participants reported high satisfaction with all treatments. Emotional freedom techniques and WHEE participants successfully transferred their self-treatment skills to other stressful areas of their lives.

    CONCLUSIONS: Both WHEE and EFT show promise as feasible treatments for test anxiety.

    Be well!

    JP

  4. JP Says:

    Updated 11/06/15:

    http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/203612/

    Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2015;2015:203612.

    Anxiety and Anger Symptoms in Hwabyung Patients Improved More following 4 Weeks of the Emotional Freedom Technique Program Compared to the Progressive Muscle Relaxation Program: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Background. The Emotional Freedom Technique (EFT) is a meridian-based psychological therapy. The present clinical trial investigates the effectiveness of EFT as a new treatment option for Hwabyung (HB) patients experiencing anger and compares the efficacy to the Progressive Muscle Relaxation (PMR), the conventional meditation technique.

    Methods. The EFT and progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) methods were performed on 27 HB patients, and their capacities to alleviate anxiety, anger, and emotional status were compared. After a 4-week program, a survey was conducted; patients then completed a self-training program for 4 weeks, followed by a second survey.

    Results. During the initial 4 weeks, the EFT group experienced a significant decrease in the HB symptom scale, anger state, and paranoia ideation (p < 0.05). Over the entire 9-week interval, there were significant decreases in the HB symptom scale, anxiety state, anger state, anger trait, somatization, anxiety, hostility, and so on in EFT group (p < 0.05).

    Conclusion. The EFT group showed improved psychological symptoms and physical symptoms greater than those observed in the PMR group. EFT more effectively alleviated HB symptoms compared to PMR. EFT group showed better maintenance during self-training, suggesting good model of self-control treatment in HB patients.

    Be well!

    JP

  5. JP Says:

    Updated 02/20/16:

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26894319

    J Nerv Ment Dis. 2016 Feb 18.

    Emotional Freedom Techniques for Anxiety: A Systematic Review With Meta-analysis.

    Emotional Freedom Technique (EFT) combines elements of exposure and cognitive therapies with acupressure for the treatment of psychological distress. Randomized controlled trials retrieved by literature search were assessed for quality using the criteria developed by the American Psychological Association’s Division 12 Task Force on Empirically Validated Treatments. As of December 2015, 14 studies (n = 658) met inclusion criteria. Results were analyzed using an inverse variance weighted meta-analysis. The pre-post effect size for the EFT treatment group was 1.23 (95% confidence interval, 0.82-1.64; p < 0.001), whereas the effect size for combined controls was 0.41 (95% confidence interval, 0.17-0.67; p = 0.001). Emotional freedom technique treatment demonstrated a significant decrease in anxiety scores, even when accounting for the effect size of control treatment. However, there were too few data available comparing EFT to standard-of-care treatments such as cognitive behavioral therapy, and further research is needed to establish the relative efficacy of EFT to established protocols.

    Be well!

    JP

  6. JP Says:

    Updated 05/05/16

    http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/aphw.12070/abstract

    Appl Psychol Health Well Being. 2016 May 3.

    Food for Thought: A Randomised Controlled Trial of Emotional Freedom Techniques and Cognitive Behavioural Therapy in the Treatment of Food Cravings.

    Addressing the internal determinants of dysfunctional eating behaviours (e.g. food cravings) in the prevention and treatment of obesity has been increasingly recognised. This study compared Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT) to Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) for food cravings in adults who were overweight or obese (N = 83) in an 8-week intervention. Outcome data were collected at baseline, post-intervention, and at 6- and 12-months follow-up. Overall, EFT and CBT demonstrated comparable efficacy in reducing food cravings, one’s responsiveness to food in the environment (power of food), and dietary restraint, with Cohen’s effect size values suggesting moderate to high practical significance for both interventions. Results also revealed that both EFT and CBT are capable of producing treatment effects that are clinically meaningful, with reductions in food cravings, the power of food, and dietary restraint normalising to the scores of a non-clinical community sample. While reductions in BMI were not observed, the current study supports the suggestion that psychological interventions are beneficial for food cravings and both CBT and EFT could serve as vital adjunct tools in a multidisciplinary approach to managing obesity.

