New Omega 3 Research

January 11, 2010 Written by JP       [Font too small?]

There’s a place in my mind that’s permanently devoted to natural health. It’s a living, breathing metropolis that has a cast of characters numbering in the hundreds. The foods, practices and supplements that make up of the population of this fictitious land are very similar to the bit players, heros and villains that inhabit any good story. In short, they need to constantly evolve and reveal more about themselves in order to remain interesting to readers and viewers alike.

Fish oil is no longer the new kid on the block in the alternative medicine world. In fact, it’s been around so long that even pharmaceutical companies have begun manufacturing omega-3 based medications. But that’s not to say that DHA and EPA, the chief fatty acids present in fish oil, are in any way boring or satisfied with their current reputation. Omega-3′s have a lot more to say and I’m here today as their mouthpiece.

Fish Oil and Cancer
  • A new study published in the Journal of Urology reports that decreased levels of omega-6 fatty acids (commonly found in vegetable oils) and increased concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids can reduce the growth of prostate cancer cells. This was determined via a dietary intervention trial involving 18 men with prostate cancer conducted at the Los Angeles Veterans Administration Department of Surgery. (1)
  • The addition of DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) to conventional chemotherapy significantly improved the outcomes of treatment in 25 women with “rapidly progressing” breast cancer. The authors of the study state that DHA appears to accomplish this by sensitizing tumors to the chemotherapy. Another positive finding was that the fish oil did not cause any additional adverse effects. (2)
  • A new German trial determined that 1.5 grams/day of “marine phospholipids” consisting of DHA and EPA can promote a weight stabilizing effect in frail patients with advanced cancer. The term “marine phospholipid” refers to fish oil that is encapsulated in a sort of lecithin-type carrier or escort (a “liposome”) which allows for better absorption and retention in the body. Krill oil is one example of a naturally occurring, phospholipid-rich source of DHA and EPA. (3)
Fish Oil and Weight
  • A presentation in the November 2009 edition of Obesity Reviews concluded that the “omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, can protect against the development of obesity in animals” and “reduce body fat in humans”. This group of Australian researchers suggests that these effects may be due to appetite suppression, fat cell destruction (adipocyte apoptosis) and genetic changes in fatty tissue which could discourage “fat deposition”. (4)
  • A recent trial in the British Journal of Nutrition examined the omega-3 fatty acid levels of 124 adults of varying weights – 21 healthy volunteers, 63 obese, and 40 overweight. It was noted that the obese participants had significantly smaller amounts of omega-3′s in their systems. The authors also reported that higher levels of omega-3s were associated with a healthier body mass index, hip circumference and waste circumference. The conclusion of the study states: “Our findings suggest that n-3 PUFA may play an important role in weight status and abdominal obesity”. (5)
  • A combination of fish oil and olive oil might increase the “fat burning” (fat oxidation) potential of exercise. These effects were noted in a controlled experiment which involved 16 healthy, but sedentary men who engaged in a 10 day diet and exercise program. (6)
Fish Oil and Inflammation
  • 38 dogs with osteoarthritis were randomly assigned to one of two diets: a) a commercial dog food diet or b) a dog food enriched with 3.5% fish oil for 90 days. Several key benefits were noted in the dogs receiving the omega-3 dog food: an improvement in “peak vertical force” and weight bearing, and a decline in lameness. (7)
  • A separate experiment published in the Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association tested the effect of a dog food that was high in fish oil (omega-3 fats) and low in omega-6 fatty acids in a larger group of osteoarthritic dogs (127 in total). Half of the canines were fed a conventional dog food and the remainder received the experimental food for 6 months. Symptomatic changes were noted by the pet owners and via blood testing and medical exams. An increase in plasma omega-3′s and a reduction in omega-6 fatty acids were noted in the experimental group. The owners of the dogs receiving fish oil reported greater displays of strength, as assessed by “rise from a resting position and play” and improvements in walking ability. (8)
  • New evidence contained in the February 2010 issue of Biochemical Pharmacology finds that a combination of curcumin, an extract from turmeric, and fish oil may provide a potent and synergistic anti-inflammatory punch. Even “very low dosages” of curcumin and DHA/EPA were capable of suppressing a variety of inflammatory markers in a laboratory setting. There were also signs of antioxidant activity, most likely due to the inclusion of curcumin. Both of these substances are well known to bring about anti-inflammatory effects. What’s new here is the possibility of an additive effect when both substances are taken together. (9)
DHA (Fish Oil) May Improve Breast Cancer Chemotherapy Outcomes
Source: British Journal of Cancer (2009) November 17 (link)

