Chia Seed Research

July 30, 2009 Written by JP    [Font too small?]

Salvia hispanica isn’t exactly a household name. But when it’s referred to as “chia seeds”, the recognition factor increases substantially. In prior decades, that coupling of words would bring to mind a novelty item that would grow into a Chia Pet. However these days, Salvia hispanica is more likely to be mentioned at your local health food store. It turns out that the seeds of chia are noteworthy for being more than just a gag gift.

This member of the mint family has been used as a vital form of sustenance in Central and South American cultures for several thousand years. But there has been worldwide resurgence in interest in these seeds which are rich in potent antioxidants, generous amounts of fiber and health promoting omega-3 fatty acids. (1)

You may have noticed a recent pattern in the natural health marketplace. Every so often, a relatively obscure and ancient food is hoisted into the media spotlight and presented as a miracle worker. This happens so often that many consumers tend to become jaded and skeptical about the acclaim assigned to this parade of “new” products. I can understand both the excitement and the reluctance to embrace these types of supplements. The key is to get beyond the initial gut reaction, look past the promotional literature and dig into the actual research that’s available. Or I could do that for you!

Investigating a nutritional supplement is much like the process employed by private detectives. You first have to find all the available evidence possible. But that’s the just the beginning because, in all likelihood, you’ll discover conflicting information and sources of data with varying degrees of reliability. The true merit of a food or supplement can only be determined if all the relevant factors are considered.

A study from June 2009 put the good reputation of the chia seed into question. 90 overweight men and women took part in a 12 week study to determine if Salvia hispanica could help promote weight loss and improve cardiovascular health. Half of the group received a 25 gram serving of chia seeds before breakfast and dinner. The remaining participants consumed a placebo in the same fashion. Body composition/weight, blood pressure and a variety of blood tests focusing on inflammation and lipoproteins (cholesterol and triglycerides) were conducted prior to and post study. (2)

  • The serum levels of plant-based omega-3 fats (alpha linolenic acid) increased by 24% in the chia seed group. This is considered a positive finding and indicates some degree of absorption of the healthy fats contained within the seeds.
  • The bad news is that no other measure of health was notably impacted by chia. Blood pressure, body fat/weight, inflammation levels and lipoproteins didn’t improve as expected.

This is disappointing because antioxidant-rich foods that are high in soluble fiber and omega-3 fats are generally believed to help reduce cardiovascular risk factors, inflammation and support weight loss. In addition, a few prior studies suggested that chia supplementation could reliably bring about such positive results. So what happened here? We might find a plausible reason for these current and unexpected findings by looking at the previous research.

A scientific trial completed in 2009 examined the effect of chia seeds on appetite and blood sugar levels. That research assessed the impact of adding various amounts of chia to refined (“white”) bread or rice milk. The amount of chia used per test serving ranged from 7 grams to 24 grams. The authors of this study found that the middle (15 grams) and highest dosages (24 grams) resulted in blood glucose reductions of between 33-44%. The “intermediate dose” of chia also prompted a 47% drop in hunger levels. (3,4)

This was a shorter term study, involving only 10 test meals. No measures regarding weight loss or general health status were taken into account. But there was a similar, longer-term experiment published in November 2007 in the journal Diabetes Care. That trial lasted 12 weeks and examined the role that chia could have in a group of twenty type-2 diabetics. Wheat bran was also employed in that study as a means of comparison. On average, the typical daily intake of chia was 37 grams. During the course of the experiment, all of the participants continued to take their prescribed medications and followed a diet recommended by the Canadian Diabetes Association. (5,6)

  • While undergoing the chia diet there was a significant reduction in C-reactive protein (an inflammatory marker), improvements in blood sugar control (A1C) and circulatory factors (fibrinogen) and a drop in systolic blood pressure.
  • No negative changes were noted in kidney or liver function and no weight loss was documented.

