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Sea Salt Surprise

April 16, 2010 Written by JP    [Font too small?]

Throughout the ages there’s always been a clash between the norms of past and present generations. We see this is in the way people dress, the music they listen to and even the way they talk. And while there are always groups on both sides of the debate, there are also bystanders who watch on and think: “The more things change, the more they stay the same”. That argument can be logically made in the cultural arena. But I don’t think it holds water when it comes to dietary shifts that have largely taken place over the past few centuries. One of the more pronounced differences in the dietary composition of modern man vs. Stone Age dwellers is a shift in the ratio between sodium and potassium.

Major alterations in the way we eat matter because the human body simply doesn’t evolve nearly as quickly as technology and our whims would like. The fact of the matter is that many 21st century menu plans are top heavy in processed foods that are loaded with sodium chloride, otherwise known as common table salt. In the Paleolithic days the opposite was true. Most of the foods consumed back then were abundant sources of potassium and contained only moderate levels of sodium. This reversal of minerals has lead some researchers to comment that the “electrolyte mix of the modern diet is profoundly mismatched to its processing machinery”. (1)

Sadly, there is evidence from all over the world that people of all ages and backgrounds are frequently drowning in salt and thirsting for potassium without even knowing it.

  • A recent inquiry into the micronutrient intake of children in London, aged 7 to 10, revealed a 68% likelihood of inadequate potassium intake. (2)
  • A current review from Switzerland reports that the physiological need for sodium is about 1.5 grams per day. However many populations regularly consume over 8 grams daily. (3)
  • Italian researchers uncovered that the habitual salt intake in men from southern Italy “was well above the recommended amounts” and that “sodium intake was only slightly reduced in hypertensive participants on pharmacological therapy”. (4)
  • An even broader inquiry into the dietary habits of Central and Eastern European countries suggests that “fewer than 65% of subjects consumed adequate amounts of calcium, magnesium and potassium”. (5)
  • A Canadian study went so far as to proclaim that poor potassium status should be used as a marker for overall diet quality and “is significantly related to BMI (body mass index), blood pressure and heart rate”. (6)

The real world consequences of this aforementioned sodium/potassium imbalance is often the focus of scientific inquiries. Several recent studies address the dangers of both potassium deficiency and sodium excess, the first of which appears in the March 2010 edition of the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. A group of researchers from New Zealand expounded upon the sodium/blood pressure link by examining the impact of salt on vascular wall function – an integral component of the circulatory system. Thirty-five hypertensive volunteers were asked to drink tomato juice beverages containing various amounts of sodium. As expected the tomato drinks spiked with sodium resulted in an increase in both diastolic and systolic blood pressure. But an additional observation was also verified: there was a significant elevation in pulse wave velocity which signifies a “BP (blood pressure) independent effect on vascular wall function” which “further supports the importance of dietary sodium restriction in the management of hypertension”. (7)

Two additional publications currently warn that excess sodium intake appears to: a) increase urinary calcium excretion possibly leading to bone loss and; b) decrease the amount of oxygen that reaches the kidneys (renal tissue oxygenation), which could lead to kidney damage in the long term. (8,9)

On the other end of the spectrum, we have potassium. The addition of potassium bicarbonate and potassium chloride was recently shown to improve the health of the cardiovascular system in a group of “42 individuals with untreated, mildly raised blood pressure”. Over the course of 12 weeks, the study participants were administered either a placebo, potassium bicarbonate or potassium chloride respectively. Both forms of potassium lead to positive changes in endothelial function and increased arterial compliance. In addition, potassium chloride generated minor changes in “24-hour and daytime systolic blood pressure” while potassium bicarbonate resulted in a reduction in urinary calcium loss – a measure of bone status. Another publication suggests that part of the therapeutic potential of potassium is mediated by its under-reported antioxidant activity. That review, by scientists from the University of Tokyo Graduate School of Medicine, postulates that dietary potassium protects the cardiovascular system and combats insulin resistance by countering oxidative stress caused by excessive salt intake. (10,11)

Sodium Restriction Reduces Stroke Risk
Source:  CMAJ. 2009 October 27; 181(9): 605–609. (link)

The most direct way to address a poor sodium-potassium ratio is to avoid processed foods and focus instead on eating a whole food diet. But I was recently introduced to a secondary resource which may provide some added support. About a month ago I discovered a new form of sea salt that actually serves as a good dietary source of potassium. How is this achieved? According to the makers, “All natural NutraSalt is harvested from the seas of the Mediterranean and crafted with minerals from the Dead Sea for added health benefits”.