Numerous studies attest to the fact that fish oil can be used as natural therapeutic aid for those with asthma. But a new experiment adds another wrinkle to the use of fatty acids in this condition – the addition of a rare and unique omega-6 fatty acid known as GLA (gamma-linolenic acid). The current experiment involved 21 asthmatic adults who either took a “medical food emulsion” containing DHA (fish oil) and GLA or a “placebo emulsion” for 4 weeks. All of the volunteers continued to take their normal medication and were subjected to a variety of tests prior to and post study. The patients receiving the DHA + GLA emulsion tolerated it well and exhibited no safety concerns. Those using the medicinal fatty acids reported improvements in quality of life and demonstrated changes in “asthma management as evidenced by reduced asthma symptoms”. (10,11,12)

Combining fatty acids is a common practice among nutritional supplement manufacturers. It now appears that this practice may be more than just a matter or convenience or skillful marketing. Much like the case of asthma, it’s long been known that fish consumption affords benefits in relation to ocular health. In fact, a recent 12 year population study found that people who consumed the largest amounts of omega-3′s were approximately 30% less likely to develop common eye conditions such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Now, two recent animal studies may offer a new method for enhancing the benefits of fish oil with regard to eye protection. One experiment found that adding GLA to fish oil could more effectively reduce intraocular pressure than just using GLA or fish oil alone. This combination of fatty acids resulted in the preservation of “retinal cell structure” in a group of mice with glaucoma. The addition of GLA to fish oil was also shown to increase the amount of fish oil (DHA) that is capable of reaching the retina in a separate French study from May 2009. This may very well be the primary mechanism by which GLA synergistically supports eye health. (13,14,15)

Most of the news you’re likely to hear about fish oil or omega-3 fatty acids will probably be in reference to cardiovascular disease. But there’s really so much more to DHA and EPA than just promoting a healthy heart. Don’t get me wrong, that alone is a very important role that fish oil can play in modern medicine. Still, it would be shame to neglect the lesser known attributes of this stellar food/supplement. Finally, I’ll leave you with a hint at what the future might bring: omega-3 supplements derived from squid! Squid extracts are desirable because they’re a natural “by product” of calamari ring production. Squid are plentiful in nature. They have a brief life cycle and can be harvested in a relatively gentle manner, without negatively impacting the sea floor. Perhaps best of all, they naturally contain high quantities of DHA. So the next time you go shopping for fish oil, don’t be too surprised if you happen upon a few bottles of squid oil next to it. (16)

Note: Please check out the “Comments & Updates” section of this blog – at the bottom of the page. You can find the latest research about this topic there!

Be well!

JP

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Posted in Bone and Joint Health, Diet and Weight Loss, Nutritional Supplements

31 Comments & Updates to “New Omega 3 Research”

  1. Sai Says:

    Good Day JP!

    What a irony! I am currently having fish oil (from xtendlife, NZ) and was debating if i should consider krill or Fish oil when you have presented this fantastic article. I saw an improvement in my trigyclerides with the Fish oil already (after 2 months of usage). Please shre your thoughts on Krill vs Fish oils and your vote on the topic. Be Happy!

    Best Regards

    Sai.

  2. JP Says:

    Good day, Sai! :)

    I’ve debated the very same issue. Here’s my current take on the whole fish oil vs. krill oil debate:

    Krill oil seems extremely promising based on a limited amount of evidence. In head to head comparisons, it’s outshined fish oil on a few occasions.

    On the other hand, fish oil has much more evidence to support it’s health claims. It’s not even close when you compare the sheer number of studies conducted on fish oil.

    So here’s what I do: I take a multinutrient supplement that includes some fish oil in it (2 softgels/day) and I also take two softgels of krill oil as a separate supplement. It’s a compromise. I’m hedging my bets. :)

    If you make the switch (from fish oil to krill oil), you could test to see if it’s affecting you as well or better than the fish oil – re: cholesterol (all types), c-reactive protein and triglycerides, etc.

