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Cancer Prevention Convention

December 11, 2009 Written by JP    [Font too small?]

When I was putting together today’s column I envisioned myself sporting an impeccably coiffed hairdo, a designer suit and a flamboyant tie. I’m standing in the middle of a bustling conference room filled with some of the top names in the field of cancer research. I have a microphone in hand and I’m speaking directly into the eye of a television camera. “This is JP, the ‘healthy fellow’, reporting live from The American Association for Cancer Research’s Frontiers in Cancer Prevention. Experts from around the world have converged in Houston, Texas to discuss the latest and greatest news about how we can all reduce our risk of cancer. More on that, at the top of the hour. Back to you in studio, Stacey and Charles”. The reality is that I’m sitting at my usual work desk, trying hard to tune out the sounds of a couple of loud neighbors while reviewing a bunch a studies presented at the previously mentioned AACR conference. It may not be glamorous, but I love it.

My tongue in cheek introduction was factually accurate. Some of the most respected physicians and scientists involved in cancer research did indeed come together this past week to share the most current data available on natural chemopreventive strategies. Dr. Elaine Hardman of the Marshall University School of Medicine, Dr. Elizabeth Platz, a senior editor from the journal Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, Dr. John Milner, who heads up the Nutritional Science Research Group at the National Cancer Institute and Dr. Tim Byers the Àssociate Dean at the Colorado School of Public Health were but a few of keynote presenters at this year’s conference. (1)

Although the majority of us can’t actually be at the conference, the Internet and the cooperation of the AACR allows us all to learn about many of the most exciting findings from the Frontiers of Cancer Prevention. Here’s an overview of several studies that I found particularly hopeful and interesting:

Study # 1 – Coffee Consumption and Advanced Prostate Cancer

A population study conducted in 1986 followed roughly 50,000 men until 2006. Data was collected every 4 years and specifically examined the role that coffee might play in relation to prostate cancer. This study is unique in that the researchers further investigated the effect of coffee consumption on specific forms of prostate cancer – localized vs. advanced. Almost 5,000 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer over the course of 20 years. However, there was a 60% decreased risk of “aggressive” (high grade) prostate cancer in the men who drank the most coffee. According to Dr. Kathryn M. Wilson of Harvard Medical School, “Coffee has effects on insulin and glucose metabolism as well as sex hormones, all of which play a role in prostate cancer”. (2)

Study # 2 – An Extract from Hops May Prevent Prostate Cancer

A flavonoid found in hops (xanthohumol) may one day play an important role in preventing and possibly treating prostate cancer. Previous studies indicate that this naturally occurring antioxidant may interfere with estrogen’s cancer promoting activity. It appears to do so by binding (or filling up) estrogen receptor sites. This function allows for the disposal of excess estrogen by the body. Similar effects were found when researchers tested xanthohumol’s activity in relation to testosterone. The next step is to see whether this hops extract can, in fact, prevent prostate cancer in an animal model and then, eventually, in human test subjects. (3)

Study # 3 – Exercise May Reduce Overall and Prostate Cancer Mortality

Men who engage in 5 or more hours of “vigorous physical exercise” per week demonstrated a “decreased risk of dying” from prostate cancer. It is proposed that vigorous exercise may alter hormones, improve immune function and reduce inflammation – all of which are known to positively impact prostate health. But beyond that, researchers from the Harvard School of Public Health also determined that: a) 3 hours of weekly physical activity yields “a 35 percent lower risk of overall mortality” in men; b) 4 or more hours of walking per week can lower men’s risk of “all-cause mortality” by 23% and; c) men walking at a brisk pace for at least 90 minutes a week demonstrated a 51% reduction in mortality from any cause – as compared to men who walked for less than 90 minutes at a slower pace. (4)

