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Coffee Pros and Cons

March 1, 2010 Written by JP    [Font too small?]

Many years ago I attended a health conference where Dr. Julian Whitaker was giving the key note presentation. He mentioned that he was a strong believer in choosing at least one healthy habit and practicing it every day. In his case, Dr. Whitaker mentioned eating an apple once daily without fail. His reason for doing so was more than the obvious “An apple a day keeps the doctor away” philosophy. The broader point he was trying to make is that engaging in healthy lifestyle choices and/or eating nutritious food works best if we do it religiously. Sometimes having a specific goal in mind can assist us in doing just that.

I have a healthy daily routine as well. Every morning I wake up and head toward the kitchen. I pour a cup of purified water into a glass teapot and heat it up. I reach into a nearby cabinet and pull out a bottle of instant, organic coffee. I add water to the coffee granules, mix and enjoy. This is the first thing I do everyday. You may be thinking that I do this because I’m looking to add a little pep to my step at the start of the day. But that’s just part of the reason for my morning ritual.

When I mention that I drink coffee, I’m often questioned about the wisdom of doing so. My reply tends to go something like this: “This may surprise you but I consider coffee to be a genuine health food. It’s 100% natural and most of the recent research suggests some pretty significant disease protecting properties. I don’t recommend it for everyone, mainly because of the caffeine content. But I can’t think of any food or supplement that’s right for every individual. As with everything else, you have to weigh the pros and the cons”.

One of the most the positive aspects of coffee consumption is its apparent effect on those at risk for diabetes or already dealing with the disease. Diabetes is one the leading causes of health care complications and spending. Figures from the 2007 Diabetes Fact Sheet indicate that over 23.6 million adults and children have diabetes in the United States alone. An additional 57 million are regarded as “pre-diabetic”. The cost of treating diagnosed cases of diabetes is in the neighborhood of $174,000,000,000 a year. Therefore, the potential impact that the humble coffee bean can have on diabetes incidence and progression needs to be carefully considered. (1)

  • A study presented in the February 24th edition of the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition describes an interesting experiment. Forty-seven habitual coffee drinkers were asked to abstain from drinking coffee for one month. During the second month, the volunteers were allowed to consume 4 cups of filtered coffee per day. This was followed by 8 cups of coffee/day on the third and final month of the study. Blood tests were taken during all stages of the experiment. The highest intake of coffee provided “beneficial effects on subclinical inflammation and HDL (‘good’) cholesterol“. There was also an increase in concentrations of the hormone adiponectin, which is believed to benefit those with diabetes and heart disease. (2)
  • Native Americans are considered “a population with a high incidence and prevalence of diabetes”. A recent examination by the Center for American Indian Health Research at the University of Oklahoma looked for a correlation between coffee use and type-2 diabetes in a group of 1,141 men and women. The study volunteers were followed for an average of 7.6 years. Their ages ranged from 45-74 years old. The participants who drank the largest amount of coffee (a whopping 12 cups or more) demonstrated a 67% reduced risk of developing diabetes during the follow-up period. The authors of the investigation concluded that “a high level of coffee consumption was associated with a reduced risk of deterioration of glucose metabolism”. (3)
  • How and when coffee is consumed may impact how the body interprets the beverage. Brazilian researchers recently examined the coffee drinking habits of 69,532 French women over a two year period, after which they followed the women’s health status for an average of 11 years. They paid particular attention to the incidence of type 2 diabetes during the follow-up time frame. Over the 11 year period, 1,415 of the participants were diagnosed with diabetes. The women who drank 3 or more cups of coffee per day were 27% less likely to suffer from blood sugar abnormalities. But what was most interesting about this analysis is that women who drank coffee with lunch were protected to an even greater degree (34%). It’s also important to note that the benefits found in this population extended to both caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee drinkers. (4)
Flow-Mediated Dilation of the Brachial Artery After Intake of Coffee
Source: Clinical Science (2005) 109, (55–60) (link)

There are some downsides to drinking coffee, however many of the unwanted effects are short-lived. A recent example can be found in the February 3rd issue of the European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Scientists from the University of Palermo in Italy determined that caffeinated coffee reduced “flow-mediated dilation” of the brachial artery and caused an increase in blood pressure in a group of 20 healthy, non-obese men and women. These unfavorable effects were not present when the same test subjects consumed a decaffeinated Italian espresso. These transient changes – lasting about 1-2 hours – indicate a detrimental shift in endothelial function which can impact circulation. (5,6)