  • Sea salt typically contains about 2,400 milligrams of sodium per teaspoon.
  • NutraSalt provides about 700 mg of sodium and approximately 2,000 mg of potassium per teaspoon.

Initially, I thought I was ahead of the curve when I learned of the product at this year’s Natural Products Expo West. But, apparently others are catching on as well. A few weeks ago NutraSalt was bestowed with a Best of Expo award for Honorable Distinction in the grocery/meals category.

A notable characteristic of NutraSalt is that it really does taste like a fine quality sea salt. It doesn’t have a metallic or other off taste like many other salt substitutes. However it’s what you can’t see or taste that really singles this product out. Replacing even a portion of everyone’s salt intake with this potassium-rich sea salt could go a long way to tipping the sodium-potassium ratio back in your favor.

Here’s the best part of all. I have samples and discount cards available for NutraSalt. I’m happy to announce that I’ll be sending out a trial size sample of “The Good Salt” to the first ten readers who e-mail me at (jp@healthyfellow.com) or leave a comment at the bottom of this column. All samples will be accompanied by a coupon code in case you like the product and want to order it as well.

As is always the case, I’ve received no financial compensation in conjunction with today’s promotion. I simply want to let you know about an up-and-coming product that I think may benefit your health and mine. If you’re one of the lucky ten or if you’ve otherwise tried NutraSalt, please let us have your impression – good, bad or indifferent. Your opinion always matters here and it can help guide others to the best new products out there.

Note: Please check out the “Comments & Updates” section of this blog – at the bottom of the page. You can find the latest research about this topic there!

Be well!


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Posted in Food and Drink, Heart Health, Nutrition

39 Comments & Updates to “Sea Salt Surprise”

  1. Rosemary Says:

    Hi JD,

    What a coincidence! I have sea salt on my shopping list right now because my recent blood test showed that I am barely within the normal range and after reading more about potassium I had decided to give sea salt a try. As a low-carber I don’t eat bananas, but I do eat almonds, chicken breast, sirloin, spinach, etc.–apparently not enough, though.

    If participating in the SooooSweet trial does not make me ineligible, I would like very much to see what NutraSalt can do to improve my potassium level.

    Best regards,

  2. mallory Says:

    hey ill tke some!! neverseen that brand before here in Mississippi. right now i have some but the stats arent that good. for potassium i have somenosalt or something like that i use in combo with seasalt? good of bad idea?

  3. suzanne Says:

    I’d love some if you don’t mind sending it to Canada??

  4. JP Says:

    Rosemary, Mallory and Suzanne,

    I’ll be in touch. I’d be happy to send you all samples of NutraSalt. 🙂

    Mallory: Combining No Salt with regular sea salt seems like a reasonable strategy. I personally prefer NutraSalt because it doesn’t impart a metallic taste like some of the salt substitutes I’ve tried before.

    Be well!


  5. Carol Says:

    Very interesting blog! I had just read about NutraSalt and looked on their website. I’m also impressed with the varieties/flavors. I hope I’m one of the ten to get a sample! Thanks for the great info.

  6. JP Says:

    Thank you, Carol!

    If you see this note, please e-mail me directly (jp@healthyfellow.com). I sent you an e-mail but it didn’t seem to go through.

    I’d like to ship you some NutraSalt samples but I need to know your mailing address in order to do so.

    Be well!


  7. Pat Says:

    I have low kidney function and need to control my sodium intake. This sounds like just the thing I need.

  8. JP Says:


    I’ll reserve a few samples of NutraSalt for you. However I must insist that you first consult with your doctor prior to considering using this product.

    Kidney abnormalities can sometimes cause an excessive build up of potassium (hyperkalemia). Please find out if adding dietary/supplemental potassium to your daily routine is appropriate in your case.

    I suggest that you print out the nutritional information from NutraSalt’s web site and show it to your doctor. If he/she tells you it’s appropriate, then I’ll happily send you the samples. My only concern is for your safety. I hope you’ll understand.