Studies # 4 & 5 – Antioxidants and Fish Oil vs. Colon Cancer

A new Italian study has found that the use of a specific antioxidant supplement can reduce the risk of pre-cancerous polyp recurrence. A group of 411 men and women with a history of colorectal polyp removal participated in this 5 year trial. The supplement used consisted of: 200 mcg of selenium (selenomethionine), 6,000 IUs of Vitamin A, 180 mg of Vitamin C, 30 mg of Vitamin E and 30 mg of zinc. Dr. Luigiana Bonelli, from the National Institute for Cancer Research in Genoa, Italy added that, “It is noteworthy that the benefit observed after the conclusion of the trial persisted through 13 years of follow up.” A separate study determined that white participants consuming the highest levels of fish oil had a “39 percent reduced risk of (colon) cancer”. This same benefit was not established in the black study volunteers. However, this discrepancy requires additional study to confirm or discount. For the time being, Dr. Sangmi Kim of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences suggests exercising caution “about drawing conclusions about potential racial difference in the benefit of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids from this study”. (5,6)

Fish Oil May Reduce Cancer Risk by Positively Modifying Genetic Expression
Source: CMAJ. 2008 January 15; 178(2): 177–180. (link)
Study # 6 – Pistachios and Lung Cancer Prevention

A group of 36 men and women were recently divided into two segments. Each group ate a normal diet but the study (intervention) group included 2 ounces of pistachios to their menu plan over a 4 week period. Testing revealed that those eating pistachios had higher concentrations of a potential “cancer fighting” antioxidant in the body. Ladia M. Hernandez, a senior research dietitian at the M.D. Anderson Cancer Center commented that, “Higher intakes of gamma-tocopherol, which is a form of vitamin E, may reduce the risk of lung cancer”. Pistachios are known to be one of the richest sources of dietary gamma-tocopherol. Ms. Hernandez went on to say that, “Pistachios are one of those ‘good-for-you’ nuts, and 2 ounces per day could be incorporated into dietary strategies designed to reduce the risk of lung cancer without significant changes in body mass index”. Her parting comment may reflect a dietary change noted during the course of this study: the participants eating pistachios naturally derived more of their daily calories from healthy fats and less caloric density from carbohydrates. This tends to positively impact weight management. (7)

If I had the opportunity to present a study at the AACR conference, I would probably have chosen a newly published experiment that was conducted by researchers at the University of Chicago and Yale University. Their recent findings showed that rats raised in a lonely, socially isolated setting developed 84 times more tumors than rats who lived in a group setting. Imagine what the implications of that finding might be if even remotely applied to humans with cancer. Conducting similar studies in a human population would be challenging to say the least. But maybe such testing isn’t as essential as it might seem. After all, what could possibly be the downside of offering companionship to someone with cancer or adding some extra fish and nuts to your own diet in the hope of cancer prevention? “This is JP, the ‘healthy fellow’, wishing you all the best of health. Back to you, Stacey and Charles”. (8)

Note: Please check out the “Comments & Updates” section of this blog – at the bottom of the page. You can find the latest research about this topic there!

Be well!


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Posted in Alternative Therapies, Food and Drink, Nutrition

26 Comments & Updates to “Cancer Prevention Convention”

  1. Nina K. Says:

    “very loud clap” Thank you JP!

    its always a pleasure to read about the healthboosting properties of nuts 🙂 (ot: is it true that the brazil nut (or para nut) have so much selenium?) If somebody wants to increase antioxidant intake i can highly recommend organic extra virgin red palm oil.

    Wish you and yours a wonderful weekend 🙂

    Nina K.

  2. JP Says:

    Thank you, Nina! 🙂

    I’m “nuts” about nuts myself.

    Brazil nuts are indeed rich in selenium. Perhaps even more importantly, they’re loaded with a highly bioavailable form of this antioxidant, trace mineral.

    I wish you and yours the same! It’s rainy and beautiful over here! 🙂

    Be well!


  3. Kevin Says:

    JP, do you still write movie scripts? If you do, I’m sure you will get some top awards. You write so good.

    If there is a study on human, please let me know, I’m a sample of living socially isolated. 🙂

  4. JP Says:

    Thank you, Kevin! 🙂

    I don’t have the time to write screenplays these days! But I still occasionally offer input (notes and suggestions) on other people’s scripts.

