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Best Of Artic Root Energy

February 24, 2011 Written by JP       [Font too small?]

The world is currently suffering from an energy crisis. I’m not talking about the lack of oil reserves or alternative energy sources, but rather the number of coffee shops that have sprouted up everywhere. Don’t get me wrong, I have nothing against a good cup of coffee. In fact, drinking coffee is often a healthful practice. But utilizing a natural stimulant, such as caffeine, isn’t always appropriate or advisable. So what can you do if you frequently find yourself feeling “wiped out”? One option is to consider using an adaptogen.

The term “adaptogen” generally refers to a plant-based remedy with long historical use that can help manage the physical and psychological stressors of life. As a rule, these tonics should be relatively non-toxic and help optimize body function without causing any sort of imbalance. Ginseng is perhaps the most popular supplement in this exclusive club. Ashwagandha, holy basil, licorice and schisandra are several other medicinal plants that are used alone or in combination to help the body and mind adapt.

Rhodiola is yet another member of this class of natural remedies. This particular “arctic root” has developed a rather impressive scientific resume over the last 10 years. One of the more fascinating studies was published in June 2009. It evaluated the effects of combining Rhodiola and Ginkgo biloba, an extract from the leaves of the ginkgo tree, typically used to support healthy brain function and circulation. The details of the study are as follows:

  • 70 healthy male athletes (18-22 years old) received the Ginkgo/Rhodiola blend or a placebo for 7 weeks.
  • Physical endurance, maximal oxygen uptake and blood levels of cortisol (a stress hormone) and testosterone were measured before and after the trial.

The men receiving the herbal blend showed an increase in oxygen uptake and a decrease in fatigue. This supplement partly reduced fatigue by: a) blunting an expected elevation in cortisol (the stress hormone); b) preserving a stable concentration of testosterone, which dropped in the placebo group. The maintenance of this cortisol/testosterone ratio is often used to identify fatigue and overtraining in endurance athletes. (1)

A study from 2004 suggests that using Rhodiola alone can also be effective in combating physical fatigue in “healthy young volunteers”. In that research, a single dose of R. rosea (200 mg) “increased time to exhaustion” and oxygen uptake. The particular extract used in this trial was standardized for 3% rosavin and 1% salidroside. These are believed to be the primary active ingredients in this adaptogen. (2)

Improving physical performance and promoting resistance to exercise burnout is certainly desirable. But the combination of supporting the mind as well as the body is what sets Rhodiola rosea apart. Several recent experiments suggest that this “golden root” possesses potent physiological and psychological activity.

  • A 12 week study was conducted on a group of 120 senior men and women using a Rhodiola supplement with added minerals and vitamins. Half the group took 2 capsules with breakfast. The remaining participants swallowed a capsule after breakfast and another after lunch. Various quality of life measures (daytime sleepiness, decreased libido, irritability, memory complaints, poor concentration and sleep disturbances) were examined prior to, during and after the experiment. It was determined that both sets of volunteers benefited from supplementation. But those receiving 2 capsules in the morning found greater effects with regard to cognitive and physical performance. In total, 81% of the attending physicians rated patient response as “good” or “very good”, and 99% of the patients and physicians reported an excellent safety and tolerance profile. (3)
  • A Swedish trial from 2009 examined the effects of a patented Rhodiola extract (SHR-5) on 60 patients with “stress related fatigue“. The dosage used was 4 tablets of the herbal extract, providing 576 milligrams, or an equal quantity of an inactive placebo. The authors of the trial concluded that, “repeated administration of R. rosea extract SHR-5 exerts an anti-fatigue effect that increases mental performance, particularly the ability to concentrate, and decreases cortisol response”. Previous experiments, dating back up to 10 years, tend to support these findings. (4,5,6)
  • The March 2008 edition of the Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine examined yet another application for this adaptogen. The experiment was based out the University of California Los Angeles Department of Psychiatry and involved 10 patients who were diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). All of the participants took 340 mg of an R. rosea extract over a 10 week period. By the end of the study, a significant decline in anxious symptoms was noted. This was quantified by reviewing each patient’s score on an anxiety index called the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale. Only mild side effects were reported, such as minor dizziness and dry mouth. (7)
  • The SHR-5 extract was also recently tested on 89 patients with depression. In this trial, the participants were administered either 340 mg or 680 mg of an R. rosea extract or similar looking placebo tablets. Depressive symptoms were analyzed at the start and end of the 6 week study. The Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression was employed to establish the level of depressive symptoms. The researchers involved reported that both groups receiving Rhodiola demonstrated improvements in emotional stability, overall depression and sleep quality. (8)
Source: eCAM 2007 4(3):375-380 (link)

