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Breastfeeding, Liver Health and Tinnitus News

October 20, 2010 Written by JP       [Font too small?]

Do you ever find yourself in a situation where you have too much to do in the time you have available? These days, that’s where I am. One way that I deal with such situations is to set up parameters for myself. I try to do it in a constructive manner which deflects the stress that often accompanies a typical time crunch. Instead of feeling as if I don’t have enough hours in the day, I think to myself: How can I do something different with the limited time I do have? What I usually come up with is a challenge. My challenge for today is to present three health promoting news items that are no longer than three sentences in length each – a sort of rapid fire version of my typical daily column.

Day in and day out, we all rely on the liver to convert food into energy and process the many toxins we consume on a daily basis. A novel approach to supporting liver health was recently discovered at the Shifa College of Medicine in Pakistan. According to that research, eating just 3 prunes daily over an 8 week period can significantly reduce certain markers of liver dysfunction (serum alanine transaminase and serum alkaline phosphatase). (1,2)

Tinnitus is a condition that results in the misperception of sound in the ears, such as clicking, hissing or ringing, when no external sound is present. A new Italian trial reports that a patented pine bark extract, Pycnogenol, may offer significant relief for those living with tinnitus by improving circulation to the affected regions of the head. A daily dosage of 100 or 150 mg of Pycnogenol was found to positively influence diastolic and systolic (blood) flow velocity to the inner ear, thereby reducing tinnitus symptoms as assessed by a Subjective Tinnitus Scale (STS). (3,4,5)

Breastfeeding May Protect Against Childhood Sleep-Disordered Breathing
Source: PEDIATRICS Vol. 120 No. 5 November 2007, pp. 1030-1035 (link)

The case for “exclusive breastfeeding” is strengthened by new research presented in the September 27th edition of the journal Archives of Disease in Childhood. A total of 926 infants who were either exclusively breastfed, partially breastfed or non-breastfed, were medically supervised over a 12 month period. Infants that were exclusively breastfed for at least 6 months were: a) 42% less likely to have an acute respiratory infection; b) at a 63% reduced risk of ear infections; c) afforded 86% protection against the occurrence of thrush; d) admitted to the hospital for infections 94% less often than partially breastfed and non-breastfed infants. (6)

Right about now I’m thinking about a number of details I wish I could have fit into the preceding paragraphs. That’s the voice in the back of my head that never wants to leave anything out. But that’s not the way life works. We all need to pick and choose where to direct our attention. The more sensible part of my brain tells me that I was successfully able to convey three potentially useful natural health stories in the time with which I had to work. This exercise also provides me with an opportunity to remind you that the footnotes at the end of many of the paragraphs in my columns link to the source material upon which I base my work. If you’d like more information about any of these topics, just click on those links for more technical data. And, as always, you can shoot me an email or reach me by adding a comment at the bottom of any given column if you have additional concerns or questions.

Note: Please check out the “Comments & Updates” section of this blog – at the bottom of the page. You can find the latest research about this topic there!

Be well!

JP

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19 Comments & Updates to “Breastfeeding, Liver Health and Tinnitus News”

  1. Randy B. Says:

    Encouraging news about Pycnogenol. Natural remedies are preferred for Tinnitus treatments, as prescription drugs can often make symptoms worse long term.

  2. JP Says:

    Update: Acupressure supports healthier breast milk production …

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4325417/

    Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res. 2015 Jan-Feb;20(1):7-11.

    Effect of acupressure on milk volume of breastfeeding mothers referring to selected health care centers in Tehran.

    BACKGROUND: Breast milk is the main food source for infants’ growth and development. Insufficient milk is one of the obstacles to the adequate use of this substance. One of the treatments to help this issue is acupressure. Therefore, the present study was designed to determine the effect of acupressure on maternal milk volume.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study is a randomized clinical trial in which 60 breastfeeding mothers complaining of hypogalactia and meeting the inclusion criteria were studied. In addition to providing routine education, bilateral acupressure was performed for 12 consequentia l days on the acupoints of SI1, LI4, and GB21 in the intervention group, as three sessions per week with each session conducted 2-5 times. The control group received only routine education. In both groups, breast milk volume before intervention and 2 and 4 weeks after intervention was evaluated by an electric pump. Data were analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistical analysis through SPSS.

