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Herbs and Spices of Life

August 11, 2009 Written by JP    [Font too small?]

It’s a happy occasion when I can recommend something that is not only genuinely health promoting, but also pleasurable and simple to enact. Too often, eating a healthy diet can seem complicated and, even worse, not very enjoyable. When we remove all the “bad” things from our diets, sometimes a void is left. One solution is to turn up the volume on flavor by incorporating natural seasonings that are actually good for you. Adding fresh (or even dried) herbs and spices is one of best ways to increase levels of protective antioxidants in our daily routine. There’s also a little known secret contained in many of these savory plants: they’re actually powerful “phytomedicinals” (plant medicines) in disguise.

In recent years, science has focused more and more on the role of dietary antioxidants and their contribution to the fight against just about every major disease known to man. That’s a big part of the reason why dietitians and physicians are so vehement about recommending that we all eat plenty of fresh fruits and vegetables. But you might be surprised to know that there are much better sources of antioxidants out there. I’m specifically referring to culinary herbs and spices. In 2006, a review looked at the antioxidant value of 50 popular foods. The top 13 on the list were herbs and spices. Chocolate, coffee, fruits, nuts, seeds and vegetables all scored highly as well, but they were a distant second to the seasonings that are often used to flavor them. (1)

Scientists aren’t suggesting that we switch out broccoli for a bowl of cilantro or thyme. But they are saying that we can substantially increase antioxidant intake by adding herbs and spices to the common foods we already eat. Research published in 2005 in the British Journal of Nutrition found that simply adding a tiny amount of marjoram to a normal salad could boost the antioxidant content (ORAC score) 4-fold. This kind of dietary boost can have far reaching benefits. One area of interest is the protection that such antioxidants may provide against a variety of cancers and other diseases that are influenced by the oxidative damage we’re constantly exposed to through environmental insults and poor lifestyle choices. (2,3)

Origanum majorana, also known as marjoram, is a culinary herb that is native to the Mediterranean region. It plays a part in seasoning blends from around the world, such as the famed Herbes de Provence and Za’atar (a Middle Eastern spice blend). Marjoram imparts a delicate oregano-like flavor that is well suited to dishes that feature meat or strictly vegetarian fare such as roasted vegetable soups. (4)

On the medicinal front, scientists have discovered that marjoram can help support the health of the digestive system. Specifically, it appears to protect against the intestinal damage caused by excessive gastric acid production. Such harm can ultimately result in the formation of a peptic ulcer. The interesting thing about how marjoram works is that it doesn’t seem to negatively impact the normal secretion of necessary digestive acids and enzymes such as pepsin. It does, however, combat H. pylori infections which is a primary cause of gastric cancer, GERD (gastro-esophageal reflux disease) and ulcers. (5,6,7,8,9)

Sage (Salvia officinalis) is technically a member of the mint family. However, its application in cooking is quite different. Sage is often added to marinades, sausages and as a simple, but elegant, enhancement to various pasta dishes. I recently found an intriguing recipe that uses the leaves of Salvia officinalis as a sort of breading for an intensely flavored bite-sized treat. An anchovy fillet is placed between two sage leaves and gently cooked in a butter and olive oil mixture until crisp. Two or three of these sage “sandwiches” can then be placed on a bed of mashed cauliflower to create a delectable appetizer. (10)

In the medical community, sage has attracted a lot of attention thanks to its apparent ability to support improved cognitive function in both young, healthy adults and older individuals with serious forms of memory loss. The results of sage supplementation can come about relatively quickly (within hours) or remain present in longer term studies (lasting up to 4 months). Besides its memory enhancing effects, sage has also demonstrated mood elevating properties. These are generally described as feelings of “alterness”, “calmness” and “contendedness”. This herb appears to function similarly to certain drugs that are used to treat dementia, but it has also demonstrated neuroprotective activity which can shield the brain from age-related degeneration. (11,12,13,14,15,16,17)

Possible Mechanisms for Cancer Protection by Herbs and Spices
Source: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 78, No. 3, September 2003 (link)