This is obviously a very encouraging study. But I noticed something interesting in the details of the prior two (successful) trials. The first is that they both used a particular brand of chia seed (Salba). Also, the two positive human studies were conducted by the same lead researcher (Dr. Vladimir Vuksan) at the same research facility (St. Michael’s Hospital in Toronto). The relevance of these two factors is uncertain. Does this mean that this particular product is somehow superior, as the manufacturer claims? It’s difficult to say at this point. But there is some evidence to suggest that different growth environments can influence the composition of chia seeds. (7,8)

Postmeal Blood Sugar Changes Based on Chia Seed Dosage (link)

Something else to consider is that chia may preferentially benefit those eating high calorie/carbohydrate diets. A study from January of this year found that adding chia seeds to the feed of rats given a “sucrose-rich diet” prevented many of the harmful cardiovascular effects and the expected rise in insulin levels due to insulin resistance. A reduction in visceral fat deposits was also detected in the chia fed rats. This is certainly promising, but at this point, I must conclude that more research is required to clarify the blood sugar and heart health related consequences of chia supplementation in humans. (9)

My sincere hope is that we’ll all benefit from more reliable and thorough scientific inquiries into these ancient seeds. It could be that Salvia hispanica will one day turn out to be a therapeutic tool in the fight against breast cancer. (10) Or perhaps eating chia isn’t the best way to derive its benefits. Poultry scientists are currently examining the possibility of using chia seeds as chicken feed, in order to produce chickens and eggs that are lower in cholesterol and higher in omega-3s. Will chia seeds be just another health food novelty or a gift from prior civilizations that improves the health of future generations? Only time will tell. (11,12)

Note: Please check out the “Comments & Updates” section of this blog – at the bottom of the page. You can find the latest research about this topic there!

Be well!


Tags: , ,
Posted in Food and Drink, Heart Health, Nutritional Supplements

56 Comments & Updates to “Chia Seed Research”

  1. Jason Says:

    I Love CHIA!
    Chia is a part of my breakfast and meals throughout the day. It’s great to see research helping spread the word.

  2. John G K Says:

    Fiber may be the key. Taken before meals , fiber products can slow the absorption of carbohydrates. Chia is high in fiber, ergo blood sugar levels will not increase too rapidly.

  3. JP Says:

    Good day, John.

    I think it’s likely a combination of both fiber and fat – much like what is found in flax seeds. The real question in my mind is why the results are inconsistent. Hopefully future studies will help to solve that mystery.

    Be well!


  4. Possom Says:

    All I can say is this: For the past several years, off and on, I have eaten chia seeds and given them to my old dog. When we eat them, no question about it, we are able to move around easier, have more energy, less stiffness, less depression. We are both younger behaving and happier feeling on the chia. When we slack off, like when I run out of chia or when we go on vacation or when I’m lazy, then here come the stiffness and lack of energy and then depression. There is no question in my mind about what I have said here, none whatsoever.

  5. JP Says:

    Thanks for sharing your experience with us, Posssom! I’m very happy to know of your success. 🙂

    I’ll continue looking for new chia research in the scientific literature and report back as I encounter it. I’ll hope to find additional positive studies.

    Be well!


  6. DB Says:

    I began using Chia seeds in Oct. of 09. Having had acid reflux for years, I had been searching for something to replace Prevacid. One day, I was searching the web and stumbled upon a link to Chia seeds. I could not believe what I was reading. So, I ordered a bag, and within a week, I was Prevacid free. Like I said, I started taking Chia seeds around Oct. 09. I would take 1 tablespoon by mouth first thing in the morning (drinking lots and lots of water), then I would take another tablespoon 3 mores times that day. The Chia seeds not only stopped my acid reflux, they also curbed my appetite, and gave me energy. I DO NOT ADVISE ANYONE TO TAKE 1 tablespoon 4x day though. I began to feel dehydrated, my lips became dry and crusty. So, I immediately stopped the chia seeds. I didn’t take any for about 5 days. Then i started taking 1 teaspoon instead of 1 tablespoon. So far, everything is okay. I LOVE MY CHIA SEEDS!!!!

  7. JP Says:

    Thank you for telling us about this, DB! That’s fantastic news. 🙂

    I really feel as though medications such as Prevacid should only be used as a last resort. It’s great that you were able to find a natural and health promoting alternative. Good for you!

    A quick question: Are you using the whole chia seeds or ground chia seeds (chia meal)?

    Be well!


  8. DB Says:

    I use whole black with a mixture of white chia seeds. Just remember, if you take by raw by mouth (not in gel form or cooked), use caution. Drink lots and lots of water. The high level of soluble fiber in chia seeds will absorb moisture and form a gel (of up to 9 times their volume) if placed in water and remember the nutritional value to using Chia seeds.

    Cha-Cha-Cha Chia seeds!

  9. JP Says:

    Thank you, Debbie! I appreciate your advice! 🙂

    Be well!