    Did you have the chance to read my previous column about krill oil? If not, it may be of interest:

    http://www.healthyfellow.com/283/krill-oil-research/

    I hope this helps.

    Be well!

    JP

  3. Anonymous Says:

    Hello
    This is really a great post.Its very interesting to read this post about fish oil and omega 3.I came to know so many new things about fish oil which I did not know before.Thank you very much for this informative post.

  4. JP Says:

    It’s my pleasure. Thank you for reading it! :)

    Be well!

    JP

  5. Iggy Dalrymple Says:

    I’ve been taking fish oil for over a decade and curcumin for 5 or 6 years. Despite exercising more now at 70 1/2, I have much less joint pain (none) than I had 15 years ago. I’ve now added krill oil. My favorite anecdotal report is from 87 year old Bill. http://forums.healthiertalk.com/viewtopic.php?p=89060&highlight=#89060

  6. Nina K. Says:

    Good Morning JP,

    great post :-)

    one question: in which oils is this gla – acid? i thought i could b evening primrose or borage oil or was it the egyptian black cumin oil? i read that thit combi (fish and gla) should be very good for people with eczema and psoriasis or neurodermatitis or simple very dry skin from cold winter (me! ;-) ).

    Greetings from faaaaaar away :-)
    Nina K.

  7. JP Says:

    You are and have been “ahead of the curve”, Iggy! I’m very happy to hear of your success re: no pain! :)

    We should all be so healthy at 87 (as Bill)!

    Be well!

    JP

  8. JP Says:

    Good day and thank you, Nina! :)

    Some of richest sources of GLA are: blackcurrant seed oil, borage oil, evening primrose oil and hempseed oil.

    The combination of omega-3′s and GLA can be helpful for many skin conditions. I briefly touched upon this issue in a column from some time ago:

    http://www.healthyfellow.com/163/natural-skin-care/

    I would definitely consider upping my level of healthy fats (including GLA) during the cold, dry Winter months!

    Be well!

    JP

  9. Nina K. Says:

    Hello JP,

    thank you, this is very helpful. Go shopping now will look for these oils.

    Greetings :-)
    Nina K.

  10. JP Says:

    I hope they help, Nina! :)

    Be well!

    JP

  11. Dr Scott Doughman Says:

    The next generation plant based omega-3 DHA/EPA, first Made in the USA to have both plant based omega-3s from source algae oil. Please inform your readers. Thank you.

  12. JP Says:

    Scott,

    The most recent study I found indicates that DHA from algae softgels and salmon is absorbed and tolerated equally well.

    http://www.adajournal.org/article/S0002-8223%2808%2900512-9/abstract

    Be well!

    JP

  13. Nina K. Says:

    Morning JP,

    so i bought organic cold pressed evening primrose capsules. that was the only thing i found yesterday. if i want borage oil i must order online. maybe i should eat more flaxseed to? what do you think? i eat a lot of fish (almost every second day for breakfast) herring (matjes) salmon etc. and for lunch or dinner we have often fish, so i think my omega 3 levels are ok.

    greetings,
    Nina K.

  14. JP Says:

    Good morning, Nina. :)

    I doubt the flax is necessary. In general, I think that fish oil is a better source of omega-3 fatty acids. Flax seeds do provide some additional benefits however due to their naturally occurring fiber, lignans and phytochemicals. If you decide to integrate the seeds into your program, make sure to use flax meal in order to derive the maximum goodness from them. The seeds need to be ground or milled in order to allow for maximum bioavailability. I personally add an organic, sprouted (and cold milled) flax seed powder to many of “breakfast pudding” and some protein shakes.

    The evening primrose oil should be a great start. Borage contains a larger percentage of GLA. But the amount of GLA present in the EPO could very well be sufficient. I’ll hope for great results!

    Be well!

    JP

    PS – Lately I’ve found that with improved nutrition (lots of healthy fats), that I don’t even need to apply topical moisturizers anymore! I used to use a lot of them in order to deal with my dry skin.