The next time you make deviled eggs, you might want to add some tarragon to perk things up. Artemisia dracunculus, sometimes referred to as “dragon herb” or tarragon, makes frequent appearances in French kitchens. It is a key component of the rich and luxurious Bearnaise sauce and even plays a prominent role in a green tinged, sweet soda (Tarhun) sold throughout Russia. (18)

An advantage of using tarragon regularly is that it just may help to regulate your blood sugar levels and insulin production. In fact, the majority of research conducted on this botanical has to do with its effect on diabetes. Studies harkening back to the mid 1980’s have established the effect of tarragon extracts on lowering blood sugar. More recent trials have examined exactly what components are responsible for its anti-diabetic activity. Thus far, the results point to at least 6 different chemicals which appear to “improve carbohydrate metabolism”. (19,20,21,22,23)

I chose to point out marjoram, sage and tarragon because they possess some of strongest antioxidant activity among foods commonly consumed in the average diet. Based on ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity) value, marjoram is about ten times more powerful than spinach, sage outperforms green peppers by about 30 fold, and tarragon demonstrates about five times the antioxidant protection of broccoli. These figures are based on a 100 gram serving size (roughly 3.5 ounces). It’s unlikely that any of us will eat such a large serving of these herbs. But we can very easily add more of them to our favorite dishes. By doing so, we’ll not only liven up otherwise bland menus, but also protect ourselves in ways known and yet to be discovered.

Note: Please check out the “Comments & Updates” section of this blog – at the bottom of the page. You can find the latest research about this topic there!

Be well!


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Posted in Food and Drink, Memory, Recipes

14 Comments & Updates to “Herbs and Spices of Life”

  1. Paul Fanton Says:

    Hi JP.

    My wife and me will expand the selection of herbs we grow to reap the benefits you uncover here!


  2. JP Says:


    Great! I hope you both enjoy the taste and find significant health improvements because of these medicinal seasonings!

    Be well!


  3. Ali Says:

    Very informative article, thanks for sharing such valuable information.

  4. JP Says:

    Glad you enjoyed it. Thank you, Ali!

    Be well!


  5. Thiruvelan Says:

    Yes diabetes herbs has the ability to nourish pancreas, liver and small intestine and bring back its normal functioning thus blood glucose is controlled and diabetes may be cured.

    Remember scientific studies too start accepting herbs for the treatment of diabetes, visit http://healthy-ojas.com/diabetes/diabetes-herbs.html for diabetes natural herbs, with links to scientific evidence for diabetes herbs.

  6. JP Says:

    Thanks for the contribution, Thiruvelan.

    Be well!


  7. Tamryn Says:

    Found this article really interesting. Just done a top ten herbs & spices list so it’s good to know that they’re really beneficial too.

  8. JP Says:

    Thanks, Tamryn. 🙂

    Be well!


  9. JP Says:

    Update: Sage leaf extract benefits various measures of cardiometabolic health …

    Complement Ther Med. 2013 Oct;21(5):441-6.

    Improved glycemic control and lipid profile in hyperlipidemic type 2 diabetic patients consuming Salvia officinalis L. leaf extract: a randomized placebo. Controlled clinical trial.

    OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of Salvia officinalis L. (S. officinalis) leaf extract in the treatment of hyperlipidemic type 2 diabetic patients.

    DESIGN: Randomized placebo-controlled parallel group study.

    SETTING: Diabetes Clinic (Karaj City, Alborz Province of Iran).

    INTERVENTIONS: The efficacy and safety of taking S. officinalis leaf extract (one 500 mg capsule t.i.d. for 3 months) in treatment of 40 hyperlipidemic (hypercholesterolemic and/or hypertriglyceridemic) type 2 diabetic patients were evaluated and compared with the placebo group (n=40).

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Fasting blood levels of glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-C (low density lipoprotein cholesterol), HDL-C (high density lipoprotein cholesterol), SGOT (serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase), SGPT (serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase) and creatinine.