    Be well!


  9. Allison Trottier Says:

    I always love all your recommendations. How much potassium and magnesium should we supplement?

  10. Iggy Dalrymple Says:

    Normally, I don’t use salt. All my drinking water comes from the local thermal mineral water. Hopefully, I get sufficient potassium from the water and from my diet.


    Hot Spring Water
    Chemical Analysis

    Water averages 143º Fahrenheit/62º Celsius
    Parts per Million

    Silica (SiO2) 53.0
    Calcium (Ca) 47.0
    Magnesium (Mg) 4.9
    Sodium (Na) 4.0
    Sulfate (SO4) 7.8
    Potassium (K) 1.4
    Chloride (Cl) 2.2
    Fluoride (F) 0.26
    Bicarbonate (HCO3) 130.0
    Free Carbon Dioxide (CO2) 9.7
    Oxygen (O2) 4.5
    Radioactivity through radon gas emanation is 43.3 picocuries per liter.

    I do suffer from kidney stones and there’s some speculation that the high incidence of kidney stones here is due to the high mineral content of the spring water. I add lemon juice to my drinking water to help keep the minerals and oxalates in solution.

  11. Mark Says:

    I also use sea salt from Japan that I buy from an Oriental grocer. Is there any noticeable differences in sodium/potassium level in sea salts depending upon their location?

  12. JP Says:

    Thank you, Allison. 🙂

    The general RDI for magnesium is about 300 – 400 mgs a day.


    However some people may benefit from higher levels. I probably end up getting about twice that amount on a daily basis via diet and supplements.

    The official RDI for potassium is 4,500 mg a day.


    I don’t worry about keeping tabs on my overall potassium consumption. I just try to emphasize foods that are rich sources of the mineral and that are low in sodium.

    Be well!


  13. JP Says:


    It doesn’t look like the thermal water is going to help much re: your sodium/potassium ratio. But I think your diet is likely to be of benefit – based on what I know of it.

    BTW, potassium may be helpful re: kidney stones:




    http://jasn.asnjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/20/10/2253 (a low sodium, high potassium diet helps too)

    Be well!


  14. JP Says:


    re: potassium & sodium content of different sea salts

    Not that I’m aware of – unless they’re specially processed with added sea minerals, as is the case with NutraSalt.

    Here’s a comparison of a few of the most popular types of sea salt:

    http://www.celticseasalt.com/PDF/CSSAnalysis-Jan2007.pdf (virtually free of potassium – high in sodium)

    Himalayan Sea Salt (Source Naturals brand) contains about 600 mg of sodium per 1/4 tsp.

    You can ask your supplier for a certificate of analysis which should detail the exact mineral composition of the Japanese sea salt you’re using.

    Be well!


  15. Iggy Dalrymple Says:

    Thanks for the links, JP.

    I would be afraid of supplementing with potassium because twice in the past decade, I’ve tested dangerously high in potassium. It’s been over a decade since I’ve used a potassium supplement.

    As for the last link, I’m definitely on the DASH diet, except in recent weeks, when I’ve been caring for my junkfood loving 91 year old mother.


  16. JP Says:


    I think you’ve got a good handle on things. I just hope you can get back to the diet that suits you well soon.

    I’ll keep an eye out for other (non potassium-based) kidney stone remedies while researching in the coming days and beyond. Will report back. 🙂

    Be well!


  17. sai Says:

    Hello JP,

    Another great Post! please keep the good work going. If there are some still left you could send them to me.



  18. Paul Fanton Says:

    Hi JP,

    Another gem for your precious collection!
    Recently my Bone Density Scan in the DEXA reported a mild Osteopenia which at 76 is not too bad, but I must address and
    or hopefully stop the bone density loss or reverse its progression.
    Your article appears to give me some tools. Would the form of salt contained in in the NutraSalt be a good choice for me?
    Any other recommendation?
    I trust your guidance, please address it as time permits.
    Regards and love to you and Mrs Healthy Fellow.


  19. LBarkley Says:

    Hi JP,

    Today is my first ever visit to your website. Loved the article about asparagus. I love the vege and eat it a lot. I have eaten Morton’s Lite Salt for most of my adult life and find pure salt too salty. I would love to try NutraSalt if you still have the offer. Thanks for all your information. Great website!!