    Be well!

    JP

  7. JP Says:

    Updated 05/15/16:

    http://www.nurseeducationtoday.com/article/S0260-6917%2816%2900061-7/abstract

    Nurse Educ Today. 2016 May;40:104-10.

    The effect of emotional freedom technique on stress and anxiety in nursing students: A pilot study.

    BACKGROUND: Stress and anxiety have been identified as significant issues experienced by student nurses during their education. Some studies have suggested that the stress experienced by nursing students is greater than that experienced by medical students, other non-nursing healthcare students, degreed nurses, and the female population in general. A recently introduced energy type therapy, emotional freedom technique (EFT), has shown some success in reducing symptoms of anxiety, stress, and fear in a variety of settings.

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of EFT in decreasing anxiety and stress as a potential intervention to assist students in stress management.

    DESIGN: The study used a mixed method design of both qualitative and quantitative measures. Quantitatively, in a one group pretest-posttest design, participants received group instruction in the technique and were encouraged to repeat it daily. Self-reported anxiety was measured at baseline, and then weekly for four weeks using the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). The qualitative survey was completed by participants at the end of the study in order to capture a more subjective experience.

    SETTING: The pilot study was conducted in a two-year college in the southeastern region of the United States.

    PARTICIPANTS: All enrolled nursing students in an associate degree nursing program were invited to participate. Participation was voluntary, resulting in an original convenience sample of thirty-nine nursing students (N=39).

    METHODS: Data collection instruments included a demographic questionnaire, pretest State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). A qualitative questionnaire was also administered at the end of the four weeks. STAI and PSS were administered weekly. Data analysis using RMANOVA was performed at the second, third and the fourth week.

    RESULTS: Decreases in anxiety as measured on both the STAI and PSS were statistically significant (p=.05). For PSS, STAI state and trait data, the reduction in self-reported stress was statistically significant with a mean difference baseline to week 4. Qualitative data suggested that nursing students experienced a decrease in feelings of stress and anxiety including a decrease in somatic symptoms.

    CONCLUSIONS: Overall, findings suggested that EFT can be an effective tool for stress management and anxiety relief in nursing students.

    Be well!

    JP

  8. JP Says:

    Updated 05/30/16:

    http://jhn.sagepub.com/content/early/2016/05/10/0898010116648456.abstract

    J Holist Nurs. 2016 May 11.

    The Emotional Freedom Technique: Finally, a Unifying Theory for the Practice of Holistic Nursing, or Too Good to Be True?

    The Emotional Freedom Technique (EFT) is defined and described as a clinical procedure for the relief of psychological and physical distress that patients often bring to the attention of nurses. Frequently referred to as “tapping,” this technique combines the cognitive reprocessing benefits of exposure and acceptance therapy with the energetic disturbance releases associated with acupuncture and other energy therapies. More than 60 research articles in peer-reviewed journals report a staggering 98% efficacy rate with the use of this procedure from psychological distress (posttraumatic stress disorder, phobias, anxiety, depression, etc.) to physical conditions (asthma, fibromyalgia, pain, seizure disorders, etc.) to performance issues (athletic, academic). Perhaps because of this, this technique has encountered a fair degree of skepticism within the health care community. Easily taught as a self-help aid that patients can administer to themselves, EFT becomes an efficacious tool in the hands of nurses who are seeking whole person approaches for the healing of a wide variety of psychological and physical conditions. A conceptual framework, mechanisms of action, evidence of safety, literature review, and case studies are also included.

    Be well!

    JP

  9. JP Says:

    Updated 08/22/16:

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27543343

    Explore (NY). 2016 Jun 27.