    In the past I did receive a rather prestigious award but I still couldn’t find a buyer for the script. I think it largely had to do with the subject matter and poor timing. Good timing is essential in life and especially in Hollywood. 🙂

    re: social isolation

    I tend to be rather hermit-like myself. So, I can probably relate to your situation to some degree. I think the key may be whether or not one feels lonely. There are quite a few studies that link feelings of loneliness with health troubles. Personally, I remain rather reclusive but I have my social needs satisfied by a loving wife, my family, a few friends and plenty of online buddies. 🙂

    Be well!


  5. Iggy Dalrymple Says:

    re (xanthohumol)in hops:
    When I read this report I ordered Zyflamend PM, which contains some of the stuff.

  6. JP Says:


    Hops is often used to promote a restful night’s sleep. It’s sometimes combined with valerian root extract.


    The sleep study that I recently announced will be utilizing an herbal tea containing hops.


    I hope Zyflamend PM works out well for you.

    Be well!


  7. Bill Rawls Says:

    Very entertaining and informative article, JP! I am nuts for nuts too! They are so convenient and delicious, plus the list of health benefits goes on and on..

  8. JP Says:

    Thanks, Bill! 🙂

    We just got back from a recent trip. We carried along almonds, pistachios and pumpkin seeds. Our luggage was much lighter on the way back! 🙂

    Be well!


  9. Zoleeta Says:

    Hi JP,

    Great, great article. Very entertaining. I have always been a ‘nut’ about nuts as well (as everyone else :P). To read and learn more about their Healthy characteristics makes me smile :). I’ll probably find some way to include the benefits of nuts some how in the Health IT blog that I write for 🙂

    Once again – great post.

  10. Iggy Dalrymple Says:

    Well JP, I took my 1st dose of Zyflamend PM last night and today my blood pressure was 90/53. You think there was a connection?
    My BP usually runs about 10 points higher.

  11. JP Says:


    If you didn’t do anything else differently, then I think there could be a connection. Did you take 2 softgels with dinner – as directed on the package? If so, perhaps you could consider taking 1 instead? Sometimes it’s best to start slow and work up gradually.

    Be well!


  12. JP Says:

    Thanks, Zoleeta!

    Be well!


  13. JP Says:

    Update: Tai Chi may improve immunity in lung cancer patients …


    Effect of Tai Chi on mononuclear cell functions in patients with non-small cell lung cancer


    Tai Chi is the Chinese traditional medicine exercise for mind-body health. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) exercise on the proliferative and cytolytic/tumoricidal activities of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in postsurgical non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients.


    Patients (n = 27) were randomly divided into the control group (n = 13) and the TCC group (n = 14). TCC group participated in Tai Chi 24-type exercise for 16 weeks, 60-min every time, and three times a week. Peripheral blood was collected and PBMCs isolated before and after the 16-week TCC, PBMC proliferation and co-culture of PBMCs with the NSCLC cell line A549 were performed for proliferation and cell cytolysis assays. Analysis of NKT cells, NK cells, and CD123+ and CD11c + dendritic cells were also performed.


    (1) After 16-week of TCC, cell proliferation increased significantly as compared with the control. (2) PBMCs from the TCC group also demonstrated enhanced cytolytic/oncolytic activity against A549 cells. (3) Significant differences were also found in NK cell percentage at t = 16 weeks, post-pre changes of NKT and DC11c between groups.


    Regular Tai Chi exercise has the promise of enhancing PBMC proliferative and cytolytic activities in NSCLC patients. Our results affirm the value of a future trial with a larger scale and longer duration for cancer survivors.

    Be well!


  14. JP Says:

    Update 05/04/15:


    Med Sci Monit. 2015 May 1;21:1249-1255.

    Vitamin E Intake and Pancreatic Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies.