    RESULTS: The t-test showed no significant difference in the mean volume of milk in the two groups (P = 0.543). Mean volumes of milk before and 2 and 4 weeks after the intervention were 10.5 (8.3), 33 (13.44), and 36.2 (12.8), respectively, in the acupressure group and 9.5 (7.7), 17.7 (9.4), 18 (9.5), respectively, in the control group. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) test showed a significant difference in the mean volume of milk at 2 and 4 weeks after the intervention (P < 0.001).

    CONCLUSIONS: Both acupressure and general education methods were effective on the milk volume of breastfeeding mothers. Acupressure method was more effective than the other method. Therefore, application of acupressure as a method of alternative medicine to increase breastfeeding is suggested.

    Be well!

    JP

  3. JP Says:

    Update: Mindfulness shows promise re: tinnitus …

    http://oto.sagepub.com/content/early/2015/02/23/0194599815571556.abstract

    Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2015 Feb 24.

    Effects of Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction Therapy on Subjective Bother and Neural Connectivity in Chronic Tinnitus.

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of a Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program in patients with chronic bothersome tinnitus on the (1) severity of symptoms of tinnitus and (2) functional connectivity in neural attention networks.

    STUDY DESIGN: Open-label interventional pilot study.

    SETTING: Outpatient academic medical center.

    SUBJECTS: A total of 13 adult participants with a median age of 55 years, suffering from bothersome tinnitus.

    METHODS: An 8-week MBSR program was conducted by a trained MBSR instructor. The primary outcome measure was the difference in patient-reported tinnitus symptoms using the Tinnitus Handicap Index (THI) and Tinnitus Functional Index (TFI) between pre-intervention, post-MBSR, and 4-week post-MBSR assessments. Secondary outcomes included change in measurements of depression, anxiety, mindfulness, and cognitive abilities. Functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed at pre- and post-MBSR intervention time points to serve as a neuroimaging biomarker of critical cortical networks.

    RESULTS: Scores on the THI and TFI showed statistically significant and clinically meaningful improvement over the course of the study with a median ΔTHI of -16 and median ΔTFI of -14.8 between baseline and 4-week follow-up scores. Except for depression, there was no significant change in any of the secondary outcome measures. Analysis of the resting state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI) data showed increased connectivity in the post-MBSR group in attention networks but not the default network.

    CONCLUSION: Participation in an MBSR program is associated with decreased severity in tinnitus symptoms and depression and connectivity changes in neural attention networks. MBSR is a promising treatment option for chronic bothersome tinnitus that is both noninvasive and inexpensive.

    Be well!

    JP

  4. JP Says:

    Update: Fascinating study finds that probiotics increase breast milk mineral concentrations …

    http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0946672X15000097

    J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2015 Apr;30:25-9.

    A pilot study of synbiotic supplementation on breast milk mineral concentrations and growth of exclusively breast fed infants.

    Despite the crucial role of breast milk mineral contents for health and growth of the infants, they decrease with the duration of lactation. So, this pilot study aimed to determine the effects of synbiotic supplementation on breast milk mineral composition and infants’ growth. In this pilot, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 57 lactating mothers were randomly divided into two groups to receive a daily supplement of synbiotic (n=30) or a placebo (n=27) for 30 days. Breast milk zinc, copper, Iron, magnesium and, calcium concentrations were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Weight for age Z-score (WAZ) and height for age Z-score (HAZ) were assessed for infants. Dietary intake was collected from lactating women using the 24-h recall method. Data analyses were carried out using nutritionist IV, Epi Info and SPSS soft wares. Synbiotic supplementation led to an insignificant increase of the mean breast milk levels of zinc (from 2.44±0.65 to 2.55±0.55mgL(-1)), copper (from 0.35±0.24 to 0.40±0.26mgL(-1)), iron (from 0.28±0.42 to 0.31±0.38mgL(-1)), magnesium (from 17.14±1.35 to 17.17±1.09mgL(-1)), and calcium (from 189±25.3 to 189.9±21.7mgL(-1)); whilst in the placebo group, these variables decreased significantly (P=0.001). The observed changes between two groups were statistically significant (P<0.05). Although WAZ and HAZ of infants increased slightly in the supplemented group (from 1.19±0.79 to 1.20±0.69 and 0.36±0.86 to 0.37±0.85 respectively), these two parameters decreased in the placebo group which was significant only for WAZ (P=0.01). Moreover, no significant association was found between mineral intake and breast milk mineral contents. It seems, synbiotic supplementation may have positive effects on breast milk mineral contents.