    RESULTS: The extract lowered fasting glucose, HbA1c, total cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL-C but increased HDL-C compared to baseline at endpoint. Percent difference mean (95% confidence interval) between the extract and placebo groups in terms of effects on fasting glucose, HbA1c, total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-C and HDL-C at endpoint were 32.2 (26.5, 37.9), 22.7 (16.8, 28.6), 16.9 (9.7, 24.1), 56.4 (36.1, 76.7), 35.6 (29.9, 41.3) and 27.6 (15.8, 39.4) (P=0.001, P=0.01, P=0.01, P=0.009, P<0.001 and P=0.008), respectively. Moreover, the extract did not have any significant effects on the other parameters compared to the placebo group at endpoint (P>0.05). No adverse effects were reported.

    CONCLUSIONS: S. officinalis leaves may be safe and have anti-hyperglycemic and lipid profile improving effects in hyperlipidemic type 2 diabetic patients.

    Be well!


  10. JP Says:

    Update: A reason to season with rosemary …


    Nutr Hosp. 2014 Nov 1;30(5):1084-91.

    Impact of cooked functional meat enriched with omega-3 fatty acids and rosemary extract on inflammatory and oxidative status; a randomised, double-blind, crossover study.

    BACKGROUND & AIM: n-3 fatty acid intake has been associated with inflammatory benefits in cardiovascular disease (CVD). Functionalising meat may be of great interest. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of functional meat containing n-3 and rosemary extract on inflammatory and oxidative status markers in subjects with risk for CVD.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: A randomised, double-blind, cross-over study was undertaken to compare the effects on the above markers of consuming functional or control meat products. 43 volunteers with at least two lipid profile variables showing risk for CVD were randomly assigned to receive functional meat (FM) or control meat (CM) over 12-weeks with a 4-week wash-out interval before crossover. Functional effects were assessed by examining lipid profile, CRP, PAI-1, TNF-alpha, IL-6, fibrinogen (inflammatory markers), and TBARS, FRAP and 8-iso-PGF2 (oxidative status markers). 33 subjects (24 women) aged 50.7±8.8 years completed the study. In FM treatment, PAI-1, fibrinogen and 8-iso-PGF2 decreased significantly after 12 weeks, while FRAP significantly increased. In contrast, in CM treatment, a significant increase was seen in PAI-1, while FRAP significantly declined. Significant differences were also seen between the FM and CM treatments after 12 weeks in terms of the change observed in PAI-1, FRAP and 8-iso-PGF2 values. No significant differences were seen in anthropometric variables nor were adverse effects reported.

    CONCLUSION: The consumption of FM containing n-3 and rosemary extract improved oxidative and inflammatory status of people with at least two lipid profile variables showing risk for CVD. The inclusion of such functional meat in a balanced diet might be a healthy lifestyle option.

    Be well!


  11. JP Says:

    Updated 08/18/15:


    Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Aug 12.

    Effects of a behavioral intervention that emphasizes spices and herbs on adherence to recommended sodium intake: results of the SPICE randomized clinical trial.

    BACKGROUND: For decades, dietary sodium intake in the United States has remained high, and few studies have examined strategies for maintaining recommended intakes.

    OBJECTIVE: We examined the effects of a behavioral intervention, which emphasized spices and herbs, on the maintenance of sodium intake at the recommended intake of 1500 mg/d in individuals to whom the US Dietary Guidelines for Americans apply.

    DESIGN: We conducted a 2-phase study that included adults ≥18 y of age for whom Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommends 1500 mg Na/d. The study was conducted in Baltimore, Maryland, from 2012 to 2014. In phase 1, 55 individuals consumed a low-sodium diet for 4 wk. Participants were provided all foods, snacks, and calorie-containing drinks. In phase 2, 40 participants from phase 1 were randomly assigned to either a behavioral intervention to reduce sodium intake (n = 20) or a self-directed control group (n = 20) for 20 wk. The primary study outcome was the change in mean 24-h urinary sodium excretion during phase 2. Linear regression analyses were used to determine intervention effects on urinary sodium excretion.

    RESULTS: Participant characteristics were as follows: women: 65%; African American: 88%; hypertension: 63%; diabetes: 18%; mean age: 61 y; and mean body mass index (in kg/m2): 30. At the end of phase 2, mean 24-h sodium excretion was lower in the behavioral intervention than in the self-directed group (mean difference: -956.8 mg/d; 95% CI: -1538.7, -374.9 mg/d) after sodium intake at screening was controlled for (P = 0.002). These findings persisted in sensitivity analyses that excluded potentially incomplete urine collections [Mage’s equation mean difference: -1090 mg/d (P = 0.001); Joosens’ equation mean difference: -796 mg/d (P = 0.04)].