    EFT (Emotional Freedom Techniques) and Resiliency in Veterans at Risk for PTSD: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Prior research indicates elevated but subclinical posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms as a risk factor for a later diagnosis of PTSD. This study examined the progression of symptoms in 21 subclinical veterans. Participants were randomized into a treatment as usual (TAU) wait-list group and an experimental group, which received TAU plus six sessions of clinical emotional freedom techniques (EFT). Symptoms were assessed using the PCL-M (Posttraumatic Checklist-Military) on which a score of 35 or higher indicates increased risk for PTSD. The mean pretreatment score of participants was 39 ± 8.7, with no significant difference between groups. No change was found in the TAU group during the wait period. Afterward, the TAU group received an identical clinical EFT protocol. Posttreatment groups were combined for analysis. Scores declined to a mean of 25 (-64%, P < .0001). Participants maintained their gains, with mean three-month and six-month follow-up PCL-M scores of 27 (P < .0001). Similar reductions were noted in the depth and breadth of psychological conditions such as anxiety. A Cohen’s d = 1.99 indicates a large treatment effect. Reductions in traumatic brain injury symptoms (P = .045) and insomnia (P = .004) were also noted. Symptom improvements were similar to those assessed in studies of PTSD-positive veterans. EFT may thus be protective against an increase in symptoms and a later PTSD diagnosis. As a simple and quickly learned self-help method, EFT may be a clinically useful element of a resiliency program for veterans and active-duty warriors.

    Be well!

    JP

  10. JP Says:

    Updated 09/25/16:

    http://online.liebertpub.com/doi/10.1089/acm.2015.0316

    J Altern Complement Med. 2016 Sep 19.

    A Randomized Controlled Comparison of Emotional Freedom Technique and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy to Reduce Adolescent Anxiety: A Pilot Study.

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this pilot study was to compare the efficacy of Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT) with that of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) in reducing adolescent anxiety.

    DESIGN: Randomized controlled study.

    SETTINGS: This study took place in 10 schools (8 public/2 private; 4 high schools/6 middle schools) in 2 northeastern states in the United States.

    PARTICIPANTS: Sixty-three high-ability students in grades 6-12, ages 10-18 years, who scored in the moderate to high ranges for anxiety on the Revised Children’s Manifest Anxiety Scale-2 (RCMAS-2) were randomly assigned to CBT (n = 21), EFT (n = 21), or waitlist control (n = 21) intervention groups.

    INTERVENTIONS: CBT is the gold standard of anxiety treatment for adolescent anxiety. EFT is an evidence-based treatment for anxiety that incorporates acupoint stimulation. Students assigned to the CBT or EFT treatment groups received three individual sessions of the identified protocols from trained graduate counseling, psychology, or social work students enrolled at a large northeastern research university.

    OUTCOME MEASURES: The RCMAS-2 was used to assess preintervention and postintervention anxiety levels in participants.

    RESULTS: EFT participants (n = 20; M = 52.16, SD = 9.23) showed significant reduction in anxiety levels compared with the waitlist control group (n = 21; M = 57.93, SD = 6.02) (p = 0.005, d = 0.74, 95% CI [-9.76, -1.77]) with a moderate to large effect size. CBT participants (n = 21; M = 54.82, SD = 5.81) showed reduction in anxiety but did not differ significantly from the EFT (p = 0.18, d = 0.34; 95% CI [-6.61, 1.30]) or control (p = 0.12, d = 0.53, 95% CI [-7.06, .84]).

    CONCLUSIONS: EFT is an efficacious intervention to significantly reduce anxiety for high-ability adolescents.

    Be well!

    JP

  11. JP Says:

    Updated 11/28/16:

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27889444

    Explore (NY). 2016 Oct 24.

    The Effectiveness of Emotional Freedom Techniques in the Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Meta-Analysis.

    BACKGROUND: Over the past two decades, growing numbers of clinicians have been utilizing emotional freedom techniques (EFT) in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, and depression. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have shown encouraging outcomes for all three conditions.

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of EFT in treating PTSD by conducting a meta-analysis of existing RCTs.

    METHODS: A systematic review of databases was undertaken to identify RCTs investigating EFT in the treatment of PTSD. The RCTs were evaluated for quality using evidence-based standards published by the American Psychological Association Division 12 Task Force on Empirically Validated Therapies. Those meeting the criteria were assessed using a meta-analysis that synthesized the data to determine effect sizes. While uncontrolled outcome studies were excluded, they were examined for clinical implications of treatment that can extend knowledge of this condition.