  15. Nina K. Says:

    Hello JP,

    me again ;-)

    im a little bit confused: read the package insert (info from the maufacturer of the epo capsules). theres a warning for people which suffer from schizophrenia and / or epilepsy, they should not consume any epo product because it can cause an recidivism or an acute epileptic seizure. didn’t know that till now and be now interested in why epo can do that. have you any idea?

    i decided to put some fresh ground flax seeds into my breakfast, so the fatty acids have no chance to oxidize :-) and i can ground them toghether with fresh walnuts.

    Greetings from “winter-wonderland”
    Nina K.

  16. JP Says:

    Nina,

    I haven’t researched this aspect of EPO/GLA in depth. Having said that, it now appears that the concern may be overstated and/or unwarranted:

    Here’s the basis for the concern:

    “EPO is generally well tolerated, with reported minor adverse effects including gastrointestinal upset (e.g., abdominal pain, indigestion, nausea, softening of stools) and headaches. Two case reports involving only five patients in the 1980s raised speculation that EPO may exacerbate epilepsy or reduce the threshold for seizures in patients being treated with phenothiazines for schizophrenia. Although caution was advised for patients taking phenothiazine neuroleptics or anticonvulsants, neuroleptics themselves can induce seizures.”

    http://www.aafp.org/afp/2009/1215/p1405.html

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6269135

    Newer evidence supporting the safety of EPO:

    http://www.plefa.com/article/S0952-3278%2807%2900090-7/abstract

    http://www.medicine.ox.ac.uk/bandolier/booth/alternat/evprimschiz.html

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1321449

    Be well!

    JP

  17. Nina K. Says:

    Morning JP :-)

    oh thank you sooooo much for all the information. you are great! thank you!

    Nina K.

  18. JP Says:

    You’re most welcome, Nina! :)

    Thank you for bringing this issue up!

    Be well!

    JP

  19. MNF Says:

    Http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15656713

    I’m currently using this study and it’s prescribed doses to see if I can bring my cholesterol levels into a healthy range. I found it very interesting although I’d like to see larger study groups.

  20. JP Says:

    MNF,

    I would as well. New krill oil trials should be forthcoming. I’ll post any breaking research I find.

    Just added a summary of a newly published study: http://www.healthyfellow.com/685/krill-oil-best-of-and-update/

    Be well!

    JP

  21. JP Says:

    Update 05/31/15:

    http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/early/2015/05/27/ajcn.114.103028.abstract

    Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 May 27.

    Supplementation with a blend of krill and salmon oil is associated with increased metabolic risk in overweight men.

    BACKGROUND: Krill is an increasingly popular source of marine n-3 (ω-3) PUFA that is seen as a premium product. However, to our knowledge, the effect of krill-oil supplementation on insulin sensitivity in humans has not been reported.

    OBJECTIVE: We assessed whether supplementation with a blend of krill and salmon (KS) oil [which is rich in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] affects insulin sensitivity in overweight men.

    DESIGN: The design was a randomized, double-blind, controlled crossover trial. A total of 47 men with a mean ± SD age of 46.5 ± 5.1 y, who were overweight [body mass index (in kg/m2) from 25 to 30] but otherwise healthy, received 5 1-g capsules of KS oil or a control (canola oil) for 8 wk and crossed over to another treatment after a 8-wk washout period. The primary outcome was insulin sensitivity assessed by using the Matsuda method from an oral-glucose-tolerance test. Secondary outcomes included lipid profiles, inflammatory markers, 24-h ambulatory blood pressure, and carotid artery intimamedia thickness.

    RESULTS: Unexpectedly, insulin sensitivity (per the Matsuda index) was 14% lower with the KS oil than with the control oil (P = 0.049). A mediation analysis showed that, after controlling for the likely positive effects of blood EPA and DHA (i.e., the omega-3 index), the reduction in insulin sensitivity after KS-oil supplementation was more marked [27% lower than with the control oil (P = 0.009)].

    CONCLUSIONS: Supplementation with a blend of KS oil is associated with decreased insulin sensitivity. Thus, krill-oil supplementation in overweight adults could exacerbate risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

    Be well!

    JP

  22. JP Says:

    Updated 08/11/15:

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26258079

    N Am J Med Sci. 2015 Jul;7(7):317-21.