    Be well!

    JP

  5. JP Says:

    Update: Breastfeeding linked to normal pubertal development in boys and girls …

    http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=9595952&fileId=S1368980015000518

    Public Health Nutr. 2015 Mar 6:1-8.

    The preventive effect of breast-feeding for longer than 6 months on early pubertal development among children aged 7-9 years in Korea.

    OBJECTIVE: The present study was performed to investigate whether breast-feeding is associated with early pubertal development among children 7-9 years old in Korea.

    DESIGN: Children were divided into those who did and did not receive breast-feeding for 6 months or longer in accordance with the recommendations of the WHO. Pubertal status was determined by clinical examination using Tanner staging.

    SETTING: Prospective observational study.

    SUBJECTS: We conducted a follow-up study of children aged 7-9 years in 2011 who had taken part in the Ewha Birth & Growth Cohort study.

    RESULTS: Fifty (22·8 %) of the total of 219 children were in early puberty, with the proportion being slightly higher for girls (24·1 %) than boys (21·4 %). Children who had entered early puberty were taller, weighed more and had a higher concentration of insulin-like growth factor 1. Moreover, the change in weight Z-score from birth to follow-up was significantly lower in children who were breast-fed than in those who were not (weight Z-score change: 0·32 (sd 1·59) v. 0·77 (sd 1·61), respectively, P=0·04). Comparison of breast-feeding by puberty status indicated a preventive association with early puberty in children who were breast-fed for 6 months or longer (OR=0·37; 95 % CI 0·18, 0·74). This association remained significant after adjustment for relevant covariates.

    CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate a beneficial association between breast-feeding and early pubertal development, especially in those breast-fed for 6 months or longer. The study suggests that interventions would need to start early in life to prevent early pubertal development.

    Be well!

    JP

  6. JP Says:

    Update 06/01/15:

    http://www.nmcd-journal.com/article/S0939-4753%2815%2900103-9/abstract

    Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2015 Apr 25.

    A double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial to evaluate the efficacy of docosahexaenoic acid supplementation on hepatic fat and associated cardiovascular risk factors in overweight children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Very little information is available on whether docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation has a beneficial effect on liver fat and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial we investigated whether 6-month treatment with DHA improves hepatic fat and other fat depots, and their associated CVD risk factors in children with biopsy-proven NAFLD.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: Of 58 randomized children, 51 (25 DHA, 26 placebo) completed the study. The main outcome was the change in hepatic fat fraction as estimated by magnetic resonance imaging. Secondary outcomes were changes in visceral adipose tissue (VAT), epicardial adipose tissue (EAT), and left ventricular (LV) function, as well as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), triglycerides, body mass index-standard deviation score (BMI-SDS), and insulin sensitivity. At 6 months, the liver fat was reduced by 53.4% (95% CI, 33.4-73.4) in the DHA group, as compared with 22.6% (6.2-39.0) in the placebo group (P = 0.040 for the comparison between the two groups). Likewise, in the DHA group VAT and EAT were reduced by 7.8% (0-18.3) and 14.2% (0-28.2%), as compared with 2.2% (0-8.1) and 1.7% (0-6.8%) in the placebo group, respectively (P = 0.01 for both comparisons). There were no significant between-group changes for LV function as well as BMI-SDS and ALT, while fasting insulin and triglycerides significantly decreased in the DHA-treated children (P = 0.028 and P = 0.041, respectively).