  20. JP Says:

    Good day, Sai.

    I’d be happy to send you some.

    I’ll be in touch. 🙂

    Be well!


  21. JP Says:


    Thank you for your kind words. They’re very much appreciated! 🙂

    Reducing sodium intake may promote calcium retention. Also, it appears that potassium may play a positive role re: bone mineral density independent of it’s connection to sodium status.

    This is a good place to start if you’re looking to support bone density via nutrition:


    You might want to look into the viability of a silica supplement known as Biosil (Orthosilicic Acid):


    Finally, please be aware that stress is detrimental in so many ways – skeletal integrity is no exception:


    Be well!


  22. JP Says:

    Thank you, LB!

    I’ll happily send you a sample of NutraSalt.

    I’ll be in touch shortly.

    Be well!


  23. anne h Says:

    Several of my patients use sea salt to raise their sodium levels.

  24. JP Says:

    Thanks for letting us know about that, Anne!

    Now there’s a natural option to raise both potassium and sodium levels. It’s good to have options. 🙂

    Be well!


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    http://medicinefirst.net fast weight loss products, men health – viagra, levitra, cialis

  26. Nick Says:

    Hi what up JB

  27. Nick Says:

    If ur not out of ur salt can i have some plz
    if not all well

  28. JP Says:


    I’m sorry but I’ve run out of NutraSalt samples.

    If you’re interested in buying a bottle, please visit this site (www.nutrasalt.com) and type in this code: NC010 to get a 10% discount.

    Be well!


  29. Rosemary Says:


    I was so excited that my NutraSalt samples arrived. My initial taste test enhanced my excitement. It had zero off-taste. On the plus side it is very “salty” so I can use a little less which will mitigate some of the cost when it comes time to order more.

    I think I mentioned before that my potassium number was near the bottom. What I neglected to say was that my sodium number was very near the top. It will be interesting to see what my numbers are in 6 months after switching to NutraSalt.

    I’m not expecting major changes because we are not heavy salt users, but any shift toward better numbers will be good.

    I am anxious to make your mixed nut recipe now that I have the NutraSalt, but I am having trouble locating it. Can you repost it or send me a link?

    Many thanks!

  30. Rosemary Says:

    I found it!


  31. JP Says:

    Thank you for the feedback, Rosemary. I’m happy to know that you enjoy it as much as we do.

    Please keep us posted about any changes in your blood pressure and/or blood work that may be attributed to the addition of NutraSalt.

    I hope you enjoy the spicy nut recipe!

    Be well!


  32. Ryan Critchett Says:

    Great post! My God! Thank you for educating us on things that seriously matter. I’ve been into consuming healthy things and being as sharp as I can with what goes into my body. This can help anyone learn! Thanks again.


  33. JP Says:

    Many thanks, Ryan!

    Be well!


  34. Ruth Wallace Says:

    Regular salt seems to bring my blood pressure up. At one time I did use salt free and my potassium was high. I would like very much to try NutraSalt. I know I’m way pass the 10 person to reply. Thanks

  35. JP Says:

    Hi Ruth,

    Unfortunately, I no longer have any samples to share. However, NutraSalt is available in some health food stores and online on sites such as Amazon.com <--- That's where I order it. NutraSalt *may* be a better fit for you because it's a blend of naturally occurring potassium and sodium derived from a specially sourced sea salt. Be well! JP

  36. ben Says:

    Is there any study that shows sodium/salt CAUSES hypertension, not just correlation? There’s been quite a bit of papers published showing salt intake/restriction only applies to a very small group of people that are salt sensitive:

    “.. Dietary sodium restriction for older hypertensive individuals might be considered, but the evidence in the normotensive population does not support current recommendations for universal dietary sodium restriction. ”

    “There is no evidence that limiting NaCl consumption to 6 g/day, as recommended by a number of health agencies, poses any health risk.”

    “low-salt diets had virtually no effect on people with normal blood pressure, a vast majority of the population, and, at best, resulted in only a small drop in the systolic pressure of people with high blood pressure.”

    “These results do not support a general recommendation to reduce sodium intake.”

