Exercise Matters

August 23, 2010 Written by JP    [Font too small?]

Staying physical active is one of the greatest gifts you can give yourself. But there are numerous reasons why some people avoid exercise altogether. Chief among them is a lack of conviction. At times this is a result of over-rationalization. “I just saw on the news that so-and-so died. He was an avid runner. That just goes to show you that we’re all going to die anyway.” Another common excuse is the belief that exercise has to be complicated. Spend some time at a book store or watching infomercials late at night and you may get the impression that you need to buy a best-selling training manual, a trendy DVD or take a specialized course in order to “do it right”. The truth is that for the vast majority of people, getting healthier is as simple as moving around more. However, it never hurts to peer into the scientific literature from time-to-time to see what’s new in the world of exercise research. That’s where the real advancements are presented. My Healthy Monday tip of the week is to stay active while staying informed to get the most out of your work-out routine.

Exercise Tip #1 – Exercise Needn’t Be Intense

There’s nothing wrong with a vigorous work out. In fact, there can be a lot to be gained from testing your physical limits. That said, gentler, more deliberate exercises that include mind-body techniques can similarly improve physical conditioning and shape. Two new studies clearly illustrate this assertion. The first is published in the August 2010 edition of the British Journal of Sports Medicine. A 12 week intervention combining Tai Chi and Qigong exercise training improved several indicators of metabolic syndrome and overall quality of life scores in a group of 11 men and women with ages ranging from 42 to 65. Specifically, a reduction in blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), HbA1c (a measure of long term blood sugar control), insulin resistance and waist circumference was reported. On the mental front, there was also a decline in depressive symptoms and stress. Greater “general health”, “mental health” and “vitality” also showed a positive shift. In addition, the Australian authors conducting the research note that voluntary adherence to the experimental protocol and “treatment acceptance” was high. (1)

The evidence from the above mentioned study is very positive and in accord with the results one might expect from an aerobic style exercise regimen. However, there appears to be some differences in treatment outcomes when “Western exercise” is compared head-to-head with Eastern practices such as Tai Chi. In July 2010, a trial was published in the Journal of Aging and Physical Activity. It examined the relative effects of Tai Chi, “Western exercise” (WE) and “an attention-control group”. The study participants had an average age of 69 and engaged in a combination of classroom and home-based exercises over a 12 month period. The results show distinct advantages for each of the two interventions. Those involved in the WE program demonstrated greater gains in upper body flexibility. But the volunteers in the Tai Chi group exhibited statistically higher scores in measures of balance and cognitive function. This suggests that a combination of various styles of physical activity may afford more comprehensive health benefits than singular forms. (2,3)

Exercise Tip #2 – Exercise May Improve Asthma Symptoms

Many asthmatic children do not exercise enough because of the frequently faulty assumption that physical activity could make asthma worse. This is a shame because in many cases increased activity actually leads to gains in lung function and health-related quality of life. Recent studies conducted in Australia, Brazil and China all support this point of view. Specifically, the findings indicate that aerobic training can diminish frequency of asthmatic symptoms, physical limitations and the psychosocial consequences of asthma. The number of asthma-free days tends to increase when regular exercise takes place and feelings of anxiety and depression decline. One of the theories about how exercise accomplishes this feat is via anti-inflammatory activity. It’s important to note that adult asthmatics also benefit from supervised exercise interventions. (4,5,6,7,8)

Exercise Tip #3 – There’s No Need to “Carbo Load”

The August 2010 issue of the European Journal of Applied Physiology may surprise some exercise enthusiasts who believe that high carbohydrate intake is required to fuel the body during and after work outs. A cross-over study involving 12 men and women tested the impact of high and low carbohydrate (CHO) nutrition during separate courses of 6 sets of eccentric exercises. When given the high carbohydrate nutrition, greater “perceived soreness” was reported. Inflammatory markers known as IL-1beta and IL-6 were higher 24 hours post exercise in the high-carbohydrate vs. the low-carbohydrate testing periods. The authors of the research concluded that, “inflammation induced by high-force eccentric exercise in skeletal muscle is greater when a high CHO compared to a low CHO diet is consumed during recovery”. (9)