    CONCLUSIONS: DHA supplementation decreases liver and visceral fat, and ameliorates metabolic abnormalities in children with NAFLD.

    Be well!

    JP

  7. JP Says:

    Update 06/21/15:

    http://chp.sagepub.com/content/early/2015/06/15/2156587215588653.abstract

    J Evid Based Complementary Altern Med. 2015 Jun 15.

    Efficacy of Topical Application of Emu Oil on Areola Skin Barrier in Breastfeeding Women.

    Appropriate hydration and skin surface pH are of fundamental importance in preventing areola skin barrier damage and breastfeeding success. We studied the dermal effects of emu oil on areola skin soon after birth in 70 at-term breastfeeding mothers by noninvasive bioengineering method. Emu oil-based cream was found to be effective in improving stratum corneum hydration of breast areolae (mean ± standard deviation, from 56.9 ± 18.2 to 65.0 ± 17.2 conventional units, P < .003) and did not affect skin pH, temperature, or elasticity. The significant improvement in hydration values was more pronounced in the puerperae presenting with basal hydration in the lower quartiles (mean ± standard deviation, from 41.6 ± 17.2 to 59.6 ± 21.2 conventional units, P < .001). Further studies are warranted to confirm the long-term beneficial effects of this preparation in a very sensitive patient population.

    Be well!

    JP

  8. JP Says:

    Updated 07/20/15:

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4465602/ (full text)

    Hepatobiliary Surg Nutr. 2015 Jun;4(3):161-71.

    Carotenoids and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a growing health problem around the world, especially in developed countries. NAFLD includes all cases of fatty liver disease from simple steatosis to cirrhosis, without excessive alcohol intake, use of steatogenic medication or hereditary disorders. Pathogenesis is associated with dietary high fat intake, decreased free fatty acid (FFA) oxidation, increased hepatic lipogenesis and lipolysis from the adipose tissue. These metabolic alterations contribute to the hepatic fat accumulation. Consequently, stimulated oxidative stress and inflammation play a major role in hepatocellular damage. Therefore, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agents may have a role in the prevention of this disease. Carotenoids are potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory micronutrients, which have been investigated in the prevention and treatment of NAFLD. The main sources of the carotenoids are fruits and vegetables. In this article we review the potential role and possible molecular mechanism of carotenoids in NAFLD.

    Be well!

    JP

  9. JP Says:

    Updated 1/12/16:

    http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00330-015-4164-7

    Eur Radiol. 2016 Jan 8.

    The effectiveness of acupuncture as a treatment for tinnitus: a randomized controlled trial using 99mTc-ECD SPECT.

    OBJECTIVE: Investigate the effect of acupuncture on brain perfusion using ethyl cysteinate dimer single-photon emission computed tomography (99mTc-ECD SPECT) in patients with tinnitus.

    METHODS: This randomized, single-blind, sham-control study examined patients (18-60 years old) with normal hearing and chronic, idiopathic, continuous tinnitus. Fifty-seven subjects were randomly assigned to true (n = 30) or sham (n = 27) acupuncture (ACP); 99mTc-ECD SPECT examinations were performed before and after 12 twice-weekly ACP sessions. Secondary outcomes included changes in the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI), Visual Analog Scale (VAS), Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAS) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Imaging data were analysed using Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM8) software. Regression models were used to examine secondary outcomes via two paradigms: intention-to-treat (ITT; where multiple imputations were conducted because of study attrition) and complete cases.

    RESULTS: No between-group brain perfusion differences were observed. However, a significant improvement in THI scores was observed at the end of true ACP treatment for all domains (all p values < 0.01) except the catastrophic scale.

    CONCLUSIONS: ACP might reduce the effects of tinnitus on daily life; however, additional studies should be conducted to verify the effects of ACP on the neural architecture and brain function of tinnitus patients.