When examining a health issue, it’s important to look at the long-term significance of a finding as well as the short-term observations. The first issue to contend with here is the relative effects of caffeine itself. For instance, some research suggests that decaffeinated coffee may actually improve endothelial function and, thereby, promote healthier arteries. This might lead one to believe that caffeine must certainly be the bad guy. But not so fast. A German experiment from November 2008 discovered that caffeine appears to play a role in endothelial repair. Other investigations have reported that, if anything, regular coffee use tends to reduce risk markers relating to endothelial health (E-selectin) and systemic inflammation (C-reactive protein) which have both been associated with cardiovascular disease. The research that demonstrates positive effects for both caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee could possibly be explained by other health promoting phytochemicals such as kahweol which is found in all forms of coffee. (7,8,9,10)

Diabetes and heart disease are inextricably linked. It’s well established that diabetics are more likely to develop coronary artery disease than the population at large. Scientists believe that high blood sugar and insulin resistance likely promote arterial damage, blood clotting issues and chronic inflammation – all of which endanger the cardiovascular system. It’s possible that coffee, whether caffeinated or decaffeinated, plays a role in the natural management of both of these inter-connected diseases. But a serious evaluation of this topic is unlikely to occur if this traditional beverage is primarily viewed as a vice. I’m going to do my best to change that erroneous perception. I’ll take the next step in that process next week when I discuss several additional studies that highlight other facets of this controversial brew. (11)

Note: Please check out the “Comments & Updates” section of this blog – at the bottom of the page. You can find the latest research about this topic there!

Be well!


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Posted in Diabetes, Food and Drink, Heart Health

20 Comments & Updates to “Coffee Pros and Cons”

  1. anne h Says:

    Love coffee and loved this article!
    Good things to know, JP.

  2. JP Says:

    Thank you, Anne! 🙂

    Be well!


  3. Nina K. Says:

    Good Morning JP 🙂

    great article 😉 have i mentioned that i changed my coffee consumption habit? Meanwhile i drink more green tea than coffee because there is so great variety of green teas have to try them all… 🙂 but i think i will come back some day 🙂

    Nina K.

  4. JP Says:


    That seems like a wise strategy as well. I’m also a big fan of green and white tea. You can’t go wrong with coffee and greeen or white tea. Enjoy! 🙂

    Be well!


  5. Sai Says:

    Good Day JP!

    Explains why my late Grandma used to drink Coffee 3 times a day (always freashly brewed. I do not like coffee but i like Green Tea and i take it atleast 2 times a day along with the Hibiscus tea 🙂
    Another very good post.

    Best Regards


  6. JP Says:

    Thank you, Sai!

    I think your grandma would be proud of your decision! 🙂

    Be well!


  7. Betty Says:

    I don’t drink much coffee usually, but this was an interesting read nevertheless. Thanks.

  8. JP Says:

    Thank you, Betty. I’m glad you found it to be of interest.

    Be well!


  9. Rachel Says:


  10. Jason @ Cook Train Eat Race Says:

    Great article. I am a coffee drinker and an endurance athlete. With that in mind I had posted an article about how coffee impacts us triathletes/marathoners and whether it was good or bad for you because of it’s perception and not its reality.

    You can find the article here:

    I am going to be using your article as a way to update my post and it will be out tomorrow.

    Thank you for posting and I look forward to your future posts.

  11. JP Says:

    Update: More support for the role that coffee in fatty liver protection …


    Eur J Clin Nutr. 2015 Mar 25.

    Coffee but not green tea consumption is associated with prevalence and severity of hepatic steatosis: the impact on leptin level.

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Most of the studies that have investigated the association between coffee consumption and hepatic steatosis have been experimental and small-scale clinical studies. As a result, epidemiological studies are scarce. To clear the association, we conducted a cross-sectional study and investigated the effects of coffee consumption with those of green tea consumption.

    SUBJECTS/METHODS: We analyzed 1024 Japanese male workers. The diagnosis of hepatic steatosis was based on ultrasonography. We divided coffee and green tea consumption into the following three categories: non-drinker; 1-2 cups/day and ⩾3 cups/day. To investigate the association between hepatic steatosis and coffee or green tea consumption, we calculated the odds ratio (OR) and adjusted the means of leptin levels on each severity of hepatic steatosis.