    Fish Oil Intake and Seizure Control in Children with Medically Resistant Epilepsy.

    BACKGROUND: There is considerable evidence which suggests that Omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids may have a potential use in the treatment of epilepsy.

    AIM: The study was to investigate the effect of Omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (as fish oil supplementation) in reducing the frequency and severity of epileptic seizures in children with medically resistant epilepsy.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the case-control study, a total of 70 children with medically resistant epilepsy underwent assessment of the frequency and severity of the epileptic attacks at baseline, after one month, two months and three months from the beginning of the study; 35 children received fish oil and the other 35 children received placebo.

    RESULTS: The number of children who received fish oil, having 0 epileptic attacks increased from 0%, before starting the study, up to 57.1% at the end of the third month, while the improvement was minimal in the placebo group, with a significant difference in the improvement between the intervention and the control groups. There was no statistically significant difference in improvement in the severity of the seizures either between cases and control or between the beginning and the end of the study.

    CONCLUSION: Omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids elevated the seizure threshold in epileptic patients and may help in achieving seizure control.

    Be well!

    JP

  23. JP Says:

    Updated 09/14/15:

    http://msj.sagepub.com/content/early/2015/08/20/1352458515604380.abstract

    Mult Scler. 2015 Sep 11.

    Higher intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids is associated with a decreased risk of a first clinical diagnosis of central nervous system demyelination: Results from the Ausimmune Study.

    BACKGROUND: There is contradictory evidence for a role of dietary fat in risk of multiple sclerosis (MS).

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between usual fat intake (total, saturated, monounsaturated (MUFA), polyunsaturated (PUFA), omega-3 and omega-6) and risk of a first clinical diagnosis of CNS demyelination (FCD).

    METHODS: Multi-centre incident case-control study in four regions of Australia during 2003-2006. Cases were aged 18-59 years and had a FCD; controls were matched to a case on age, sex and location. Dietary data were collected using a validated food frequency questionnaire.

    RESULTS: In 267 cases and 517 controls with dietary data, higher intake (per g/day) of omega-3 PUFA (adjusted odds ratio, AOR=0.61 (95% CI 0.40-0.93)), and particularly that derived from fish (AOR=0.54 (95% CI 0.31-0.93)) rather than from plants (AOR=0.75 (95% CI 0.39-1.43)) was associated with a decreased risk of FCD. Total fat intake and intake of other types of fat were not associated with FCD risk.

    CONCLUSIONS: There was a significant decrease in FCD risk with higher intake of omega-3 PUFA, particularly that originating from fish. There was no evidence to indicate that the intake of other types of dietary fat or fat quantity in the previous 12 months was associated with an altered risk of FCD.

    Be well!

    JP

  24. JP Says:

    Updated 11/11/15:

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26380892

    Nutr Cancer. 2015 Sep 18:1-8.

    Fish Oil Supplementation and Quality of Life in Stage II Colorectal Cancer Patients: A 24-Month Follow-Up Study.

    Research suggests that cancer survivors have an interest in lifestyle changes following a diagnosis. However, few studies have prospectively investigated whether these changes result in positive outcomes. The objective of this study was to examine the associations between fish oil supplementation and quality of life (QoL), cancer recurrence, and all-cause mortality in Stage 2 colorectal cancer (CRC) patients following diagnosis. Four hundred fifty-three patients were enrolled from the North Carolina Cancer Registry from 2009 to 2011. Data on demography, treatment, and health behaviors were collected at diagnosis, 12-, and 24 mo postdiagnosis. Generalized estimating equations were performed to examine fish oil supplementation in relation to QoL, recurrence, and all-cause mortality. An increase in fish oil supplementation over 24 mo postdiagnosis was associated with an increase in the physical component score of the 12-item Medical Outcomes Short Form (β = 2.43, 95% CI: 0.10-4.76). Supplementation showed no association with the Functional Assessment of Cancer-Colorectal, cancer recurrence or mortality across the 24-mo follow-up. This study suggests that fish oil supplementation may improve symptom-related QoL (i.e., physical functioning) in Stage 2 CRC patients following diagnosis. Future research should address the dose-dependent effects of this relationship.

    Be well!