  10. Kathy Says:

    I have taken chia gel/whole seeds for about 4 weeks. I have high blood pressure, and take a very small dose of 2 meds. They have not had a consistent impact on my levels.. nor has fish oil or hawthorne berry.

    But I take 6 T gel a day, and my pressure has lowered from 150+/87-90 to a consistent 124/78. I have lost weight, ( on a low fat hi fiber diet) but my BP didn’t move till I took consistent Chia. I don’t need to be sold, it works. Period.

  11. JP Says:

    I’m happy to know of your positive experience, Kathy. Continued success! 🙂

    Be well!


  12. Teresa Says:

    Kathy, thanks for sharing. Were you on chia seeds only 4 weeks before seeing your blood pressure lowered? How much and how do you consume your chia seeds?

  13. Marcela de Salmon Says:


  14. JP Says:


    You might consider drinking a slightly higher amount (25 grams) prior to breakfast and dinner. That was the protocol employed in the most recent study.

    As a frame of reference, 2 tablespoons of chia seeds = approximately 30 grams.

    Be well!


  15. Marcela de Salmon Says:

    Thank you JP, I didn’t want to take a higher amount without asking first but I will do it now.
    Do you think it is better to take the dry seeds or disolving them in water first?

  16. Karen D Says:

    Hi everyone, it’s good to hear your posts. I’ve been taking Chai seed now for about 5 weeks now (1 tablespoon with juice or water in the morning). Two things stand out to me so far, I have lost neally 4 kilo’s and the fog in my head which was their for most of the day has gone. Even when I’m tired, I can still focus, where as before that wasn’t happening everything was clouded and confused. My question is; is it better to spread your consumption out during the day or have it in one lot in the morning? Look forward to hearing what you think – cheers

  17. Mark Says:

    I want to add something about what I noticed when taking chia seeds. First of all, I take like 3 large tbs. I put the chia in a glass by itself, the I have another huge glass of water, I turn up the glass of seeds until they are all in my mouth, then I down a quart of water…….One major thing I noticed was that I started having great BM’s! I didn’t notice more energy but they definitely will keep you cleaned out. Normal healthy bm’s. I did this once per day. I think it helps with blood sugar as well.

  18. JP Says:

    Thank you for adding that, Mark! I’m a big proponent of using natural means to support regularity. Chia seeds are a good source of fiber. Add plenty of water to the mix and you’ve got an excellent regularity-enhancer. 🙂

    Be well!


  19. Edie Says:

    Hi everyone,

    I have just learned about the Chia Seeds and I’m really excited to get started taking them…I’d like to know if any one can tell me what Brands are better then others and also which type of Chia Seeds there are avaliable, and which of those are better as well….Any help and suggestions would be gratefully welcome… Chia to your health…God Bless all…Thank you…

  20. Debbie Says:

    Hi Edie, I have been using Chia seeds now for almost a year. I love them!! I purchase mine from Nutsonline. They have a great price and shipping is not too bad either. You will love them. I buy the black with white mixed. I take 1 to 2 tablespoon per day. You can buy as little as a 1 lb. bag. I guess depending on how much you will take, will determine how much you purchase. A newbie, might start off with a 1 lb. bag. Best of luck!

  21. Edie Says:

    Hi Debbie, Thank you so much for responding to my questions. It was very helpful. I’m really blown away by what I’m reading about Chia Seeds. They are really amazing. Just about all I have read is all positive. I can’t wait to start using them. I love that site: WOW…I have no doubt I’ll be using it for a number of things. Thank you very much. God Bless

    Chia Seeds to a better health! :o)

  22. Maureen Says:

    In addition to the Chia seeds, I have been drinking the therapeutic Mangosteen Juice for health purposes, and have found a much more all round improvement in my health, that has assisted me with arthritis, depression, diabetes 2 and I have far more energy. This has been so good that if my test results in Nov are consistent, I can discontiue my medication for Diabetes. The fruit is an asian fruit and peoples have used it for medicinal purposes since 600Ad, and it has 43 antioxidants. Plenty of research and testimonials on this fruit, and produced by a company called Xango…..good health to all.

  23. JP Says:

    Thank you for sharing your positive experience with us, Maureen. Much appreciated!

    Here’s hoping you continue to improve and that you can safely get off of your medication.

    Be well!


  24. Debbie Says:

    Hi Maureen, where do you purchase your Mangosteen juice? I am wanting to try it, I have been researching it, not sure where to buy on line? Thanks for any advice you can give me.