    RESULTS: A total of 265 of our subjects (25.9%) were diagnosed with hepatic steatosis. The ORs of the group of subjects who drank >3 cups of coffee/day was significantly lower compared with that of the noncoffee drinker group (OR 0.59, 95% confidence intervals 0.38-0.90, P=0.03). Although there was a significant difference between coffee consumption and leptin level only in the asymptomatic group, we found a decreasing trend in the asymptomatic and moderate-severe hepatic steatosis group. We did not find the same relationships in green tea consumption.

    CONCLUSIONS: Although we did not find an association between hepatic steatosis and green tea consumption, coffee may have beneficial effects on hepatic steatosis. In addition, we produced one possible hypothesis that coffee consumption negatively associates with leptin levels in hepatic steatosis.

    Be well!


  12. JP Says:

    Update 05/23/15:


    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2015 May 21.

    Associations of coffee drinking with systemic immune and inflammatory markers.

    BACKGROUND: Coffee drinking has been inversely associated with mortality as well as cancers of the endometrium, colon, skin, prostate, and liver. Improved insulin sensitivity and reduced inflammation are among the hypothesized mechanisms by which coffee drinking may affect cancer risk; however, associations between coffee drinking and systemic levels of immune and inflammatory markers have not been well characterized.

    METHODS: We used Luminex bead-based assays to measure serum levels of 77 immune and inflammatory markers in 1,728 older non-Hispanic Whites. Usual coffee intake was self-reported using a food frequency questionnaire. We used weighted multivariable logistic regression models to examine associations between coffee and dichotomized marker levels. We conducted statistical trend tests by modeling the median value of each coffee category and applied a 20% false discovery rate criterion to P-values.

    RESULTS: Ten of the 77 markers were nominally associated (P-value for trend<0.05) with coffee drinking. Five markers withstood correction for multiple comparisons and included aspects of the host response namely chemotaxis of monocytes/macrophages (IFNγ, CX3CL1/fractalkine, CCL4/MIP-1β), pro-inflammatory cytokines (sTNFRII) and regulators of cell growth (FGF-2). Heavy coffee drinkers had lower circulating levels of IFNγ (OR=0.35; 95% CI 0.16-0.75), CX3CL1/fractalkine (OR=0.25; 95% CI 0.10-0.64), CCL4/MIP-1β (OR=0.48; 95% CI 0.24-0.99), FGF-2 (OR=0.62; 95% CI 0.28-1.38), and sTNFRII (OR=0.34; 95% CI 0.15-0.79) than non-coffee drinkers.

    CONCLUSIONS: Lower circulating levels of inflammatory markers among coffee drinkers may partially mediate previously observed associations of coffee with cancer and other chronic diseases.

    IMPACT: Validation studies, ideally controlled feeding trials, are needed to confirm these associations.

    Be well!


  13. JP Says:

    Updated 09/06/15:


    Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2015 Sep 2.

    Coffee and caffeine consumption and depression: A meta-analysis of observational studies.

    OBJECTIVE: The results from observation studies on relationship between coffee intakes and risk of depression and relationship between caffeine consumption and depression remains controversial. We conducted a meta-analysis with a dose-response analysis to quantitatively summarize the evidence about the association between coffee and caffeine intakes and risk of depression.

    METHOD: Relevant articles were identified by researching PubMed, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure and WANFANG DATA in English or Chinese from 1 January 1980 to 1 May 2015. Case-control, cohort or cross-sectional studies evaluating coffee or caffeine consumption and depression were included. A random-effects model was used to combine study-specific relative risk and 95% confidence interval. Dose-response relationship was assessed by restricted cubic spline functions.

    RESULTS: Data were obtained from 11 observation articles; 330,677 participants from seven studies in seven articles were included in the coffee-depression analysis, while 38,223 participants from eight studies in seven articles were involved in the caffeine-depression analysis. Compared with the lowest level consumption, the pooled relative risk (95% confidence interval) for coffee-depression and caffeine-depression was 0.757 [0.624, 0.917] and 0.721 [0.522, 0.997], respectively. For dose-response analysis, evidence of a linear association was found between coffee consumption and depression, and the risk of depression decreased by 8% (relative risk = 0.92, 95% confidence interval = [0.87, 0.97], p = 0.002) for each cup/day increment in coffee intake; a nonlinear association was found between caffeine consumption and depression, the risk of depression decreased faster and the association became significant when the caffeine consumption was above 68 mg/day and below 509 mg/day.