    CONCLUSIONS: A multifactorial behavioral intervention emphasizing spices and herbs significantly reduced sodium intake. Because of the ubiquity of sodium in the US food supply, multilevel strategies addressing individual behaviors and the food supply are needed to improve adherence to recommendations.

    Be well!


  12. JP Says:

    Updated 09/23/15:


    J Oleo Sci. 2015 Sep 15.

    Accumulation of Paprika Carotenoids in Human Plasma and Erythrocytes.

    The accumulation (incorporation) of paprika carotenoid in human plasma and erythrocytes was investigated. A paprika carotenoid supplement (14 mg/day) was ingested for 4 weeks by 5 young healthy volunteers (3 men and 2 women). After 2 weeks of carotenoid ingestion, the carotenoid levels in plasma and erythrocytes increased by 1.2-fold and 2.2-fold, respectively. Characteristic carotenoids found in paprika (capsanthin, cucurbitaxanthin A, and cryptocapsin) were detected in both plasma and erythrocytes. An oxidative metabolite of capsanthin (capsanthone) was also found in both plasma and erythrocytes.

    Be well!


  13. JP Says:

    Updated 07/16/16:


    Am J Health Promot. 2016 May;30(5):346-356.

    Spice MyPlate: Nutrition Education Focusing Upon Spices and Herbs Improved Diet Quality and Attitudes Among Urban High School Students.

    PURPOSE: To determine whether an experiential nutrition education intervention focusing on spices and herbs (“Spice MyPlate”) is feasible and improves diet quality and healthy eating attitudes among an urban and predominantly African-American sample of adolescents more than standard nutrition education alone.

    DESIGN: A nonrandomized controlled trial compared standard nutrition education in U.S. Department of Agriculture MyPlate guidelines (control group) with standard nutrition education plus adjuvant Spice MyPlate curriculum (intervention group). Data were collected at baseline and after 3, 6, and 10 weeks.

    SETTING: Study setting was two public high schools in Baltimore, Maryland.

    SUBJECTS: A total of 110 students in grades 9 to 12 participated.

    INTERVENTION: The 6-week school-based intervention conducted during health class focused on cooking using spices and herbs to eat healthier diets according to MyPlate.

    MEASURES: Dietary intake reported on 3-day food records and healthy eating attitudes questionnaires was analyzed.

    ANALYSIS: Differences in diet quality and healthy eating attitudes between study groups were estimated by t-tests, Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney tests, and covariate-adjusted regression models.

    RESULTS: Spice MyPlate was feasible and there were modest but significant improvements (p ≤ .05) in the Spice MyPlate group compared with control in whole grains (31.2 g/wk) and protein foods (13.2 ounces per week) intake, and attitudes toward eating vegetables, whole grains, lean protein, and low-fat dairy.

    CONCLUSIONS: Although randomized trials are needed, experiential nutrition education focusing on spices and herbs may help urban and predominantly African-American adolescent populations eat healthier diet.

    Be well!


  14. JP Says:

    Updated 11/03/16:


    Food Technol Biotechnol. 2015 Dec;53(4):454-462.

    Improved Properties and Microbiological Safety of Novel Cottage Cheese Containing Spices.

    The study focuses on developing novel cottage cheese containing spices with acceptable sensory properties, increased biological value and extended shelf life. Thirty types of cheese with added fresh or dried parsley, dill, pepper, garlic and rosemary were produced. Characterisation of phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity and antibacterial activity of spices and cheese samples were evaluated. The cheese containing fresh pepper and fresh and dried herbs showed excellent sensory properties, with the best results obtained with fresh sweet red pepper. Dry rosemary had the highest antioxidant and antibacterial activity due to high mass fractions of caffeic and rosmarinic acids as well as high mass fractions of flavones and phenolic diterpenes. The plant extracts examined in vitro and in situ effectively reduce numbers of foodborne pathogens like Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes, and therefore have potential as natural preservatives and antioxidants.

    Be well!


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