    KEY POINTS: • Efficacy of acupuncture on brain perfusion and symptoms of tinnitus patients. • Acupuncture improved the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory scores in tinnitus patients. • No significant changes in brain perfusion were observed after 12 twice-weekly sessions. • Perfusion changes would reflect changes in neuronal function.

    Be well!

    JP

  10. JP Says:

    Updated 03/18/16:

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26983396?dopt=Abstract

    Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2016 Mar 17:1-9.

    Flaxseed supplementation in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a pilot randomized, open labeled, controlled study.

    A two-arm randomized open labeled controlled clinical trial was conducted on 50 patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Participants were assigned to take either a lifestyle modification (LM), or LM +30 g/day brown milled flaxseed for 12 weeks. At the end of the study, body weight, liver enzymes, insulin resistance and hepatic fibrosis and steatosis decreased significantly in both groups (p< 0.05); however, this reduction was significantly greater in those who took flaxseed supplementation (p < 0.05). The significant mean differences were reached in hepatic markers between flaxseed and control group, respectively: ALT [-11.12 compared with -3.7 U/L; P< 0.001], AST [-8.29 compared with -4 U/L; p < 0.001], GGT [-15.7 compared with -2.62 U/L; p < 0.001], fibrosis score [-1.26 compared with -0.77 kPa; p = 0.013] and steatosis score [-47 compared with -15.45 dB/m; p = 0.022]. In conclusion, flaxseed supplementation plus lifestyle modification is more effective than lifestyle modification alone for NAFLD management.

    Be well!

    JP

  11. JP Says:

    Updated 06/02/16:

    http://www.nature.com/ejcn/journal/vaop/ncurrent/abs/ejcn201686a.html

    European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication 1 June 2016

    Efficacy of a galactogogue containing silymarin-phosphatidylserine and galega in mothers of preterm infants: a randomized controlled trial

    Background/Objectives: Human milk (HM) is the best possible food for all infants, especially for preterm ones, but lactation and breastfeeding are very difficult for mothers of preterm babies and high rates of breastfeeding difficulties have been reported. Our aim was to investigate the efficacy of a galactogogue containing silymarin-phosphatidylserine and galega in increasing milk production during the first month after delivery in a population of mothers of preterm infants.

    Subjects/Methods: Mothers of infants with gestational age (GA) between 27+0 and 32+6 weeks were enrolled in this prospective, double-blind, randomized trial and were randomly allocated to receive either the galactogogue containing silymarin-phosphatidylserine and galega, 5 g/day (galactogogue group, GG), or a placebo, 5 g of lactose per day (placebo group, PG) from the 3rd to the 28th day after delivery.

    Results: Fifty mothers were included in each group. General characteristics of mothers and pregnancies were similar. Milk production was significantly greater in the GG at the 7th day of life and at the 30th day of life. Daily milk production from the 7th to the 30th day of life was 200 (110–380) ml in the GG vs 115 (60–245) ml in the PG (P<0.0001). The total production of milk during the study period was significantly higher in the GG (6523±5298 ml vs 4136±4093 ml; P<0.02). At the end of the study, 45 mothers of the GG were able to reach the target of milk supply of 200 ml/day compared with 25 mothers of the PG (P<0.01). No adverse reactions were noticed in the study groups.

    Conclusions: Silymarin-phosphatidylserine and galega increased milk production in mothers of preterm infants without any significant side effects.

    Be well!

    JP

  12. JP Says:

    Updated 06/15/16:

    http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.3109/09637486.2016.1161011?journalCode=iijf20

    Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2016 Jun;67(4):461-9.

    Flaxseed supplementation in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a pilot randomized, open labeled, controlled study.