There are several proposed mechanisms by which R. rosea appears to work. Laboratory research in an animal model indicates that it may actually increase the number of neurons (nerve cells) in the hippocampus and prevent injury to existing neurons in that region of the brain. The hippocampus plays an important role in regulating memory and mood. Certain antidepressants (SSRIs – Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors) are known to function in a similar manner. On the physical front, preliminary research suggests that R. rosea can: a) increase antioxidant concentrations in the human body; b) discourage systemic inflammation (C-reactive protein levels); and c) elevate glycogen levels (a form of stored energy that’s held in the liver and muscles). Taken as a whole, this combined evidence paints a picture of a tonic that protects and restores sensitive areas of the body and brain that may be vulnerable to the effects of stressors. (9,10,11,12)

There are many aspects of modern living that deplete our natural energy reserves. Chief among them are chronic physical/psychological stress and a poor diet. There are also certain health conditions that can play a part in a generalized feeling of physical grogginess and mental malaise. It’s very important to rule out such conditions as anemia, insomnia, nutritional deficiencies and thyroid disorders as a first step in addressing general fatigue. However, if you’re basically in good health but you still feel chronically wiped out, you may want to consider experimenting with a well researched adaptogen such as Rhodiola rosea. (13,14,15,16)

Update: February 2011 - A systematic review in this month’s issue of the journal Phytomedicine summarizes the current state of knowledge about arctic root (Rhodiola rosea) thusly: “R. rosea may have beneficial effects on physical performance, mental performance, and certain mental health conditions”. This conclusion was based on an evaluation of 11 placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials with publication dates spanning between 1950 to 2009. However, several newer studies weren’t in print at the time of summary. Here’s an overview of what the current batch of Rhodiola research reveals: a) Salidroside, a component of R. rosea,  may reduce binge eating behavior by modulating stress response; b) a combination of R. rosea, Schisandra chinensis and Eleutherococcus senticosus (ADAPT-232) improved cognitive performance (accuracy, attention and speed) in a group of 40 women taking part in a set of “stressful cognitive tasks”; c) new animal and human studies report that supplementing with arctic root improves physical performance and reduces “lactate levels and parameters of skeletal muscle damage after an exhaustive exercise session”; d) two recent experiments in animal models report that R. rosea extracts may be useful in the battle against addiction to morphine and nicotine. In the original review I cited, the authors call for more well-designed studies to confirm previous findings. It appears that some scientists are indeed forging forward and putting this adaptogen to the test with positive results. (17,18,19,20,21,22,23)

Note: Please check out the “Comments & Updates” section of this blog – at the bottom of the page. You can find the latest research about this topic there!

Be well!

JP

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6 Comments & Updates to “Best Of Artic Root Energy”

  1. Paul Fanton Says:

    Hi JP,

    You seem to time your writtings addressing the current needs of many of my cohorts! I will be 77 in a few days. I feel I could function better both in my muscle training and calm and cognition.

    I got some Rhodiola force 100mg from New Chapter and Gingko Bilova 60 mg capsules and I started yesterday to give them, one each a try with the morning and evening meals. I weigh about 150 lbs,and consider myself well nourished, supplemented and exercised male.
    I fight typical BPH, mild hypertension and Barret esophagus issues.

    Maybe the placebo sffect is kicking in, but I seem to feel an immediate lift, more calm and focused in my tasks!

    Do you think the dosages and choices mentioned above are a good start?

    Any idea on potential side effercts to watch for?

    I am very very grateful for the tremendous research work you are doing. It helps to keep us patients well informed about the most current reliable research, to be our best advocates of our health and so, helping our overworked doctors well informed too!