L-Carnitine Improves Exercise Tolerance and Inspiratory Function in COPD Patients
Source: Braz J Med Biol Res vol.39 no.4 Apr. 2006 (link)
Exercise Tip #4 – A Supplement for Middle-Aged Men & Women

According to many mainstream health authorities, there’s no advantage and potential danger when using nutritional supplements to support physical performance. What’s more, any decline in energy, recovery and strength that accompanies aging is to be expected. One should just accept it and move on. Well, to that, I say “Not so fast!”. If you’re not eating a plentiful amount of red meat, you’re unlikely to get much carnitine in your diet. However, non-meat eaters can derive the health benefits of carnitine by supplementing with it as an alternative. Italian researchers recently administered 2 grams/day of l-carnitine l-tartrate to a group of 18 middle-aged men and women in a crossover, double-blind, placebo-controlled experiment. Three weeks of supplementation with carnitine resulted in positive changes in various biochemical markers: free radical formation, muscle soreness, muscle tissue disruption and purine metabolism. The concluding remarks of this Italian study explain that, “These findings support our previous findings of l-carnitine in younger people that such supplementation can reduce chemical damage to tissues after exercise and optimize the processes of muscle tissue repair and remodeling”. (10)

Exercise Tip #5 – Whey Protein May Improve Exercise Tolerance & Pulmonary Function

Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or COPD often feel as though exercise is beyond their reach. Currently, there is no miracle cure that modern medicine can offer. However, a combination of prescribed exercise training and whey protein may provide some functional and psychological benefits. A study appearing in the June 2010 edition of the Journal of Medicinal Food describes a trial involving 22 patients with COPD. Half of the study volunteers were given a placebo (casein/milk protein). The remainder supplemented with whey protein. All of the participants engaged in a 16 week exercise intervention. The Canadian researchers overseeing the trial discovered that the use of whey protein potentiated “the effects of exercise training on exercise tolerance and quality of life in patients with COPD”. This finding may allow for allopathic physicians and pro-active patients to incorporate whey protein as a useful adjunct to conventional COPD care. (11)

I’m strongly in favor of inactive people getting more involved in exercise. But there are a few caveats. It’s always a good idea to check in with your health care provider to determine which form of exercise is right for you. Certain health conditions may require modified exercise regimens or a progressive integration of activity into your lifestyle. If and when you get the go-ahead from your doctor, you’ll need to decide how to begin. There are differing points of view about this. To my mind, it’s generally best to start off slowly and carefully assess how your body tolerates this positive change in behavior. Pay close attention and proceed accordingly. It’s better to take things slowly and maintain a long term program than to push too hard initially and burn out or injure yourself. I hope today’s information will inspire you to adopt an activity level similar to that of prior generations. Please remember that regular physical activity is as natural as drinking pure water, eating whole foods and getting adequate sleep. It’s also as important.

Note: Please check out the “Comments & Updates” section of this blog – at the bottom of the page. You can find the latest research about this topic there!

Be well!

JP


Tags: , ,
Posted in Alternative Therapies, Exercise, Nutritional Supplements

23 Comments & Updates to “Exercise Matters”

  1. Nina K. Says:

    Good morning, JP ☼

    great article!

    For beginners: try to change your habits: use the car less often for shopping, walk instead, walk the stairs more often – saves also energy – and go for a walk in the nature ☼♥

    Stay healthy!
    Nina K.

  2. Mark S Says:

    Exercise is vitally important to health and longevity. One’s home is filled with items that can be used, mainly your own body. No gym required. There are a myriad of exercises that can be done to increase strength and endurance with your own body weight.

    I see quite a few at the gym that go thru the motions on useless machines. You’d be surprised what you can do with a sledgehammer and a tire!

    Great article.

  3. JP Says:

    Thank you, Nina! 🙂

    Excellent suggestions!