    “Experimental evidence suggests that the effect of a large reduction in salt intake on blood pressure is modest, and health consequences remain to be determined”

  37. JP Says:

    Hi, Ben.

    Some experimental and observational trials have assessed the impact of sodium intake/restriction on cardiovascular function and risk markers. I’ll list several below.

    I don’t think sodium is an evil element by any means. Adequate dietary sodium is absolutely essential to good health. However, the amount of sodium (and the relative lack of potassium) in many modern diets is at odds with most traditional diets and a considerable amount of modern, scientific findings – such as the ones I’ll highlight.

    Be well!



    Atherosclerosis. 2014 Mar;233(1):32-8.

    A reduction of 3 g/day from a usual 9 g/day salt diet improves endothelial function and decreases endothelin-1 in a randomised cross_over study in normotensive overweight and obese subjects.

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: It is unclear if a modest reduction in dietary salt intake has beneficial effects on vascular function. The aim was to compare the effects of 9 g salt/day with 6 g salt/day intake on measures of vascular function and explore mechanisms of effect in overweight and obese adults.

    CONCLUSIONS: A small reduction in dietary salt intake of 3 g/day improves endothelial function in normotensive overweight and obese subjects. This response may be mediated by serum endothelin-1. This small reduction in salt had no effect on aldosterone and renin concentrations.


    Circulation. 2014 Mar 4;129(9):981-9.

    Lower levels of sodium intake and reduced cardiovascular risk.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: Phases 1 and 2 of the Trials of Hypertension Prevention (TOHP) collected multiple 24-hour urine specimens among prehypertensive individuals. During extended post-trial surveillance, 193 cardiovascular events or cardiovascular disease deaths occurred among 2275 participants not in a sodium reduction intervention with 10 (TOHP II) or 15 (TOHP I) years of post-trial follow-up. Median sodium excretion was 3630 mg/d, with 1.4% of the participants having intake <1500 mg/d and 10% <2300 mg/d, consistent with national levels. Compared with those with sodium excretion of 3600 to <4800 mg/d, risk for those with sodium <2300 mg/d was 32% lower after multivariable adjustment (hazard ratio, 0.68; 95% confidence interval, 0.34-1.37; P for trend=0.13). There was a linear 17% increase in risk per 1000 mg/d increase in sodium (P=0.05). Spline curves supported a linear association of sodium with cardiovascular events, which continued to decrease from 3600 to 2300 and 1500 mg/d, although the data were sparse at the lowest levels. Controlling for creatinine levels had little effect on these results.


    CONCLUSIONS: Results from the TOHP studies, which overcome the major methodological challenges of prior studies, are consistent with overall health benefits of reducing sodium intake to the 1500 to 2300 mg/d range in the majority of the population, in agreement with current dietary guidelines.


    Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2013 Nov;8(11):1952-9.

    Dietary sodium restriction and association with urinary marinobufagenin, blood pressure, and aortic stiffness.

    DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: The hypothesis was that dietary sodium restriction performed in middle-aged/older adults (eight men and three women; 60 ± 2 years) with moderately elevated systolic BP (139 ± 2/83 ± 2 mmHg) would reduce urinary marinobufagenin excretion as well as systolic BP and aortic pulse-wave velocity (randomized, placebo-controlled, and crossover design). This study also explored the associations among marinobufagenin excretion with systolic BP and aortic pulse-wave velocity across conditions of 5 weeks of a low-sodium (77 ± 9 mmol/d) and 5 weeks of a normal-sodium (144 ± 7 mmol/d) diet.

    CONCLUSIONS: These results show, for the first time in humans, that dietary sodium restriction reduces urinary marinobufagenin excretion and that urinary marinobufagenin excretion is positively associated with systolic BP, aortic stiffness (aortic pulse-wave velocity), and endothelial cell expression of the oxidant enzyme NAD(P)H oxidase. Importantly, marinobufagenin excretion is positively related to systolic BP over ranges of sodium intake typical of an American diet, extending previous observations in rodents and humans fed experimentally high-sodium diets.

  38. JP Says:

    Update 06/01/15:


    JAMA Pediatr. 2015 Apr 27.

    Longitudinal Effects of Dietary Sodium and Potassium on Blood Pressure in Adolescent Girls.