    BACKGROUND: Some epidemiological studies have suggested that vitamin E intake reduces the risk of pancreatic cancer; however, this conclusion has not been supported by all the published studies. We conducted a meta-analysis to assess the relationship between vitamin E intake and the risk of pancreatic cancer by combining the results from published articles. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We searched the published studies that reported the relationship between vitamin E intake and pancreatic cancer risk using the PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase databases through December 31st, 2014. Based on a fixed-effects or random-effects model, the RR and 95% CI were used to assess the combined risk. RESULTS: In total, 10 observational studies (6 case-control studies and 4 cohort studies) were included. The overall RR (95% CI) of pancreatic cancer for the highest vs. the lowest level of vitamin E intake was 0.81 (0.73, 0.89). We found little evidence of heterogeneity (I2=19.8%, P=0.255). In the subgroup analyses, we found an inverse association between vitamin E intake and pancreatic cancer risk both in the case-control and cohort studies. Additionally, this inverse association was not modified by different populations. CONCLUSIONS: In our meta-analysis, there was an inverse association between vitamin E intake and the risk of pancreatic cancer. A high level of vitamin E might be a protective factor for populations at risk for pancreatic cancer.

    Be well!


  15. JP Says:

    Update 06/01/15:


    J Food Sci. 2014 Sep;79(9):S1756-62.

    Consumer acceptability and sensory profile of cooked broccoli with mustard seeds added to improve chemoprotective properties.

    Broccoli, a rich source of glucosinolates, is a commonly consumed vegetable of the Brassica family. Hydrolysis products of glucosinolates, isothiocyanates, have been associated with health benefits and contribute to the flavor of Brassica. However, boiling broccoli causes the myrosinase enzyme needed for hydrolysis to denature. In order to ensure hydrolysis, broccoli must either be mildly cooked or active sources of myrosinase, such as mustard seed powder, can be added postcooking. In this study, samples of broccoli were prepared in 6 different ways; standard boiling, standard boiling followed by the addition of mustard seeds, sous vide cooking at low temperature (70 °C) and sous vide cooking at higher temperature (100 °C) and sous vide cooking at higher temperature followed by the addition of mustard seeds at 2 different concentrations. The majority of consumers disliked the mildly cooked broccoli samples (70 °C, 12 min, sous vide) which had a hard and stringy texture. The highest mean consumer liking was for standard boiled samples (100 °C, 7 min). Addition of 1% mustard seed powder developed sensory attributes, such as pungency, burning sensation, mustard odor, and flavor. One cluster of consumers (32%) found mustard seeds to be a good complement to cooked broccoli; however, the majority disliked the mustard-derived sensory attributes. Where the mustard seeds were partially processed, doubling the addition to 2% led to only the same level of mustard and pungent flavors as 1% unprocessed seeds, and mean consumer liking remained unaltered. This suggests that optimization of the addition level of partially processed mustard seeds may be a route to enhance bioactivity of cooked broccoli without compromising consumer acceptability.

    Be well!


  16. JP Says:

    Updated 07/26/15:


    Gynecol Obstet Invest. 2015 Jul 10. [Epub ahead of print]

    The Protective Effect of Peanut, Walnut, and Almond Consumption on the Development of Breast Cancer.

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Breast cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy known worldwide. The consumption of certain foods may modify the risk for its development. Peanuts and other seeds have shown anticarcinogenic effects in vitro, but there are a few studies that evaluate the effect of their consumption on the development of breast cancer. The aim of the present study was to determine whether there is an association between the consumption of peanuts, walnuts, and almonds and the development of breast cancer.

    METHODS: We analyzed 97 patients presenting with breast cancer and 104 control subjects that did not have the pathology (BIRADS 1-2). An analysis of the main clinical characteristics and lifelong seed consumption was carried out. The association between the consumption of these foods and the risk for breast cancer was estimated by odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals, controlling other risk factors, using the Mantel-Haenszel analysis.

    RESULTS: The high consumption of peanuts, walnuts, or almonds significantly reduced the risk for breast cancer by 2-3 times. This protective effect was not found with low or moderate seed consumption when compared with null consumption.

    CONCLUSIONS: High consumption of peanuts, walnuts, and almonds appears to be a protective factor for the development of breast cancer.