    A two-arm randomized open labeled controlled clinical trial was conducted on 50 patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Participants were assigned to take either a lifestyle modification (LM), or LM +30 g/day brown milled flaxseed for 12 weeks. At the end of the study, body weight, liver enzymes, insulin resistance and hepatic fibrosis and steatosis decreased significantly in both groups (p< 0.05); however, this reduction was significantly greater in those who took flaxseed supplementation (p < 0.05). The significant mean differences were reached in hepatic markers between flaxseed and control group, respectively: ALT [-11.12 compared with -3.7 U/L; P< 0.001], AST [-8.29 compared with -4 U/L; p < 0.001], GGT [-15.7 compared with -2.62 U/L; p < 0.001], fibrosis score [-1.26 compared with -0.77 kPa; p = 0.013] and steatosis score [-47 compared with -15.45 dB/m; p = 0.022]. In conclusion, flaxseed supplementation plus lifestyle modification is more effective than lifestyle modification alone for NAFLD management.

    Be well!

    JP

  13. JP Says:

    Updated 08/21/16:

    http://online.liebertpub.com/doi/abs/10.1089/bfm.2016.0073?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori%3Arid%3Acrossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub%3Dpubmed

    Breastfeed Med. 2016 Aug 9.

    The Effect of Ginger on Breast Milk Volume in the Early Postpartum Period: A Randomized, Double-Blind Controlled Trial.

    BACKGROUND: In Thailand, ginger is a popular natural galactagogue among breastfeeding women. However, there has never been evidence to support the effectiveness of ginger in increasing the breast milk volume.

    OBJECTIVES: To compare breast milk volume on the third and seventh day postpartum between lactating mothers who receive 500 mg dried ginger capsules twice daily with those receiving placebo.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A randomized, double-blind controlled trial was conducted. Women who deliver a term baby were randomly assigned to receive dried ginger or placebo for 7 days postpartum. Breast milk volume was measured on third day postpartum using test weight method for a period of 24 hours and on seventh day postpartum using 1 hour milk production. We also compared the third day serum prolactin level between the two groups.

    RESULTS: Data from 63 women were available for analysis, 30 from the ginger group and 33 from the placebo group. The two groups were similar regarding baseline characteristics. Women in the ginger group have higher milk volume than the placebo group (191.0 ± 71.2 mL/day versus 135.0 ± 61.5 mL/day, p < 0.01). However, the seventh day milk volume in the ginger group does not differ from the placebo group (80.0 ± 58.5 mL versus 112.1 ± 91.6 mL, p = 0.24). The mean serum prolactin levels were similar in both groups (321.5 ± 131.8 ng/L in the ginger group, and 331.4 ± 100.7 ng/L in the placebo group, p = 0.74). No side effect was reported in this study.

    CONCLUSION: Ginger is a promising natural galactagogue to improve breast milk volume in the immediate postpartum period without any notable side effect.

    Be well!

    JP

  14. JP Says:

    Updated 03/31/17:

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28357966

    J Laryngol Otol. 2017 Mar 30:1-7.

    A randomised controlled study of mindfulness meditation versus relaxation therapy in the management of tinnitus.

    OBJECTIVE: Psychotherapeutic interventions have been adopted effectively in the management of tinnitus for a long time. This study compared mindfulness meditation and relaxation therapy for management of tinnitus.

    METHODS: In this randomised controlled trial, patients were recruited for five sessions of mindfulness meditation or five sessions of relaxation therapy. Patients’ responses were evaluated using the Tinnitus Reaction Questionnaire as a primary outcome measure, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, visual analogue scale and a health status indicator as secondary outcome measures.

    RESULTS: A total of 86 patients were recruited. Thirty-four patients completed mindfulness meditation and 27 patients completed relaxation therapy. Statistically significant improvement was seen in all outcome measures except the health status indicator in both treatment groups. The change in treatment scores was greater in the mindfulness meditation group than in the relaxation therapy group.

    CONCLUSION: This study suggests that although both mindfulness meditation and relaxation therapy are effective in the management of tinnitus, mindfulness meditation is superior to relaxation therapy.

    Be well!

    JP

  15. JP Says:

    Updated 06/26/17:

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28647291

    Clin Nutr. 2017 Jun 1.

    Genistein supplementation improves insulin resistance and inflammatory state in non-alcoholic fatty liver patients: A randomized, controlled trial.