    God bless you with the recogniton that you deserve!

    Regards,

    Paul

  2. JP Says:

    Paul,

    Thank you for your kind words and support. I appreciate them very much.

    The dosage you’ve selected seems reasonable to me. As far as side effects are concerned, both herbal remedies are generally considered to be quite safe. Ginkgo has a longer list of known or suspected interactions:

    http://bit.ly/fL5RJ5

    Most important of all is to let your doctors know what you’re taking – even if they’re not supportive of supplements. Such knowledge is vital to know in the hope of preventing drug-supplement interactions and surgical risk.

    Be well!

    JP

  3. JP Says:

    Updated 08/19/15:

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26284250

    Front Nutr. 2015 Jul 31;2:24.

    Rhodiola rosea Exerts Antiviral Activity in Athletes Following a Competitive Marathon Race.

    Rhodiola rosea, a medicinal plant with demonstrated adaptogenic properties, has recently been reported to contain active compounds with antimicrobial activity. The goal of this study was to measure the antiviral and antibacterial properties of the bioactive metabolites of Rhodiola rosea in the serum of experienced marathon runners following supplementation. Marathon runners, randomly divided into two groups, ingested 600 mg/day of Rhodiola rosea (n = 24, 6 female, 18 male) or placebo (n = 24, 7 females, 17 males) for 30 days prior to, the day of, and 7 days post-marathon. Blood serum samples were collected the day before, 15 min post-, and 1.5 h post-marathon. Serum from Rhodiola rosea-supplemented runners collected after marathon running did not attenuate the marathon-induced susceptibility of HeLa cells to killing by vesicular stomatitis virus. However, the use of Rhodiola rosea induced antiviral activity at early times post-infection by delaying an exercise-dependent increase in virus replication (P = 0.013 compared to placebo). Serum from both groups collected 15 min post-marathon significantly promoted the growth of Escherichia coli in culture as compared to serum collected the day before the marathon (P = 0.003, all subjects). Furthermore, the serum from subjects ingesting Rhodiola rosea did not display antibacterial properties at any time point as indicated by a lack of group differences immediately (P = 0.785) or 1.5 h (P = 0.633) post-marathon. These results indicate that bioactive compounds in the serum of subjects ingesting Rhodiola rosea may exert protective effects against virus replication following intense and prolonged exercise by inducing antiviral activity.

    Be well!

    JP

  4. JP Says:

    Updated 11/29/15:

    http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00228-015-1988-7

    Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2015 Nov 28.

    Effect of commercial Rhodiola rosea on CYP enzyme activity in humans.

    PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the herbal drug Rhodiola rosea on the activity of the cytochrome P-450 (CYP) enzymes CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4 in humans.

    METHODS: In a randomized cross-over study, 13 healthy volunteers were given a cocktail with single doses of the CYP substrates caffeine (CYP1A2), losartan (CYP2C9), omeprazole (CYP2C19), dextromethorphan (CYP2D6), and midazolam (CYP3A4) with and without 14 days of pretreatment with a commercially available R. rosea product (Arctic Root, produced by the Swedish Herbal Institute). Four hours after intake of the drug cocktail, a blood sample was obtained, the serum concentrations of the drugs and their metabolites were analyzed, and the metabolic ratios were calculated as a measure of CYP enzyme activity.

    RESULTS: A statistically significant 21 % decrease in the EXP-3174/losartan ratio was found after pretreatment with R. rosea (p = 0.023), indicating a reduced CYP2C9 metabolic activity. The effect was more pronounced in CYP2C9 extensive metabolizers than in CYP2C9 intermediate and poor metabolizers. For the other CYP enzymes tested, no significant effects were observed.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that R. rosea inhibits the metabolic capacity of CYP2C9 in humans. Although the effect is modest, it might be clinically relevant during treatment with CYP2C9 substrates with a narrow therapeutic index, such as phenytoin and warfarin.

    Be well!

    JP

  5. JP Says:

    Updated 03/31/16:

    http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0944711316000519

    Phytomedicine. 2016 Feb 24.

    Rhodiola rosea L. as a putative botanical antidepressant.