    RESULTS: Seven randomized controlled trials were found to meet the criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. A large treatment effect was found, with a weighted Cohen׳s d = 2.96 (95% CI: 1.96-3.97, P < .001) for the studies that compared EFT to usual care or a waitlist. No treatment effect differences were found in studies comparing EFT to other evidence-based therapies such as eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR; 1 study) and cognitive behavior therapy (CBT; 1 study).

    CONCLUSIONS: The analysis of existing studies showed that a series of 4-10 EFT sessions is an efficacious treatment for PTSD with a variety of populations. The studies examined reported no adverse effects from EFT interventions and showed that it can be used both on a self-help basis and as a primary evidence-based treatment for PTSD.

    Be well!

    JP

  12. JP Says:

    Updated 04/04/17:

    http://online.liebertpub.com/doi/10.1089/acm.2015.0316

    J Altern Complement Med. 2017 Feb;23(2):102-108.

    A Randomized Controlled Comparison of Emotional Freedom Technique and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy to Reduce Adolescent Anxiety: A Pilot Study.

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this pilot study was to compare the efficacy of Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT) with that of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) in reducing adolescent anxiety.

    DESIGN: Randomized controlled study.

    SETTINGS: This study took place in 10 schools (8 public/2 private; 4 high schools/6 middle schools) in 2 northeastern states in the United States.

    PARTICIPANTS: Sixty-three high-ability students in grades 6-12, ages 10-18 years, who scored in the moderate to high ranges for anxiety on the Revised Children’s Manifest Anxiety Scale-2 (RCMAS-2) were randomly assigned to CBT (n = 21), EFT (n = 21), or waitlist control (n = 21) intervention groups.

    INTERVENTIONS: CBT is the gold standard of anxiety treatment for adolescent anxiety. EFT is an evidence-based treatment for anxiety that incorporates acupoint stimulation. Students assigned to the CBT or EFT treatment groups received three individual sessions of the identified protocols from trained graduate counseling, psychology, or social work students enrolled at a large northeastern research university.

    OUTCOME MEASURES: The RCMAS-2 was used to assess preintervention and postintervention anxiety levels in participants.

    RESULTS: EFT participants (n = 20; M = 52.16, SD = 9.23) showed significant reduction in anxiety levels compared with the waitlist control group (n = 21; M = 57.93, SD = 6.02) (p = 0.005, d = 0.74, 95% CI [-9.76, -1.77]) with a moderate to large effect size. CBT participants (n = 21; M = 54.82, SD = 5.81) showed reduction in anxiety but did not differ significantly from the EFT (p = 0.18, d = 0.34; 95% CI [-6.61, 1.30]) or control (p = 0.12, d = 0.53, 95% CI [-7.06, .84]).

    CONCLUSIONS: EFT is an efficacious intervention to significantly reduce anxiety for high-ability adolescents.

    Be well!

    JP

  13. JP Says:

    Updated 06/10/17:

    http://www.nurseeducationtoday.com/article/S0260-6917(16)00061-7/abstract

    Nurse Educ Today. 2016 May;40:104-10.

    The effect of emotional freedom technique on stress and anxiety in nursing students: A pilot study.

    BACKGROUND: Stress and anxiety have been identified as significant issues experienced by student nurses during their education. Some studies have suggested that the stress experienced by nursing students is greater than that experienced by medical students, other non-nursing healthcare students, degreed nurses, and the female population in general. A recently introduced energy type therapy, emotional freedom technique (EFT), has shown some success in reducing symptoms of anxiety, stress, and fear in a variety of settings.

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of EFT in decreasing anxiety and stress as a potential intervention to assist students in stress management.

    DESIGN: The study used a mixed method design of both qualitative and quantitative measures. Quantitatively, in a one group pretest-posttest design, participants received group instruction in the technique and were encouraged to repeat it daily. Self-reported anxiety was measured at baseline, and then weekly for four weeks using the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). The qualitative survey was completed by participants at the end of the study in order to capture a more subjective experience.

