Dr. Loren Cordain Interview Part TwoOctober 7, 2010 Written by JP [Font too small?]
In part two of my interview with Dr. Loren Cordain, I’ll turn the spotlight on the most recent scientific developments regarding Paleolithic nutrition. Dr. Cordain shares some insights about using a traditional diet to manage autoimmune diseases. He also comments on a current batch of “modern day Paleo diets” and describes what he’d like see in future scientific investigations. We’ll even get a sneak peak into his forthcoming book, The Paleo Diet Cookbook.
JP - You just co-authored a paper in the British Journal of Nutrition which estimated the macronutrient and fatty acid composition of an East African Paleolithic Diet. Several recent studies have attempted to replicate a paleolithic-style diet in the context of controlled trials involving diabetics and healthy volunteers. What is your impression of those interventions?
Dr. Cordain - These are the very first pioneering studies which show modern day “Paleo” are more effective than so-called healthy diets such as the Mediterranean diet in improving blood lipid and other health parameters. I suspect that more and more randomized controlled trials will be conducted on Paleo diets to show their therapeutic effects. Particularly exciting is their role in preventing or ameliorating autoimmune diseases. (1,2,3,4,5)
JP - On your website, you offer a program which “may slow or even ameliorate symptoms of M.S. (multiple sclerosis) in some patients”. Can you please describe the basis for that work? What kind of response have you received from patients and physicians who have adopted the program?
Dr. Cordain - Except for celiac disease, no good randomized controlled trials of Paleo Diets have yet been tested in other autoimmune diseases. However, it is increasingly being recognized by immunologists that a leaky gut may be a universal dietary trigger of autoimmunity. Multiple elements in the typical western diet cause increased intestinal permeability (lectins, saponins, gliadin, alcohol, capsaicin, thaumatin like proteins). Because the Paleo diet is generally free from foods (wheat, all grains, potatoes, legumes and all beans, capsaicin containing chili peppers) that contain these substances and other foods (dairy) known to be associated with autoimmune diseases, it likely will improve or prevent certain autoimmune diseases.
JP - Is there a place for nutritional supplements in a paleolithic diet? If so, are there certain supplements in particular that are more congruent with your philosophy than others?
Dr. Cordain - As I have pointed out in my paper (Cordain L. The nutritional characteristics of a contemporary diet based upon Paleolithic food groups. J Am Nutraceut Assoc 2002; 5:15-24.), modern day Paleo diets are incredibly nutritionally dense and supply 2 to 7 times the DRI (Dietary Reference Intake) for all vitamins and minerals except vitamin D. In contemporary diets vitamin D is fortified in margarine and milk which are not components of the Paleo Diet. Hence, unless you get regular sun exposure, vitamin D should be supplemented. To achieve optimal blood concentrations of vitamin D (40-70 ng/ml) without sunlight exposure, it is necessary to supplement with at least 2,000 IU per day. If you don’t like to eat fish then fish oil supplements (EPA and DHA) should be taken. (6)
Modern “Paleo” Diets Improve Various Risk Factors in Diabetics
JP - Are some dairy products and grains worse than others? Do you believe it makes any difference whether these foods are eaten in fermented, organic, sprouted and/or unrefined forms?
Dr. Cordain - As I have pointed out in my paper (Loren Cordain, S. Boyd Eaton, Anthony Sebastian, Neil Mann, Staffan Lindeberg, Bruce A. Watkins, James H. O’Keefe, Janette Brand Miller. Origins and evolution of the western diet: Health implications for the 21st century. Am J Clin Nutr 2005;81:341-54.) grains and dairy are nutritional lightweights when compared to calorically matched samples of lean meats, seafood, fresh fruits and vegetables. Hence inclusion of these food groups into the diet will make the diet less nutritionally dense by reducing its vitamin, mineral and phytochemical content. Additionally dairy products and milk in particular (whether whole, skimmed or fermented) is highly insulinotropic and has been demonstrated to cause insulin resistance in children while simultaneously increasing free IGF-1, a risk factor for many epithelial cell cancers (breast, colon and prostate). Wheat is perhaps the worst of all grains. Recent work from Alessio Fasano’s group has shown wheat increases intestinal permeability in all people — not just celiac patients. A leaky gut likely promotes chronic low level inflammation which drives cardiovascular disease, cancer and autoimmune diseases. (7,8,9,10)
JP - If money were no object, what type of study would you most like to conduct on paleolithic nutrition?
Dr. Cordain - A long term (2 year) randomized controlled trial of the Paleo Diet in a variety of people with common health issues (the metabolic syndrome, autoimmune disease, certain cancers, mental problems, acne, gastrointestinal disease etc.). It would be interesting to contrast the Paleo Diet to other diets such as the USDA Food Pyramid, the American Heart Association Diet, Atkins, the South Beach Diet, Japanese Diets, Mediterranean, etc.
In addition to answering my questions, Dr. Cordain was kind enough to send over a list of Paleo-style breakfast, lunch, dinner and snack ideas contained in his upcoming cookbook, The Paleo Diet Cookbook. The menu items appear quite varied. For breakfast, one might consider having “Fired Up Steak and Eggs” with a side of fresh cucumber spears. A proposed lunch offers up lighter fare: “Nopales Cactus Salad”, sliced mango and herbal tea. Dinner could be composed of a “Fajita Stir Fry”, “Arugula Avocado Salad” and steamed asparagus spears. Snack options include select fruits (ex. Asian pears) and nuts (ex. raw walnuts). And to drink? Herbal tea, mineral water, red wine and water with lemon juice top the list.
I want to sincerely thank Dr. Cordain for taking the time to share his breadth of knowledge about traditional eating with us. This is an area that I think deserves serious consideration as we, as individuals and societies, examine how we should be eating. Learning everything possible about the productive and destructive practices in our past can only lead to a more enlightened and healthier future.
Tags: Acne, Milk, Multiple Sclerosis
Posted in Interviews, Nutrition