    Importance: Identification of risk factors early in life for the development of high blood pressure is critical to the prevention of cardiovascular disease.

    Objective: To study prospectively the effect of dietary sodium, potassium, and the potassium to sodium ratio on adolescent blood pressure.

    Design, Setting, and Participants: The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute’s Growth and Health Study is a prospective cohort study with sites in Richmond, California; Cincinnati, Ohio; and Washington, DC. Participants included 2185 black and white girls initially aged 9 to 10 years with complete data for early-adolescent to midadolescent diet and blood pressure who were followed up for 10 years. The first examination visits were from March 1987 through February 1988 and follow-up continued until February 1999. Longitudinal mixed models and analysis of covariance models were used to assess the effect of dietary sodium, potassium, and the potassium to sodium ratio on systolic and diastolic blood pressures throughout adolescence and after 10 years of follow-up, adjusting for race, height, activity, television/video time, energy intake, and other dietary factors.

    Exposures: Mean dietary sodium and potassium intakes and the mean potassium to sodium ratio in individuals aged 9 to 17 years. To eliminate potential confounding by energy intake, energy-adjusted sodium and potassium residuals were estimated.

    Main Outcomes and Measures: Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures throughout adolescence and at the end of follow-up (individuals aged 17-21 years).

    Results: Sodium intakes were classified as less than 2500 mg/d (19.4% of participants), 2500 mg/d to less than 3000 mg/d (29.5%), 3000 mg/d to less than 4000 mg/d (41.4%), and 4000 mg/d or more (9.7%). Potassium intakes ranged from less than 1800 mg/d (36.0% of participants) to 1800 mg/d to less than 2100 mg/d (26.2%), 2100 mg/d to less than 2400 mg/d (18.8%), and 2400 mg/d or more (19.0%). There was no evidence that higher sodium intakes (3000 to <4000 mg/d and ≥4000 mg/d vs <2500 mg/d) had an adverse effect on adolescent blood pressure and longitudinal mixed models showed that those consuming 3500 mg/d or more had generally lower diastolic blood pressures compared with individuals consuming less than 2500 mg/d (P = .18). However, higher potassium intakes were inversely associated with blood pressure change throughout adolescence (P < .001 for systolic and diastolic) and at the end of follow-up (P = .02 and P = .05 for systolic and diastolic, respectively). While the potassium to sodium ratio was also inversely associated with systolic blood pressure (P = .04), these effects were generally weaker compared with effects for potassium alone. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study of adolescent girls, consumption of 3500 mg/d of sodium or more had no adverse effect on blood pressure. The beneficial effects of dietary potassium on both systolic and diastolic blood pressures suggest that consuming more potassium-rich foods during childhood may help suppress the adolescent increase in blood pressure. Be well! JP

  39. JP Says:

    Updated 06/28/16:


    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2016;25(1):39-45.

    Daily salt intake estimated by overnight urine collections indicates a high cardiovascular disease risk in Thailand.

    This cross-sectional study (February 2012 to March 2013) was conducted to estimate daily salt intake and basic characteristics among 793 community-dwelling participants at high risk of cardiovascular disease (Framingham risk score >15%), who had visited diabetes or hypertension clinics at health centres in the Muang district, Chiang Rai, Thailand. We performed descriptive analysis of baseline data and used an automated analyser to estimate the average of 24-hour salt intake estimated from 3 days overnight urine collection. Participants were divided into two groups based on median estimated daily salt intake. Mean age and proportion of males were 65.2 years and 37.6% in the higher salt intake group (>=10.0 g/day, n=362), and 67.5 years and 42.7% in the lower salt intake group (<10.0 g/day, n=431), respectively (p=0.01, p<0.01). The higher salt intake group comprised more patients with a family history of hypertension, antihypertensive drug use, less ideal body mass index (18.5-24.9), higher exercise frequency (>=2 times weekly) and lower awareness of high salt intake. Among higher salt intake participants, those with lower awareness of high salt intake were younger and more often had a family history of hypertension, relative to those with more awareness. Our data indicated that families often share lifestyles involving high salt intake, and discrepancies between actual salt intake and awareness of high salt intake may represent a need for salt reduction intervention aiming at family level. Awareness of actual salt intake should be improved for each family.

    Be well!


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