  25. Polly Murray Says:

    I’m off to the dried food store now!!

  26. Jean Turley Says:

    Hi There,
    I have had heard chia seed information on and off for the last couple of months and bought some last week.

    I mixed them in water last night and had only 2 sips ( I didn’t want to drink it then be awake and full of beans all night, I was tired and needed sleep 🙂

    In the mean time my husband checked them out on line and I am now very disappointed.
    I am a blood donor and usually have low(ish) blood pressure but this time it was abnormally low according to the staff at the blood bank and they refused to take my blood in case I fell off the perch 🙂 it was 87/56.
    No wonder I was feeling a bit tired.
    So is there a safe amount for me to take?
    I condsider myself to be healthy, I am a vegetarian, no longer visit doctors, I take no medication or supplements just fresh whole foods!

    I hope you can give me some good news.


  27. David Says:

    Dear JP,

    Thank you for your great blog. The short overview you provide about current resaerch is very helpful for people like me.

    Is there any new research/clinical trial since July of 2009 when you wrote this section?

    Many thanks,


  28. JP Says:


    Thank you for your kind words. They’re much appreciated.

    A few developments in the saga of chia seeds:

    1. A recent study found that (topical) chia seed oil may offer relief for dry, itchy skin:

    2. Another study found that the addition of chia seeds to white bread reduced post-meal blood sugar levels (postprandial glycemia) and appetite ratings.

    Be well!


  29. ela Says:

    its not necessary to feed chickens chia seeds to lower the colestral levels ,if chickens are free range amd can eat grasses their eggs have more omega 3s.Its poor old battery farm chickens that eggs are high in colestral.

  30. Diane Says:

    JP — what do you know about chia seeds/chia gel interfering with medication? I want to use chia gel, but right now I am on a couple of medications (which I hope to be off of soon) and I am concerned that the “cleansing” properties of the chia gel could cleanse the medicine right out of my system before being absorbed. I notice that some people commenting above were on various meds when also using chia seed. I talked to a naturopathic physician who said that no one knows and he recommended that I not take the meds and chia gel together, which I don’t. But is it like taking metamucil — you have to wait 2 hours before or after to take your meds? this would make using chia gel very difficult for me. any comments would be helpful!

  31. JP Says:


    Since the available data is limited, I would err on the side of caution.

    If you’re determined to start using chia seeds while on your meds then you should probably stick to your doctors recommendation.

    Please keep in mind that some medications may be more sensitive to the effects of fiber than others. Looking over the prescribing information for each drug may be useful in this respect.

    I’m sorry that I can’t offer you a definitive answer.

    Be well!


  32. Diane Says:

    thank you so much!! that is just what a needed — a guide to medications and chia seeds! you are the best!

  33. Diane Says:

    I just looked back at the article and it deals with fiber and medications — not sure if that is exactly the same thing. For example, would a high fiber cereal interfere with medications? would a flax meal muffin be a problem? or is chia gel just so high in fiber that it should be treated with the same precautions as specific fiber supplements — like psyllium?

    I appreciate your opinion.

  34. JP Says:


    Both chia and psyllium contain large quantities of soluble fiber.

    re: fiber in cereal, muffins, etc.

    I’m not sure what the fiber cut off should be. 10 grams? 20 grams? I can sometimes reach over 20 grams of fiber in one meal. Would I take a supplement with such a meal? Probably … if I needed to. But I don’t think I’d risk taking a medication with it.

    What worries me is how you’ll know (or not) if the medication absorption is being affected in an adverse manner. If you were taking an aspirin for a headache you’d know. But many other medications aren’t so obvious.

    Unless the drug information specifically states to avoid fiber when taking it/them, I wouldn’t be too concerned about eating a healthy meal which contains naturally occurring fiber. But I think it would be safest not to include additional fiber to meals or snacks with which you plan to take medications.

    Just my two cents. 🙂

    Be well!


  35. s james Says:


    I too (like JT) am wondering about chia and blood pressure. I can get low blood pressure at times and reading some info online im not sure now about chia for me. (It was the study in a Canadian hospital for elderly people who had diabetes type 2 that i refer to here). I am a young woman so not sure if i need to be cautious. Most of the stuff i have read says to consult the doctor but its been my experience that doctors dont know much about herbs!

    Can you help with any info??



  36. s james Says:

    and just in case you dont know the study i refer to, it lowered the diastolic bp in all 20 cases but they were taking a dose of 37g per day, which seems like a huge dose to me.