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: The beneficial effect of genistein has indicated on metabolic disorders and inflammatory state. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of genistein supplementation on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) as the hepatic manifest of metabolic syndrome.

    METHODS: In the present randomized double-blind controlled trial, patients with NAFLD were daily supplemented with either 250 mg genistein (n = 41) or placebo (n = 41) for 8-weeks. Both groups were instructed to follow an energy-balanced diet and physical activity recommendations. And their anthropometric and biochemical indices were assessed before and after the intervention.

    RESULTS: At the end of the study, the genistein group had lower level of serum insulin (p = 0.001) and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (p = 0.041) compare to the placebo group. In addition serum malondialdehyde (MDA) (p = 0.004), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) (p = 0.045) and interleukin (IL)-6 (p = 0.018) also were lower in the genistein group. Compare with placebo, genistein supplementation significantly reduced waist to hip ratio (p = 0.021), body fat percentage (p = 0.015) and triglyceride (p = 0.018). However, there were no significant changes in BMI, fasting blood glucose (p = 0.122), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (p = 0.536), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (p = 0.265) between the two groups.

    CONCLUSIONS: Oral supplementation with 250 mg genistein for 8-weeks can reduce insulin resistance, oxidative and inflammatory indices along with improvement in fat metabolism in patients with NAFLD. Studies with longer duration and larger samples might be needed to reveal other beneficial effects of genistein.

    Be well!

    JP

  16. JP Says:

    Updated 11/20/17:

    http://online.liebertpub.com/doi/abs/10.1089/bfm.2017.0169?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori%3Arid%3Acrossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub%3Dpubmed

    Breastfeed Med. 2017 Nov 17.

    The Effect of a Silymarin-Phosphatidylserine and Galega Galactagogue on Mothers of Preterm Infants Milk Production.

    AIMS: To investigate the efficacy of a galactagogue, containing Sylimarin-phosphatidylserine (SILITIDIL) and galega consumed in the first month after delivery by mothers of preterm infants, in maintaining milk production during the first 3-6 months after delivery.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mothers of infants born at gestational age (GA) between 27 and 32 weeks, enrolled in our previous prospective, double-blind, randomized trial and randomly allocated to receive either the galactagogue (GG) or a placebo (PG), were asked about their milk production at 3 and 6 months after delivery.

    RESULTS: Of the 100 mothers involved in this study, 45 of GG and 44 of PG responded comprehensively to the questions asked. At the third month after delivery, exclusive human milk administration was reported by 22 mothers of GG and 12 mothers of PG (p <  0.05), whereas 29 mothers of GG and 18 mothers of PG were able to administer >50% of the amount of milk assumed. At the sixth month of life, only eight infants received exclusive human milk (six and two of GG and PG, respectively), and the data are not sufficient for a meaningful clinical evaluation.

    CONCLUSIONS: It is assumed that a galactagogue during the first month after delivery improves human milk administration to preterm neonates after discharge and for the first 3 months of life.

    Be well!

    JP

  17. JP Says:

    Updated 06/02/18:

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29855986

    Int J Clin Pharm. 2018 Jun 1.

    Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761® versus pentoxifylline in chronic tinnitus: a randomized, double-blind clinical trial.

    Background: Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761® and pentoxifylline are frequently prescribed for the treatment of tinnitus.

    Objective: To compare the treatment effects of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761R and pentoxifylline. Setting The study was performed at Department of Otorhinolaryngology of University Hospital Královské Vinohrady and 3rd Medical Faculty, Charles University in Prague.

    Method: Patients with sub-chronic or chronic tinnitus were enrolled in double-blind trial and randomized to receive 120 mg EGb 761® or 600 mg pentoxifylline, each twice a day and in double-dummy fashion over a 12-week period. Main outcome measure changes in 11-Point Box Scales for tinnitus loudness and annoyance, the abridged Tinnitus Questionnaire (Mini-TQ), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS).