    Rhodiola rosea (R. rosea) is a botanical adaptogen with putative anti-stress and antidepressant properties. Evidence-based data supporting the effectiveness of R. rosea for depression in adults is limited, and therefore a comprehensive review of available animal and human studies suggesting a putative antidepressant action is warranted.

    PURPOSE: A review of the literature was undertaken to ascertain studies of possible antidepressant mechanisms of action and studies of the safety and effectiveness of R. rosea extracts in animals and adult humans.

    METHODS: A search of MEDLINE and the Russian state library database was conducted (up to October 2015) on R. rosea.

    RESULTS: Mechanism of action: R. rosea extracts and its purified constituent, salidroside, has been shown to produce a variety of mediator interactions with several molecular networks of neuroendocrine-immune and neurotransmitter receptor systems likely to be involved in the pathophysiology of depression. A wide variety of preclinical in vivo and ex vivo studies with laboratory animals suggests the presence of several biochemical and pharmacological antidepressant-like actions.

    EFFECTIVENESS: Clinical assessment of R. rosea L. rhizome extracts in humans with various depressive syndromes is based upon results from two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of 146 subjects with major depressive disorder and seven open-label studies totaling 714 individuals with stress-induced mild depression (diagnosed as asthenic syndrome or psychoneurosis). Overall, results of these studies suggests a possible antidepressant action for R. rosea extract in adult humans.

    SAFETY: In contrast to most conventional antidepressants, R. rosea extract appears to be well-tolerated in short-term studies with a favorable safety profile.

    CONCLUSIONS: R. rosea demonstrates multi-target effects on various levels of the regulation of cell response to stress, affecting various components of the neuroendocrine, neurotransmitter receptor and molecular networks associated with possible beneficial effects on mood.

    Be well!

    JP

  6. JP Says:

    Updated 04/07/17:

    https://www.dovepress.com/multicenter-open-label-exploratory-clinical-trial-with-rhodiola-rosea–peer-reviewed-fulltext-article-NDT

    Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2017 Mar 22;13:889-898.

    Multicenter, open-label, exploratory clinical trial with Rhodiola rosea extract in patients suffering from burnout symptoms.

    PURPOSE: This study is the first clinical trial aiming to explore the clinical outcomes in burnout patients treated with Rhodiola rosea. The reported capacity of R. rosea to strengthen the organism against stress and its good tolerability offer a promising approach in the treatment of stress-related burnout. The aim of the treatment was to increase stress resistance, thus addressing the source rather than the symptoms of the syndrome and preventing subsequent diseases associated with a history of burnout. The objective of the trial was to provide the exploratory data required for planning future randomized trials in burnout patients in order to investigate the clinical outcomes of treatment with R. rosea dry extract in this target group.

    METHODS: The study was planned as an exploratory, open-label, multicenter, single-arm trial. A wide range of rating scales were assessed and evaluated in an exploratory data analysis to generate hypotheses regarding clinical courses and to provide a basis for the planning of subsequent studies. A total of 118 outpatients were enrolled. A daily dose of 400 mg R. rosea extract (WS® 1375, Rosalin) was administered over 12 weeks. Clinical outcomes were assessed by the German version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory, Burnout Screening Scales I and II, Sheehan Disability Scale, Perceived Stress Questionnaire, Number Connection Test, Multidimensional Mood State Questionnaire, Numerical Analogue Scales for different stress symptoms and impairment of sexual life, Patient Sexual Function Questionnaire, and the Clinical Global Impression Scales.

    RESULTS: The majority of the outcome measures showed clear improvement over time. Several parameters had already improved after 1 week of treatment and continued to improve further up to the end of the study. The incidence of adverse events was low with 0.015 events per observation day.

    DISCUSSION: The trial reported here was the first to investigate clinical outcomes in patients suffering from burnout symptoms when treated with R. rosea. During administration of the study drug over the course of 12 weeks, a wide range of outcome measures associated with the syndrome clearly improved.

    CONCLUSION: The results presented provide an encouraging basis for clinical trials further investigating the clinical outcomes of R. rosea extract in patients with the burnout syndrome.

    Be well!

    JP

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