    Be well!


  17. JP Says:

    Updated 1/28/16:


    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2016 Jan 25.

    Raw garlic consumption and lung cancer in a Chinese population.

    BACKGROUND: Evidence of anti-cancer properties of garlic for different cancer sites has been reported previously in in-vitro and in-vivo experimental studies but there is limited epidemiological evidence on the association between garlic and lung cancer.

    METHODS: We examined the association between raw garlic consumption and lung cancer in a case-control study conducted between 2005 and 2007 in Taiyuan, China. Epidemiological data was collected by face-to-face interviews from 399 incident lung cancer cases and 466 healthy controls. We used unconditional logistic regression models to estimate crude and adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Adjusted models controlled for age, sex, average annual household income 10 years ago, smoking, and indoor air pollution.

    RESULTS: Compared to no intake, raw garlic intake was associated with lower risk of development of lung cancer with a dose-response pattern (aOR for <2 times per week = 0.56, 95% CI: 0.39-0.81 and aOR for ≥2 times per week = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.34 - 0.74; Ptrend = 0.0002). Exploratory analysis showed an additive interaction of raw garlic consumption with indoor air pollution and with any supplement use in association with lung cancer.

    CONCLUSIONS: The results of the current study suggest that raw garlic consumption is associated with reduced risk of lung cancer in a Chinese population.

    IMPACT: This study contributes to the limited research in human population on the association between garlic and lung cancer and advocates further investigation into the use of garlic in chemoprevention of lung cancer.

    Be well!


  18. JP Says:

    Updated 06/08/16:


    Cancer Causes Control. 2016 Jun 4.

    Dietary inflammatory index and ovarian cancer risk in a large Italian case-control study.

    BACKGROUND: While inflammation has been shown to play an important etiologic role in ovarian carcinogenesis, little is known about the association between inflammatory properties of diet and ovarian cancer risk.

    METHODS: We explored the association between the dietary inflammatory index (DII) and ovarian cancer risk in a multicentric Italian case-control study conducted between 1992 and 1999. Cases were 1,031 women with incident, histologically confirmed ovarian cancer from four areas in Italy. Controls were 2,411 women admitted to the same network of hospitals as the cases for acute, non-malignant and non-gynecological conditions, unrelated to hormonal or digestive-tract diseases or committed to long-term modifications of diet. DII scores were computed based on 31 nutrients and food items assessed using a reproducible and validated 78-item food frequency questionnaire. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated through logistic regression models adjusting for age, total energy intake and other recognized confounding factors.

    RESULTS: Subjects in the highest quartile of DII scores (i.e., with the most pro-inflammatory diets) had a higher risk of ovarian cancer compared to subjects in the lowest quartile (i.e., with an anti-inflammatory diet) (ORQuartile4vs1 1.47, 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.07, 2.01; p trend = 0.009). When analyses were carried out using continuous DII, a significant positive association with ovarian cancer was observed: the OR for one-unit increment in DII score (corresponding to approximately 8 % of its range in the current study, +6.0 to -6.20) was 1.08 (95% CI 1.02, 1.14).

    CONCLUSION: A pro-inflammatory diet as indicated by higher DII scores is associated with increased ovarian cancer risk.

    Be well!


  19. JP Says:

    Updated 06/14/16:


    Cancer Causes Control. 2016 Jun 13.

    Dietary inflammatory index, Mediterranean diet score, and lung cancer: a prospective study.

    PURPOSE: To investigate prospectively the associations of Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) and Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) with lung cancer.

    METHODS: We used data from men and women aged 40-69 years at recruitment in 1990-1994, who were participants in the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study (n = 35,303). A total of 403 incident lung cancer cases were identified over an average 18-year follow-up. Hazard ratios (HR) were estimated using Cox regression, adjusting for smoking status and other risk factors, with age as the time metric.