    Results: Full analysis set for efficacy analysis comprised 197 patients (EGb 761®, 99; pentoxifylline 98). For both treatment groups, significant improvements were observed in the Mini-TQ, the 11-Point Box Scales for tinnitus loudness and annoyance, the HADS anxiety score and the SDS. There was no relevant difference with regard to tinnitus-related outcomes between the two treatment groups. 20 adverse events were documented in EGb 761® group and 36 adverse events were reported for pentoxifylline group. No serious adverse event was reported during the study.

    Conclusion: EGb 761® and pentoxifylline were similarly effective in reducing the loudness and annoyance of tinnitus as well as overall suffering of the patients. The incidence of adverse events was lower in the EGb 761® group.

    Be well!

    JP

  18. JP Says:

    Updated 08/28/18:

    http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0890334418787474?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub%3dpubmed

    J Hum Lact. 2018 Jul 1:890334418787474.

    The Safety of Mother’s Milk® Tea: Results of a Randomized Double-Blind, Controlled Study in Fully Breastfeeding Mothers and Their Infants.

    BACKGROUND: Various natural products are reported to improve maternal milk supply yet are not necessarily safe for infants. Researchers have not systematically studied galactagogue teas for safety. Research Aim: This study evaluates the safety of a galactagogue tea in breastfeeding women and their infants, assessing short- and long-term adverse effects.

    METHODS: Healthy, exclusively/fully breastfeeding women ( N = 60) with no milk insufficiency were randomized into (1) an all-natural tea containing fruits of bitter fennel, anise, and coriander; fenugreek seed; and other herbs (Mother’s Milk® herbal tea; test) group or (2) a lemon verbena leaf (placebo) group. Maternal diaries captured self-reported maternal and infant adverse effects, tea consumed, and perceived infant satisfaction. Maternal quality of life and psychological state were assessed at baseline and 2 and 4 weeks. Poststudy calls assessed adverse effects through the infants’ age of 12 months.

    RESULTS: No adverse effects attributable to the interventions were reported at any time point. No differences were found between test and placebo groups in sociodemographic characteristics, maternal or infant adverse symptoms, quality of life, breastfeeding self-efficacy, maternal psychological measures, infant growth, and infant satisfaction (all p > 0.05).

    CONCLUSIONS: This double-blind, randomized controlled trial (RCT) of an herbal galactagogue versus placebo among healthy, exclusively/fully breastfeeding mothers and infants found no adverse events associated with the test tea across the 30-day study or the first year of their infant’s life. This composite tea appears to present no safety risk for mothers or their young babies.

    Be well!

    JP

  19. JP Says:

    Updated 01/30/19:

    https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/lary.27841

    Laryngoscope. 2019 Jan 28.

    Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing as a treatment for tinnitus.

    OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To determine the effectiveness of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) as a treatment for tinnitus.

    STUDY DESIGN: Single-site prospective interventional clinical trial at a university hospital in the United Kingdom.

    METHODS: Participants were provided with tEMDR. This is a bespoke EMDR protocol that was developed specifically to treat individuals with tinnitus. Participants received a maximum of 10 sessions of tEMDR. Outcome measures including tinnitus questionnaires and mood questionnaires were recorded at baseline, discharge, and at 6 months postdischarge.

    RESULTS: Tinnitus Handicap Inventory and Beck Depression Inventory scores demonstrated a statistically significant improvement at discharge after EMDR intervention (P = .0005 and P = .0098, respectively); this improvement was maintained at 6 months postdischarge. There was also a moderate but not significant (P = .0625) improvement in Beck Anxiety Inventory scores.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study has demonstrated that the provision of tEMDR has resulted in a clinically and statistically significant improvement in tinnitus symptoms in the majority of those participants who took part. Furthermore, the treatment effect was maintained at 6 months after treatment ceased. This study is of particular interest, as the study protocol was designed to be purposefully inclusive of a diverse range of tinnitus patients. However, as a small uncontrolled study, these results do not consider the significant effects of placebo and therapist interaction. Larger high-quality studies are essential for the verification of these preliminary results.

    Be well!

    JP

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