    Any info would be a great help.


  37. JP Says:


    The most recent study looking into the effects of chia seeds re: blood pressure showed no significant alteration:

    The study (linked above) used an even higher dosage of 50 grams/day (25 grams, twice-daily).

    Be well!


  38. Gabrielle Says:

    Something of concern to me is how the test subjects were given the chia seeds: were they whole? ground? soaked? how long? what kind of water? with what other foods were they served (i.e. what other nutrients were present to assist/interfere with the absorption of chia’s nutrients?

  39. JP Says:


    The forms of chia and types of administration varied among the studies. Some of the details are available via the footnotes/links presented at the end of (some of) the paragraphs in the column above.

    You might be interested in a brief update I’ve posted recently about chia seeds – the updated data appears at the bottom:

    Be well!


  40. Will Says:

    I just started taking chia seeds in an attempt to lower my A1C. I take about 2-3 tablespoons after my cereal (kashi go lean – which is already high in fiber) every morning and then take another 2 to 3 tablespoons in the evening following dessert around 8:30 (about two hours following dinner). I usually just put about a quarter cup of water on the chia seeds and let them soak for 10 mins before consuming. My question is the timing of eating the seeds. Most articles talk about eating them mixed with the meal but assuming I don’t do that, is it better to eat them before or after the meal/snack or does it matter? I also get my chia seeds at Whole Foods in the bulk area. I was just assuming they would carry the most nutritious version – should I look for a particular brand?

  41. JP Says:


    I’m away on a trip but wanted to post a quick reply:

    1) I would take the chia prior to or with meals.

    2) I would use unsweetened almond milk instead of cow’s milk (or any other milk substitute that contains sugar). This should lower the glycemic load of your morning meal.

    3) I can’t say for certain, but I would guess the WF bulk chia is just fine.

    Be well!


  42. AJ Says:

    I’ve experienced all the benefits of Chia like stamina, mental clarity, great BM, and joint pain gone. However after 6 months of 2 tablespoons a day in AM I’m getting sores on my hands and feet and occasional on lips. These sores are similar looking to cold-sores, but do not respond to same treatment, and are about a 100 times more painful. I can hardly use my hands or touch anything as it’s so painful. The sores are not open, but more like blisters that stay under the skin. They last for about 7-10 days and dry up with a yellow/brown crust that eventually peels off. Another thing is a very significant problem with gas. It’s not like a little issue, but really excessive and powerful (if you get my drift). The third thing is that I have started to feel like I’m being poisoned very slowly, and in the afternoons my voice starts to become very weak and uncharacteristic of my normal voice, like I can’t provide the force to get it out, even though I don’t feel weak otherwise. Oh, and one last thing is that I’ve had three incidences of feeling a kind of faintness or disorientation for very brief moments.
    I’m not saying that I have conclusive evidence that Chia is the cause of all this, but I certainly am questioning it and found a fair bit of collaborating evidence when searching online for Chia side effects. Also I’ve now stopped taking any Chia for 6 days and all symptoms except the sores have gone away. My hypothesis is that I’m allergic to Chia, and that over time some reaction is building and my body is trying to rid me of some substance in Chia through the skin (hence it is taking some time for that symptom to go away). Also I don’t have high blood pressure, so maybe Chia is lowering my blood pressure too much (voice + faintness).
    I have not made any other changes to my diet or lifestyle in the last 6 months, only added Chia.
    Would be nice to have more medical science done on Chia and allergies, and other side effects.


  43. maria Says:

    hello,i just started taking Chia seeds,i was told that they are very good for my health and weight.Can any one tell me what the proper daily dose to take .

  44. JP Says:

    Hi Maria,

    Based on several of the studies, you might consider trying between 15 and 50 grams of chia seeds per day. Starting with a lower dosage and working your way up, if necessary, is often a wise approach. Also, splitting up the daily dosage (example: before breakfast and again prior to dinner) might also offer an advantage re: hunger.

    Be well!


  45. Ariel Says:

    Hello, I wonder to know if you have statistics chia consumption in the U.S. from 2000 onwards. Thank you very much.

  46. Dave Harmon Says:

    Would like to if chia can affect A-FIB IN ANYWAY… THANK-YOU

  47. JP Says:

    Hi Dave,

    I haven’t seen any specific research to support that assertion. However, some of the fatty acids in chia (omega 3s) may be useful for A-Fib.