    RESULTS: An inverse correlation was observed between the DII and MDS (ρ = -0.45), consistent with a higher DII being pro-inflammatory and less ‘healthy,’ while a high MDS reflects a ‘healthier’ diet. The DII was positively associated with risk of lung cancer in current smokers [HRQ4 vs Q1 = 1.70 (1.02, 2.82); Ptrend = 0.008] (p interaction between DII quartiles and smoking status = 0.03). The MDS was inversely associated with lung cancer risk overall [HR7-9 vs 0-3 = 0.64 (0.45, 0.90); Ptrend = 0.005] and for current smokers (HR7-9 vs 0-3 = 0.38 (0.19, 0.75); Ptrend = 0.005) (p interaction between MDS categories and smoking status = 0.31).

    CONCLUSIONS: The MDS showed an inverse association with lung cancer risk, especially for current smokers. A high DII, indicating a more pro-inflammatory diet, was associated with risk of lung cancer only for current smokers. A healthy diet may reduce the risk of lung cancer, especially in smokers.

    Be well!


  20. JP Says:

    Updated 07/30/16:


    World J Gastroenterol. 2016 Jul 21;22(27):6257-67.

    Effect of dietary vitamin C on gastric cancer risk in the Korean population.

    AIM: To investigate the effects of dietary vitamin C and foods containing vitamin C on gastric cancer risk.

    METHODS: Our study included 830 control subjects and 415 patients. Data regarding demographics, medical history, and lifestyle, including dietary and nutrient intake, were collected using reliable self-administered questionnaires. Dietary intake information was collected from the participants using a food frequency questionnaire that has been previously reported as reliable and valid. A rapid urease test and a histological evaluation were used to determine the presence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. Twenty-three vitamin C-contributing foods were selected, representing over 80% of the cumulative vitamin C contribution.

    RESULTS: In analyses adjusted for first-degree family history of gastric cancer, education level, job, household income, smoking status, and regular exercise, an inverse association between vitamin C intake and gastric cancer risk was observed for the highest (≥ 120.67 mg/d) vs the lowest (< 80.14 mg/d) intake category [OR (95%CI): 0.64 (0.46-0.88)], with a significant trend across the three intake categories (P = 0.007). No protective effect of vitamin C was detected after stratification by gender. No effect of vitamin C intake on the gastric cancer incidence was found in either men or women infected with H. pylori. Vitamin C-contributing foods, including cabbage [0.45 (0.32-0.63), 0.50 (0.34-0.75), 0.45 (0.25-0.81)], strawberries [0.56 (0.40-0.78), 0.49 (0.32-0.74), 0.52 (0.29-0.93)], and bananas [0.40 (0.29-0.57), 0.41 (0.27-0.62), 0.34 (0.19-0.63)], were protective factors against the risk of gastric cancer based on the results of the overall adjusted analyses and the results for men and women, respectively.

    CONCLUSION: A protective effect of vitamin C and vitamin C-contributing foods against gastric cancer was observed. Further studies using larger sample sizes are required to replicate our results.

    Be well!


  21. JP Says:

    Updated 09/17/16:


    Nutr Cancer. 2016 Sep 16:1-7.

    Association between Dietary Inflammatory Index and Gastric Cancer Risk in an Italian Case-Control Study.

    BACKGROUND: In this study, we explored the association between the dietary inflammatory index (DII) and gastric cancer risk in an Italian case-control study.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cases were 230 patients with incident, histologically confirmed cases of gastric cancer from the Greater Milan area, Northern Italy. Controls were 547 frequency-matched subjects admitted to the same network of hospitals as cases for a wide spectrum of acute, non-neoplastic conditions. The DII was computed using a reproducible and valid 78-item food frequency questionnaire. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated through logistic regression models conditioned on age and sex and adjusted for recognized confounding factors, including total energy intake.

    RESULTS: Subjects with the most pro-inflammatory diet had a higher risk of gastric cancer compared to subjects with the most anti-inflammatory diet (ORQuartile4vs1 = 2.35, 95% confidence interval, 1.32, 4.20; P-trend = 0.004).