    JP

  25. JP Says:

    Updated 1/23/16:

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26793308

    J Nutr Sci. 2016 Jan 8;5:e2.

    Consumption of Buglossoides arvensis seed oil is safe and increases tissue long-chain n-3 fatty acid content more than flax seed oil – results of a phase I randomised clinical trial.

    Enrichment of tissues with ≥20-carbon n-3 PUFA like EPA is associated with positive cardiovascular outcomes. Stearidonic acid (SDA; 18 : 4n-3) and α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18 : 3n-3) are plant-derived dietary n-3 PUFA; however, direct comparisons of their impact on tissue n-3 PUFA content are lacking. Ahiflower(®) oil extracted from Buglossoides arvensis seeds is the richest known non-genetically modified source of dietary SDA. To investigate the safety and efficacy of dietary Ahiflower oil, a parallel-group, randomised, double-blind, comparator-controlled phase I clinical trial was performed. Diets of healthy subjects (n 40) were supplemented for 28 d with 9·1 g/d of Ahiflower (46 % ALA, 20 % SDA) or flax seed oil (59 % ALA). Blood and urine chemistries, blood lipid profiles, hepatic and renal function tests and haematology were measured as safety parameters. The fatty acid composition of fasting plasma, erythrocytes, polymorphonuclear cells and mononuclear cells were measured at baseline and after 14 and 28 d of supplementation. No clinically significant changes in safety parameters were measured in either group. Tissue ALA and EPA content increased in both groups compared with baseline, but EPA accrual in plasma and in all cell types was greater in the Ahiflower group (time × treatment interactions, P ≤ 0·01). Plasma and mononuclear cell eicosatetraenoic acid (20 : 4n-3) and docosapentaenoic acid (22 : 5n-3) content also increased significantly in the Ahiflower group compared with the flax group. In conclusion, the consumption of Ahiflower oil is safe and is more effective for the enrichment of tissues with 20- and 22-carbon n-3 PUFA than flax seed oil.

    Be well!

    JP

  26. JP Says:

    Updated 06/13/16:

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4889684/

    Arch Med Sci. 2016 Jun 1;12(3):507-12.

    Lipid-lowering and anti-inflammatory effects of omega 3 ethyl esters and krill oil: a randomized, cross-over, clinical trial.

    INTRODUCTION: Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) derived from different sources could have different lipid-lowering effects in humans. The main aim of our study was to compare the short-term triglyceride-lowering efficacy of krill oil and purified omega 3 ethyl ester PUFAs in mildly overweight hypertriglyceridemic subjects.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: This double-blind, randomized clinical trial was carried out in 25 moderately hypertriglyceridemic subjects (TG = 150-500 mg/dl). After a 4-week run-in, participants were allocated to treatment with similar pills containing omega 3 ethyl ester PUFAs 1000 mg twice a day vs. krill oil 500 mg twice a day. After 4 weeks of treatment, participants were asked to observe a 4-week wash-out period, and they were then assigned to the alternative treatment for a further period of 4 weeks.

    RESULTS: Although both PUFA sources were able to improve TG plasma levels, esterified omega 3 PUFAs were more efficacious than krill oil (p < 0.05). Nonetheless, only krill oil treatment was able to significantly improve high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein AI levels, compared to both baseline (p < 0.05) and end of treatment with esterified omega 3 PUFAs (p < 0.05) values. Both treatments were able to significantly reduce high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels from the baseline (p < 0.05), but krill oil improved it more efficaciously than esterified omega 3 PUFAs (p < 0.05).

    CONCLUSIONS: Krill oil has lipid-lowering effects comparable with those obtained through a 4-fold higher dose of purified omega 3 ethyl ester PUFAs in mildly overweight hypertriglyceridemic subjects, while more efficaciously reducing hs-CRP.

    Be well!

    JP

  27. JP Says:

    Updated 06/17/16:

    http://www.nature.com/articles/srep28165

    Sci Rep. 2016 Jun 16;6:28165.

    N-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and risk of all-cause mortality among general populations: a meta-analysis.