    CONCLUSIONS: Coffee and caffeine consumption were significantly associated with decreased risk of depression.

    Be well!


  14. JP Says:

    Updated 07/29/16:


    Public Health Nutr. 2016 Jul 14:1-10.

    Coffee consumption and mortality in three Eastern European countries: results from the HAPIEE (Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial factors In Eastern Europe) study.

    OBJECTIVE: To test the association between coffee consumption and risk of all-cause, CVD and cancer death in a European cohort.
    DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. Cox proportional hazards models with adjustment for potential confounders to estimate multivariable hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI were used.

    SETTING: Czech Republic, Russia and Poland.

    SUBJECTS: A total of 28561 individuals followed for 6·1 years.

    RESULTS: A total of 2121 deaths (43·1 % CVD and 35·7 % cancer mortality) occurred during the follow-up. Consumption of 3-4 cups coffee/d was associated with lower mortality risk in men (HR=0·83; 95 % CI 0·71, 0·99) and women (HR=0·63; 95 % CI 0·47, 0·84), while further intake showed non-significant reduced risk estimates (HR=0·71; 95 % CI 0·49, 1·04 and HR=0·51; 95 % CI 0·24, 1·10 in men and women, respectively). Decreased risk of CVD mortality was also found in men (HR=0·71; 95 % CI 0·54, 0·93) for consumption of 3-4 cups coffee/d. Stratified analysis revealed that consumption of a similar amount of coffee was associated with decreased risk of all-cause (HR=0·61; 95 % CI 0·43, 0·87) and cancer mortality (HR=0·59; 95 % CI 0·35, 0·99) in non-smoking women and decreased risk of all-cause mortality for >4 cups coffee/d in men with no/moderate alcohol intake.

    CONCLUSIONS: Coffee consumption was associated with decreased risk of mortality. The protective effect was even stronger when stratification by smoking status and alcohol intake was performed.

    Be well!


  15. JP Says:

    Updated 08/17/17:


    J Hypertens. 2016 Sep;34 Suppl 2:e99.


    OBJECTIVE: Coffee consumption has been found to predict the risk of cardiovascular events (CVE) in hypertension. Aim of the present study was to ascertain whether the strength of the coffee-CVE association is modulated by regular physical activity.

    DESIGN AND METHOD: The analysis was made in 1204 participants from the HARVEST, a prospective cohort study of non-diabetic subjects aged 18-45 years, screened for stage 1 hypertension. Among the participants, 26.2% were abstainers, 62.8% were moderate coffee drinkers (1-3 cups/day) and 10.0% were heavy coffee drinkers (>3 cups/day). For physical activity level, 61.1% were categorized as sedentary (class 0), 14.9% as mild exercisers (class 1), 14.9% as amateurs (class 2), and 9.1% as competitive athletes (class 3).

    RESULTS: The frequency of coffee drinkers was higher among the sedentary (77.4%) than the active (67.9%) subjects (p < 0.001). During a 12.6 year follow-up 70 participants developed a CVE. The rate of CVE was higher among the coffee drinkers (7.1%) than the abstainers (2.2%, p = 0.001) and was higher in the sedentary (7.2%) than the active (3.6%) subjects (p = 0.01). In a 2x2 sub-table the coffee-related difference in CVE was significant among the sedentary (p = 0.006) but not the active subjects (p = 0.22) with a Mantel-Haenszel Chi-Square = 8.3 (p = 0.004). In a multivariable Cox analysis, including age, sex, parental CVE, smoking, alcohol use, total cholesterol, follow-up hypertension, and a coffee-physical activity interaction term, coffee consumption was a significant predictor of CVE in heavy coffee drinkers (Hazard ratio, 95%CI; 3.3, 1.2-8.9) and was a borderline predictor in moderate drinkers (HR, 95%CI; 2.0, 0.9-4.5). In addition, a borderline negative interaction was found between coffee consumption and physical activity habits on risk of CVE (p = 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: These data confirm that coffee use is associated with increased risk of CVE in young-to-middle age subjects with stage 1 hypertension. However, the effects of coffee on risk of CVE is modulated by the individual level of physical activity. Regular physical activity seems to counteract the long-term deleterious effect of caffeinated coffee on the cardiovascular system. Be well! JP

  16. JP Says:

    Updated 10/28/16:


    Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2016 Oct 22.