    Please keep in mind that chia does not contain preformed DHA or EPA (which are typically found in fish). It only provides a plant-based source of omega-3s known as alpha-linolenic acid. This latter form of omega-3 isn’t as effective as DHA & EPA according to many studies.

    Be well!


  48. Sara Ford Says:

    I’ve tried chia seeds a few times now, and each time (a few days after) I start to feel weak and faint!
    My blood pressure is fairly low because I’m a triathlete..could this be the reason? I want to continue using chia, but am not this a commen prob?

  49. JP Says:

    Hi Sara,

    I’ve read some anecdotal accounts of chia users experiencing lightheadedness. However, it’s difficult to say how prevalent a reaction this is because there’s no mention of it in the medical literature (case studies, clinical trials, population analysis, etc.).

    As a side note, the most recent research on chia doesn’t show a marked effect on blood pressure.

    And, one study shows that chia seeds may be a viable alternative to carbohydrates for athletes:

    Be well!


  50. Anna Says:

    I’ve just recently started drinking Mamma Chia (Organic Fruit drinks laced with Chia seeds) I removed caffeine out of my diet 7 months ago all together because I read it was bad for Adrenal fatigue (you feel exhausted all the time). Well I have been struggling with energy, and decided to try this drink for an energy alternative. Let me tell you, It gave me instant energy that lasts for hour without the jitters. Also I have been doing my own research on Adrenal fatigue and found that a deficiency in Magnesium is usually what causes it. The seeds have a lot of magnesium in them. The most common deficiency in America is the deficiency of Magnesium because all of the processed foods we eat pull it out of your body. And I have noticed that I feel full for hours after drinking just a few sips. I can already tell that this product can help you lose weight, the issue is you do have to change your diet a little. You can’t continue to eat junk food and hope the seeds will do all the work for you. High fructose corn syrup (pretty much in anything processed you eat) cause you to stay fat forever. Look up the link between HFCS and fatty liver disease. I’m not trying to preach but if you have the option, try to eat fresh, unpackaged foods when you can. If you try to eat healthier and combine it with the seeds I’m certain it will help you lose weight, because I can already tell a difference in my waist line and I only just found out about Chia seeds a couple weeks ago. Sorry for being lengthy, but I’m a nurse and the more I find out about how much crap is in our food and medications it make you want to switch how you live and inform everyone lol Long story short Chia seeds are AMAZING especially if you want an alternative energy to caffeine!!

  51. JP Says:

    Thank you for sharing your positive experience with us, Anna. I wish you continued success with chia seeds and all other attempts to improve your health.

    Be well!


  52. Dave Says:

    My normally healthy football playing 15 year old son fainted on three different occasions and got a concussion due to hitting something while falling the last time. After passing ultra sound, MRI and EEG tests the only thing I could think of that changed was that we started adding chia seeds to our smoothies. We stopped the chia seeds and he no longer has any problems. Hope this helps someone.

  53. JP Says:

    Thank you for sharing your experience, Dave.

    Be well!


  54. JP Says:

    Update 05/26/15:

    Nutrients. 2015 May 15;7(5):3666-76.

    No positive influence of ingesting chia seed oil on human running performance.

    Runners (n = 24) reported to the laboratory in an overnight fasted state at 8:00 am on two occasions separated by at least two weeks. After providing a blood sample at 8:00 am, subjects ingested 0.5 liters flavored water alone or 0.5 liters water with 7 kcal kg-1 chia seed oil (random order), provided another blood sample at 8:30 am, and then started running to exhaustion (~70% VO2max). Additional blood samples were collected immediately post- and 1-h post-exercise. Despite elevations in plasma alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) during the chia seed oil (337%) versus water trial (35%) (70.8 ± 8.6, 20.3 ± 1.8 μg mL-1, respectively, p < 0.001), run time to exhaustion did not differ between trials (1.86 ± 0.10, 1.91 ± 0.13 h, p = 0.577, respectively). No trial differences were found for respiratory exchange ratio (RER) (0.92 ± 0.01), oxygen consumption, ventilation, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), and plasma glucose and blood lactate. Significant post-run increases were measured for total leukocyte counts, plasma cortisol, and plasma cytokines (Interleukin-6 (IL-6), Interleukin-8 (IL-8), Interleukin-10 (IL-10), and Tumor necrosis factors-α (TNF-α)), with no trial differences. Chia seed oil supplementation compared to water alone in overnight fasted runners before and during prolonged, intensive running caused an elevation in plasma ALA, but did not enhance run time to exhaustion, alter RER, or counter elevations in cortisol and inflammatory outcome measures. Be well! JP

  55. JP Says:

    Updated 12/24/16:

    Eur J Clin Nutr. 2016 Dec 21.