    Prospective observational studies have shown inconsistent associations of dietary or circulating n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) with risk of all-cause mortality. A meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the associations. Potentially eligible studies were identified by searching PubMed and EMBASE databases. The summary relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using the random-effects model. Eleven prospective studies involving 371 965 participants from general populations and 31 185 death events were included. The summary RR of all-cause mortality for high-versus-low n-3 LCPUFA intake was 0.91 (95% CI: 0.84-0.98). The summary RR for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) intake was 0.83 (95% CI: 0.75-0.92) and 0.81 (95% CI: 0.74-0.95), respectively. In the dose-response analysis, each 0.3 g/d increment in n-3 LCPUFA intake was associated with 6% lower risk of all-cause mortality (RR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.89-0.99); and each 1% increment in the proportions of circulating EPA and DHA in total fatty acids in blood was associated with 20% (RR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.65-0.98) and 21% (RR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.63-0.99) decreased risk of all-cause mortality, respectively. Moderate to high heterogeneity was observed across our anlayses. Our findings suggest that both dietary and circulating LCPUFA are inversely associated with all-cause mortality.

    Be well!

    JP

  28. JP Says:

    Updated 10/11/16:

    https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/journal-of-nutritional-science/article/consumption-of-buglossoides-arvensis-seed-oil-is-safe-and-increases-tissue-long-chain-n-3-fatty-acid-content-more-than-flax-seed-oil-results-of-a-phase-i-randomised-clinical-trial/4DDA9BFB025AE89CFD518DE9AC8B75DD/core-reader

    Journal of Nutritional Science, Volume 2016, e2

    Consumption of Buglossoides arvensis seed oil is safe and increases tissue long-chain n-3 fatty acid content more than flax seed oil – results of a phase I randomised clinical trial

    Enrichment of tissues with ≥20-carbon n-3 PUFA like EPA is associated with positive cardiovascular outcomes. Stearidonic acid (SDA; 18 : 4n-3) and α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18 : 3n-3) are plant-derived dietary n-3 PUFA; however, direct comparisons of their impact on tissue n-3 PUFA content are lacking. Ahiflower® oil extracted from Buglossoides arvensis seeds is the richest known non-genetically modified source of dietary SDA. To investigate the safety and efficacy of dietary Ahiflower oil, a parallel-group, randomised, double-blind, comparator-controlled phase I clinical trial was performed. Diets of healthy subjects (n 40) were supplemented for 28 d with 9·1 g/d of Ahiflower (46 % ALA, 20 % SDA) or flax seed oil (59 % ALA). Blood and urine chemistries, blood lipid profiles, hepatic and renal function tests and haematology were measured as safety parameters. The fatty acid composition of fasting plasma, erythrocytes, polymorphonuclear cells and mononuclear cells were measured at baseline and after 14 and 28 d of supplementation. No clinically significant changes in safety parameters were measured in either group. Tissue ALA and EPA content increased in both groups compared with baseline, but EPA accrual in plasma and in all cell types was greater in the Ahiflower group (time × treatment interactions, P ≤ 0·01). Plasma and mononuclear cell eicosatetraenoic acid (20 : 4n-3) and docosapentaenoic acid (22 : 5n-3) content also increased significantly in the Ahiflower group compared with the flax group. In conclusion, the consumption of Ahiflower oil is safe and is more effective for the enrichment of tissues with 20- and 22-carbon n-3 PUFA than flax seed oil.

    Be well!

    JP

  29. JP Says:

    Updated 03/11/17:

    http://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/9/3/261/htm

    Nutrients 2017, 9(3), 261

    Dietary Buglossoides Arvensis Oil Increases Circulating n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in a Dose-Dependent Manner and Enhances Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Whole Blood Interleukin-10—A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Buglossoides arvensis (Ahiflower) oil is a dietary oil rich in stearidonic acid (20% SDA; 18:4 n-3). The present randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial investigated the effects of three Ahiflower oil dosages on omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content of plasma and mononuclear cells (MCs) and of the highest Ahiflower dosage on stimulated cytokine production in blood. Healthy subjects (n = 88) consumed 9.7 mL per day for 28 days of 100% high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO); 30% Ahiflower oil (Ahi) + 70% HOSO; 60% Ahi + 40% HOSO; and 100% Ahi. No clinically significant changes in blood and urine chemistries, blood lipid profiles, hepatic and renal function tests nor hematology were measured. Linear mixed models (repeated measures design) probed for differences in time, and time × treatment interactions. Amongst significant changes, plasma and MC eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5 n-3) levels increased from baseline at day 28 in all Ahiflower groups (p < 0.05) and the increase was greater in all Ahiflower groups compared to the HOSO control (time × treatment interactions; p < 0.05). Similar results were obtained for α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3 n-3), eicosatetraenoic acid (ETA, 20:4 n-3), and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, 22:5 n-3) content; but not docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3). Production of interleukin-10 (IL-10) was increased in the 100% Ahiflower oil group compared to 100% HOSO group (p < 0.05). IL-10 production was also increased in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated M2-differentiated THP-1 macrophage-like cells in the presence of 20:4 n-3 or EPA (p < 0.05). Overall; this indicates that the consumption of Ahiflower oil is associated with an anti-inflammatory phenotype in healthy subjects.

    Be well!

    JP

  30. JP Says:

    Updated 01/05/19:

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30607782

    J Autism Dev Disord. 2019 Jan 3.

    A Randomised-Controlled Trial of Vitamin D and Omega-3 Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in the Treatment of Core Symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Children.

    We evaluated the efficacy of vitamin D (VID), omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 LCPUFA, OM), or both (VIDOM) on core symptoms of ASD. New Zealand children with ASD (n = 73; aged 2.5-8.0 years) received daily 2000 IU vitamin D3, 722 mg docosahexaenoic acid, both, or placebo. Outcome measures were Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) and Sensory Processing Measure (SPM). Of 42 outcome measures comparisons (interventions vs. placebo), two showed greater improvements (P = 0.03, OM and VIDOM for SRS-social awareness) and four showed trends for greater improvements (P < 0.1, VIDOM for SRS-social communicative functioning, OM for SRS-total, VIDOM for SPM-taste/smell and OM for SPM-balance/motion). Omega-3 LCPUFA with and without vitamin D may improve some core symptoms of ASD but no definitive conclusions can be made.

    Be well!

    JP

  31. JP Says:

    Updated 02/13/19:

    https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0960076018303923?via%3Dihub

    J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2019 Mar;187:9-16.

    A randomised controlled trial of vitamin D and omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in the treatment of irritability and hyperactivity among children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Irritability and hyperactivity are common in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Because pharmacological treatments may have adverse effects, and despite limited evidence, caregivers/parents often use dietary supplements such as vitamin D and omega-3 fatty acids to address these behavioural symptoms. As a secondary objective of the VIDOMA (Vitamin D and Omega-3 in ASD) trial, we evaluated the efficacy of vitamin D, omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid [omega-3 LCPUFA; docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)], or both on irritability and hyperactivity. New Zealand children with ASD (aged 2.5-8 years) participated in a 12-month randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of vitamin D (2000 IU/day, VID), omega-3 LCPUFA (722 mg/day DHA, OM), or both (2000 IU/day vitamin D + 722 mg/day DHA, VIDOM). The primary outcomes were the Aberrant Behaviour Checklist (ABC) domains of irritability and hyperactivity. Biomarkers (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and omega-3 index) and primary outcomes were measured at baseline and 12-months. Out of 111 children who completed baseline data collection, 66% completed the study (VID = 19, OM = 23, VIDOM = 15, placebo = 16). After 12 months, children receiving OM (-5.0 ± 5.0, P = 0.001) and VID (-4.0±4.9, P = 0.01) had greater reduction in irritability than placebo (0.8±6.1). Compared to placebo, children on VID also had greater reduction in hyperactivity (-5.2±6.3 vs. -0.8±5.6, P = 0.047). Serum 25(OH)D concentration (nmol/L, mean±SD) increased by 27±14 in VID and by 36±17 in VIDOM groups (P < 0.0001), and omega-3 index (%, median (25th, 75th percentiles)) by 4.4 (3.3, 5.9) in OM and by 4.0 (2.0, 6.0) in VIDOM groups (P < 0.0001), indicating a good compliance rate. The results indicate that vitamin D and omega-3 LCPUFA reduced irritability symptoms in children with ASD. Vitamin D also reduced hyperactivity symptoms in these children.

    Be well!

    JP

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