    Effects of coffee consumption on gut recovery after surgery of gynecological cancer patients: a randomized controlled trial.

    BACKGROUND: Paralytic ileus developing after elective surgery is a common and uncomfortable complication and is considered inevitable after an intraperitoneal operation.

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether coffee consumption accelerates the recovery of bowel function after complete staging surgery of gynecological cancers.

    STUDY DESIGN: In this randomized controlled trial, 114 patients were preoperatively allocated to either postoperative coffee consumption with three times daily (n=58) or routine postoperative care without coffee consumption (n=56). Total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with systematic pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy (PPL) were performed on all patients as part of complete staging surgery for endometrial, ovarian, cervical, or tubal cancer. The primary outcome measure was the time to the first passage of flatus after surgery. Secondary outcomes were the time to first defecation, time to first bowel movement, and time to tolerance of a solid diet.

    RESULTS: The mean time to flatus (30.2±8.0 h vs. 40.2±12.1 h; P < 0.001), mean time to defecation (43.1±9.4 h vs. 58.5±17.0 h; P < 0.001), and mean time to the ability to tolerate food (3.4±1.2 days vs. 4.7±1.6 days; P < 0.001) were all significantly reduced in patients who consumed coffee compared to controls. Mild ileus symptoms were observed in 17 (30.4%) patients in the control group compared to 6 (10.3%) patients in the coffee group (P = 0.01). Coffee consumption was well tolerated and well accepted by patients, and no intervention-related side-effects were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Coffee consumption after total abdominal hysterectomy and systematic PPL expedites the time to bowel motility and the ability to tolerate food. This simple, cheap, and well-tolerated treatment should be added as an adjunct to the postoperative care of gynecological oncology patients. Be well! JP

  17. JP Says:

    Updated 11/15/16:


    Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2016 Nov 14:1-7.

    Coffee consumption and the occurrence and intensity of metabolic syndrome: a cross-sectional study.

    The objective of the study was to investigate associations between coffee consumption and the occurrence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components in individuals with a normal BMI, as well in those who are overweight and obese. The analysis was based on the data of 10,367 participants. The studies included a questionnaire interview, anthropometric measurements, blood pressure measurements and analyses of collected fasting-blood samples. In the overweight and obese participants, lower coffee consumption, compared with higher consumption was correlated with a significantly higher risk of abdominal obesity, hypertension, an abnormal glucose concentration, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides and MetS (p < .05). In the participants with a normal BMI, lower coffee consumption was related to the abdominal obesity, HDL cholesterol and MetS (p < .05). Individuals with a normal BMI may react slightly differently to nutritional factors modifying metabolism such as coffee, compared with those with excessive body mass. Be well! JP

  18. JP Says:

    Updated 12/26/16:


    Mediation of coffee-induced improvements in human vascular function by chlorogenic acids and its metabolites: Two randomized, controlled, crossover intervention trials

    Background & Aims: Polyphenol intake has been linked to improvements in human vascular function, although data on hydroxycinnamates, such as chlorogenic acid (CGA) have not yet been studied. We aimed to investigate the impact of coffee intake rich in chlorogenic acid on human vascular function and whether CGAs are involved in potential effects.

    Methods: Two acute randomized, controlled, cross-over human intervention trials were conducted. The impact of coffee intake, matched for caffeine but differing in CGA content (89, and 310 mg) on flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) was assessed in 15 healthy male subjects. In a second intervention trial conducted with 24 healthy male subjects, the impact of pure 5-caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA), the main CGA in coffee (5-CQA; 450 mg and 900 mg) on FMD was also investigated.