    SETTING: The pilot study was conducted in a two-year college in the southeastern region of the United States.

    PARTICIPANTS: All enrolled nursing students in an associate degree nursing program were invited to participate. Participation was voluntary, resulting in an original convenience sample of thirty-nine nursing students (N=39).

    METHODS: Data collection instruments included a demographic questionnaire, pretest State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). A qualitative questionnaire was also administered at the end of the four weeks. STAI and PSS were administered weekly. Data analysis using RMANOVA was performed at the second, third and the fourth week.

    RESULTS: Decreases in anxiety as measured on both the STAI and PSS were statistically significant (p=.05). For PSS, STAI state and trait data, the reduction in self-reported stress was statistically significant with a mean difference baseline to week 4. Qualitative data suggested that nursing students experienced a decrease in feelings of stress and anxiety including a decrease in somatic symptoms.

    CONCLUSIONS: Overall, findings suggested that EFT can be an effective tool for stress management and anxiety relief in nursing students.

    Be well!

    JP

  14. JP Says:

    Updated 1/29/18:

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29370983

    Explore (NY). 2017 Dec 21.

    Naturally Thin You: Weight Loss and Psychological Symptoms After a Six-Week Online Clinical EFT (Emotional Freedom Techniques) Course.

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Traditional methods of delivering therapeutic interventions have increasingly been supplemented by online courses. The current study investigated the effects of Clinical EFT (Emotional Freedom Techniques) in 76 participants enrolled in a six-week online course called Naturally Thin You. Weight, restraint, the power of food in the external environment, happiness, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms were assessed before and after the course and at one-year follow-up.

    METHOD: Participants received six live group teleclasses, access to online course materials and a private social media group, and a year of monthly support teleclasses. No particular diet was recommended; the course focused instead on controlling emotional eating, and using EFT to treat the emotional triggers associated with food. Clinical EFTs Borrowing Benefits protocol, in which the group facilitator works with a single participant while others simultaneously self-apply EFT, was used during the teleclasses.

    RESULTS: Repeated measures ANOVA compared scores pre- to 12-month follow-up, and significant improvements were found for body weight (P < .001), depression symptoms (P = 0.010), restraint (P = 0.025), and the subjective power of food in the external environment (P = 0.018). Weight decreased an average of 1lb/week during the course, and 2lb/month between pretest and one-year follow-up. On follow-up, no change was observed in PTSD symptoms measured by a brief civilian trauma checklist, or anxiety, and increases in happiness were non-significant. The results indicate Clinical EFTs utility to address the influence of food in the external environment and assist weight loss, and to promote beneficial long-term change when delivered in an online format.

    Be well!

    JP

  15. JP Says:

    Updated 09/22/18:

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5871035/

    J Evid Based Integr Med. 2018 Jan-Dec;23:2156587218756510.

    Borrowing Benefits: Group Treatment With Clinical Emotional Freedom Techniques Is Associated With Simultaneous Reductions in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Anxiety, and Depression Symptoms.

    Clinical Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT) is an evidence-based treatment for depression and anxiety. The current study sought to elucidate the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and anxiety in a nonclinical population. The sample (N = 81) comprised participants at five 2-day EFT workshops. All groups used an EFT protocol called Borrowing Benefits, in which the group facilitator works with a single client while other participants self-apply EFT. Participants were assessed on 9 specific conditions as well as on the breadth (Positive Symptom Total [PST]) and depth (General Symptom Index [GSI]) of psychological distress. Physical pain and addictive cravings were also assessed. Significant reductions were observed in all measures (P < .03). Associations between PST, GSI, and PTSD were significant (P < .026). Participants maintained all gains at 6-month follow-up (P < .02) with the exception of the Hostility subscale, while Cohen’s d = 0.54 indicated a moderate treatment effect for PTSD. The relationship between psychological and physiological conditions identified in this study is consistent with that found in other studies. Group treatment is cost-effective and efficient, and the efficacy of EFT in groups indicates the utility of the Borrowing Benefits technique.

    Be well!

    JP

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