    CONCLUSION: These results indicate that a pro-inflammatory diet, as indicated by higher DII score, was associated with increased risk of gastric cancer.

    Be well!


  22. JP Says:

    Updated 01/09/17:


    Int J Cancer. 2017 Jan 7.

    Diabetes, plasma glucose and incidence of pancreatic cancer: A prospective study of 0.5 million Chinese adults and a meta-analysis of 22 cohort studies.

    Diabetes is associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer (PC) in Western populations. Uncertainty remains, however, about the relevance of plasma glucose for PC among people without diabetes and about the associations of diabetes and high blood glucose with PC in China where the increase in diabetes prevalence has been very recent. The prospective China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB) study recruited 512,000 adults aged 30-79 years from 10 diverse areas of China during 2004-08, recording 595 PC cases during 8 years of follow-up. Cox regression yielded adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for PC associated with diabetes (previously diagnosed or screen-detected) and, among those without previously diagnosed diabetes, with levels of random plasma glucose (RPG). These were further meta-analysed with 22 published prospective studies. Overall 5.8% of CKB participants had diabetes at baseline. Diabetes was associated with almost two-fold increased risk of PC (adjusted HR=1.87, 95% CI 1.48-2.37), with excess risk higher in those with longer duration since diagnosis (p for trend=0.01). Among those without previously diagnosed diabetes, each 1 mmol/L higher usual RPG was associated with a HR of 1.12 (1.04-1.21). In meta-analysis of CKB and 22 other studies, previously diagnosed diabetes was associated with a 52% excess risk (1.52, 1.43-1.63). Among those without diabetes, each 1 mmol/L higher blood glucose was associated with a 15% (1.15, 1.09-1.21) excess risk. In Chinese and non-Chinese populations, diabetes and higher blood glucose levels among those without diabetes are associated with an increased risk of PC.

    Be well!


  23. JP Says:

    Updated 01/28/17:


    Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2017 Jan 27:1-8.

    Increased Inflammatory Potential of Diet is Associated with Increased Risk of Prostate Cancer in Iranian Men.

    PURPOSE: Various aspects of diet like food items and nutrients have been implicated to play a role in modulating inflammation and in the etiology of prostate cancer. Studies examining this association have been conducted primarily in Western countries but none in Middle Eastern Countries.

    METHOD: We examined the association between a newly developed dietary inflammatory index (DII) and prostate cancer in an age and BMI matched case-control study among 40-78 year-old Iranian males. A total of 50 incident cases and 100 controls attending the same hospital as the cases during the same time period were recruited. The DII is a literature derived population based dietary index developed to determine the inflammatory potential of individual’s diet and was computed based on dietary intake assessed using a previously validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) that was expanded to assess diet and cancer in the Iranian population. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios, with DII fit as continuous and as a dichotomous variable.

    RESULTS: Multivariate analyses revealed that men with higher DII score (>0.23) to be at higher risk of prostate cancer [odds ratio (OR) = 3.96; 95% CI =1.29-12.16, p-value = 0.02)] compared to men with lower DII scores (≤0.23).

    CONCLUSION: These data suggest a pro-inflammatory diet, as indicated by increasing DII score, may be a risk factor for prostate cancer in Iranian men.

    Be well!


  24. JP Says:

    Updated 02/20/17:


    J Nutr. 2017 Feb 15.

    Supplemental Selenium May Decrease Ovarian Cancer Risk in African-American Women.