    Results: We observed a bi-phasic FMD response after low and high polyphenol, (89 mg and 310 mg CGA) intake, with increases at 1 (1.10 ± 0.43% and 1.34 ± 0.62%, respectively) and 5 (0.79% ± 0.32 and 1.52% ± 0.40, respectively) hours post coffee consumption. FMD responses to coffee intake was closely paralleled by the appearance of CGA metabolites in plasma, notably 3-, 4- and 5-feruloylquinic acid and ferulic-4′-O-sulfate at 1 h and isoferulic-3′-O-glucuronide and ferulic-4′-O-sulfate at 5 h. Intervention with purified 5-CQA (450 mg) also led to an improvement in FMD response relative to control (0.75 ± 1.31% at 1 h post intervention, p = 0.06) and concomitant appearance of plasma metabolites.

    Conclusions: Coffee intake acutely improves human vascular function, an effect, in part, mediated by 5-CQA and its physiological metabolites.

    Be well!


  19. JP Says:

    Updated 03/25/17:


    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016 Dec;25(4):729-739.

    Simultaneous coffee caffeine intake and sleep deprivation alter glucose homeostasis in Iranian men: a randomized crossover trial.

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Sleep deprivation and coffee caffeine consumption have been shown to affect glucose homeostasis separately, but the combined effects of these two variables are unknown.

    METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Forty-two healthy Iranian men, aged 20-40 years old, were assigned to three groups in a randomised crossover trial involving three treatments with two-week washout periods. Subjects were moderate coffee consumers (<=3 cups/day), and had a Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index <=5. Each treatment involved three nights of deprived sleep (4 hrs. in bed) plus 3×150 cc/cup of boiled water (BW treatment), decaffeinated coffee (DC treatment, without sugar, 99.9% caffeine-free), and caffeinated coffee (CC treatment, without sugar, 65 mg caffeine/ cup). DC and CC treatments were blinded. At the end of each treatment, fasting serum glucose (using enzyme assays) and insulin (using electrochemiluminescence immunoassay) were measured and, again, two hours after an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Insulin resistance was quantified with the homeostasis model.

    RESULTS: Repeated measures ANOVA indicated no significant difference between the treatments in fasting serum glucose (p=0.248) or insulin resistance (p=0.079). However, ANOVA demonstrated differences between treatments in fasting serum insulin (p=0.004) and glucose, as well as insulin after OGTT (p<0.001). Pairwise comparisons test (within subjects) showed that the CC treatment yielded higher serum glucose and insulin after OGTT (p<0.001), higher fasting serum insulin (p=0.001), and increased insulin resistance (p=0.039) as compared to the DC treatment.

    CONCLUSIONS: Thus caffeinated coffee was more adverse for glucose homeostasis compared to decaffeinated coffee in individuals who were simultaneously sleep deprived.

    Be well!


  20. JP Says:

    Updated 11/07/18:


    Nutr Health. 2018 Nov 5:260106018810941.

    Caffeine content of Nespresso® pod coffee.

    BACKGROUND: Little independent information on the caffeine content of the popular Nespresso® coffee pod range exists.

    AIM: To quantify the caffeine content of Nespresso® pod coffees.

    METHODS: Initially, three serves (ristretto (S), espresso (M), lungo (L)) of two pod varieties (Livanto and Roma) were prepared on three different Nespresso® machines (2 × U-Delonghi (1 × 5 years since purchase (old), 1 × recently purchased (new)), 1 × new Lattissima Pro (alternate)) using two different batches (sleeves). Caffeine content was then determined via triplicate samples using high-performance liquid chromatography. Differences in content (i.e. serve size, machine or sleeve) were determined via an analysis of variance or paired sample t-tests.

    RESULTS: Coffees prepared on different machines or pods from different sleeves did not influence the caffeine content (old = 63 ± 13, new = 60 ± 8, alternate = 60 ± 10 mg·serve-1; p = 0.537, sleeveA = 63 ± 11, sleeveB = 59 ± 9 mg·serve-1; p = 0.134). Less caffeine was delivered in S (51 ± 7 mg·serve-1) compared to larger sizes (M = 66 ± 7 and L = 66 ± 10 mg·serve-1). Subsequently, the caffeine content from two serve sizes (S and L) from 17 other varieties within the Nespresso® range was determined and compared to the manufacturer’s values. Caffeine content (all pods) ranged from 19 to 147 mg·serve-1, and represented 51-162% of manufacturer’s values.

    CONCLUSION: Nespresso® consumers are exposed to variable amounts of caffeine, which often differ from the manufacturer’s reports.

    Be well!


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