    Comparison of flax (Linum usitatissimum) and Salba-chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seeds on postprandial glycemia and satiety in healthy individuals: a randomized, controlled, crossover study.

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Flax and Salba-chia seeds have risen in popularity owing to their favorable nutrient composition, including a high fiber content. Despite having comparable nutritional profiles, preliminary observations suggest differences in gelling properties, an attribute that may alter the kinetics of food digestion. Thus, we compared the effect of two seeds on postprandial glycemia and satiety scores.

    SUBJECTS/METHODS: Fifteen healthy participants (M/F: 5/10; age: 23.9±3 years; BMI: 22.2±0.8 kg/m2) were randomized to receive a 50 g glucose challenge, alone or supplemented with either 25 g ground Salba-chia or 31.5 g flax, on three separate occasions. Blood glucose samples and satiety ratings were collected at fasting and over 2-h postprandially. In addition, in vitro viscosity of the beverages was assessed utilizing standard rheological methodology.

    RESULTS: Both Salba-chia and flax reduced blood glucose area under the curve over 120 min by 82.5±19.7 mmol/l (P<0.001) and 60.0±19.7 mmol/l (P=0.014), respectively, relative to a glucose control. Salba-chia reduced peak glucose (-0.64±0.24 mmol/l; P=0.030) and increased time to peak (11.3±3.8 min; P=0.015) compared with flax. Salba-chia significantly reduced the mean ratings of desire to eat (-7±2 mm; P=0.005), prospective consumption (-7±2 mm; P=0.010) and overall appetite score (-6±2 mm; P=0.012), when compared with flax. The viscosity of Salba-chia, flax and control was 49.9, 2.5, and 0.002 Pa·s, respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: Despite the similarities in nutritional composition, Salba-chia appears to have the ability to convert glucose into a slow-release carbohydrate and affect satiety to a greater extent than flax, possibly due to the higher fiber viscosity. Incorporation of either flax or Salba-chia into the diet may be beneficial, although use of Salba-chia may confer additional benefit.

    Be well!


  56. JP Says:

    Updated 01/18/17:

    Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2016 Dec 9.

    Salba-chia (Salvia hispanica L.) in the treatment of overweight and obese patients with type 2 diabetes: A double-blind randomized controlled trial.

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Preliminary findings indicate that consumption of Salba-chia (Salvia hispanica L.), an ancient seed, improves management of type 2 diabetes and suppresses appetite. The aim of this study was to assesse the effect of Salba-chia on body weight, visceral obesity and obesity-related risk factors in overweight and obese adults with type 2 diabetes.

    METHODS: A double-blind, randomized, controlled trial with two parallel groups involved 77 overweight or obese patients with type 2 diabetes (HbA1c: 6.5-8.0%; BMI: 25-40 kg/m2). Both groups followed a 6-month calorie-restricted diet; one group received 30 g/1000 kcal/day of Salba-chia, the other 36 g/1000 kcal/day of an oat bran-based control. Primary endpoint was change in body weight over 6-months. Secondary endpoints included changes in waist circumference, body composition, glycemic control, C-reactive protein, and obesity-related satiety hormones.

    RESULTS: At 6-months, participants on Salba-chia had lost more weight than those on control (1.9 ± 0.5 kg and 0.3 ± 0.4 kg, respectively; P = 0.020), accompanied by a greater reduction in waist circumference (3.5 ± 0.7 cm and 1.1 ± 0.7 cm, respectively; P = 0.027). C-reactive protein was reduced by 1.1 ± 0.5 mg/L (39 ± 17%) on Salba-chia, compared to 0.2 ± 0.4 mg/L (7 ± 20%) on control (P = 0.045). Plasma adiponectin on the test intervention increased by 6.5 ± 0.7%, with no change observed on control (P = 0.022).

    CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study, support the beneficial role of Salba-chia seeds in promoting weight loss and improvements of obesity related risk factors, while maintaining good glycemic control. Supplementation of Salba-chia may be a useful dietary addition to conventional therapy in the management of obesity in diabetes.

    Be well!


Leave a Comment