    Background: To our knowledge, no previous study has evaluated the associations of antioxidant intake with the risk of ovarian cancer in African-American women, who are known to have high mortality from the disease.Objective: We sought to evaluate these associations among 406 ovarian cancer cases and 632 age- and site-matched controls of African-American descent recruited from AACES (African American Cancer Epidemiology Study), a population-based, case-control study in 11 geographical areas within the United States.Methods: Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate ORs and 95% CIs adjusted for a wide range of potentially confounding factors, including age, region, education, parity, oral contraceptive use, menopause, tubal ligation, family history, body mass index (BMI), smoking status, total energy, and physical activity.Results: Women with the highest intakes of supplemental selenium (>20 μg/d) had an ∼30% lower risk of ovarian cancer than those with no supplemental intake (OR: 0.67; 95% CI: 0.46, 0.97; P-trend = 0.035). This inverse association was stronger in current smokers (OR: 0.13; 95% CI: 0.04, 0.46; P-trend = 0.001). There was no association with dietary selenium. The associations with carotenoid intakes were weak and nonsignificant (P = 0.07-0.60). We observed no association with dietary or supplemental intake of vitamin C or vitamin E. There were no appreciable differences in results between serous and nonserous tumors.Conclusions: These findings provide the first insights, to our knowledge, into the potential association between antioxidants and ovarian cancer in African-American women, indicating potential inverse associations with supplemental selenium.

    Be well!


  25. JP Says:

    Updated 04/19/17:


    Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2017 Apr 18.

    Reduced prostate cancer risk with green tea and epigallocatechin 3-gallate intake among Hong Kong Chinese men.

    BACKGROUND: In vitro and in vivo studies suggested that polyphenol epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG) in tea may have anti-carcinogenic effect on prostate cells, but this protective effect has less been examined in epidemiology studies. We aimed to investigate the association between prostate cancer (PCA) risk and habitual green tea intake among Chinese men in Hong Kong; meanwhile, the relationship with EGCG was also explored.

    METHODS: We consecutively recruited 404 PCA cases and 395 controls from the same hospital who had complete data on habitual tea consumption, including green, oolong, black and pu’er tea. We reconstructed the level of EGCG intake according to a standard questionnaire and the analytic values for EGCG extracted from the literature published by Lin et al. in 2003. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) for tea consumption and EGCG intake using unconditional multiple logistic regression, and examined their exposure–response relationships with PCA risk.

    RESULTS: A total of 32 cases and 50 controls reported habitual green tea drinking, showing an adjusted OR of 0.60 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.37, 0.98). A moderate excess risk was observed among the habitual pu’er tea drinkers (OR=1.44, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.91). A significantly lower intake of EGCG was observed among cases (54.4 mg) than the controls (72.5 mg), which resulted in an inverse gradient of PCA risk with the increasing intake of EGCG (test for trend, P=0.015).

    CONCLUSION: PCA risk among Chinese men in Hong Kong was inversely associated with green tea consumption and EGCG intake, but these results need to be replicated in larger studies.

    Be well!


  26. JP Says:

    Updated 07/04/17:


    Nutrients 2017, 9(7), 679

    Calcium Intake and the Risk of Ovarian Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    Several epidemiological studies have evaluated the association between calcium intake and the risk of ovarian cancer. However, the results of these studies remain controversial. Thus, we performed a meta-analysis to explore the association between calcium intake and the risk of ovarian cancer. Pubmed, Embase and Web of Science were searched for eligible publications up to April 2017. Pooled relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using the random-effects model. Small-study effect was estimated using Egger’s test and the funnel plot. Among 15 epidemiological studies involving 493,415 participants and 7453 cases eligible for this meta-analysis, 13 studies were about dietary calcium intake, 4 studies about dairy calcium intake and 7 studies about dietary plus supplemental calcium intake. When comparing the highest with the lowest intake, the pooled RRs of ovarian cancer were 0.80 (95% CI 0.72–0.89) for dietary calcium, 0.80 (95% CI 0.66–0.98) for dairy calcium and 0.90 (95% CI 0.65–1.24) for dietary plus supplemental calcium, respectively. Dietary calcium was significantly associated with a reduced risk of ovarian cancer among cohort studies (RR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.74–0.99) and among case-control studies (RR = 0.75, 95% CI 0.64–0.89). In subgroup analysis by ovarian cancer subtypes, we found a statistically significant association between the dietary calcium (RR = 0.78, 95% CI 0.69–0.88) and the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). This meta-analysis indicated that increased calcium intake might be inversely associated with the risk of ovarian cancer; this still needs to be confirmed by larger prospective cohort studies.

    Be well!


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