    Be well!

    JP

  4. JP Says:

    Ha! So true, Mark! Even just doing housework can really help. Doing laundry, making the bed, vacuuming, washing your car or the dishes … they all require movement. Even bit helps. 🙂

    Be well!

    JP

  5. Dr. Josh Axe Says:

    @Mark – Agreed. I see people reading magazines and books while they’re ‘working out’ at the gym. If your intensity is low enough where you can read a book, probably a good indicator that you’re trying hard enough.

  6. Pamela Lipscomb Says:

    Great information about the benefits of exercise. Exercise is the best gift one can give oneself. I have a few health issue that prevent me from doing strenuous exercise. I even joined a yoga glass at the Y and though I would die. I decided that I have to start somewhere and most people can walk. So my exercise is walking. It has made a difference, and I am getting strong each passing day.

  7. JP Says:

    Good for you, Pamela. Keep up the good work! 🙂

    Be well!

    JP

  8. JP Says:

    Update: Collagen supplement supports exercise recovery …

    http://www.jissn.com/content/pdf/1550-2783-11-S1-P48.pdf

    Effects of BioCell Collagen® on connective tissue protection and functional recovery from exercise in healthy adults: a pilot study

    Background: The extracellular matrix (ECM) of muscle, tendon, and ligament is sensitive to exercise-induced mechanical stimuli. Exercise-induced muscle damage is associated with not only myofibrillar injury, but also the involvement of connective tissue elements such as collagen, proteoglycans (PG), tendon and ligament. However, little is known about the impact of nutritional agents and metabolic optimization for enhancing adaptation and recovery of the connective tissue elements that support musculoskeletal function. BioCell Collagen® (BCC) is a patented hydrolyzed chicken sternal cartilage extract that contains a naturally-occurring matrix of hydrolyzed collagen type II, and low molecular weight glycosaminoglycans such as chondroitin sulfate and hyaluronic acid. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the potential impact of daily supplementation with BCC on functional indices and molecular biomarkers of recovery from intense exercise, and identify effect sizes on various outcome measures.

    Methods: Eight healthy, recreationally active subjects (29.3 ± 9.2 y, 173.1 ± 8.2 cm, 77.3 ± 13.5 kg) volunteered to participate in this study and were randomized in a double-blind, placebo-controlled fashion to ingest either 3 g of placebo or BioCell Collagen® daily over a 6-week period prior to an upper body muscle-damaging resistance exercise challenge (UBC) on day 43, and a re-challenge on day 46. At the end of the 6-week supplementation period, participants completed a UBC consisting of 8 sets of barbell bench press at 75% of body weight load to exhaustion with a 4/0/X repetition tempo and 90 seconds rest between sets; the UBC exercise challenge was repeated 72 hours later to assess recovery of function. Consent to publish the results was obtained from all participants.

    Results: Daily intake of BCC for 6-weeks attenuated an increase in serum markers for muscle tissue damage in response to bench press exercise, creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and C-reactive protein (CRP). Change in CK: +20 U/L (BCC) vs. +4726 U/L (placebo); change in LDH: -3.5 U/L (BCC) vs. +82.9 U/L (placebo); change in CRP: +0.07 mg/L (BCC) vs. +0.7 mg/L (placebo). In terms of performance, the decrement in bench press repetitions to failure was only 49% (day 43) and 43% (day 46) in the BCC group vs. 60% (day 43) and 55% (day 46) in the placebo group.

    Conclusion: The preliminary data of this proof-of-concept study suggests that daily intake of BCC for 6 weeks may favorably impact key biochemical markers of connective and skeletal muscle tissue damage and enhance stress resilience following intense resistance exercise. Supplementation was well tolerated and did not adversely affect markers of health or side effect profiles.

    Be well!

    JP

  9. JP Says:

    Update: Omega-3 fatty acids may reduce exercise-induced muscle damage and inflammation …

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4342081/

    J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2015 Feb 19;12:10.

    The effects PCSO-524®, a patented marine oil lipid and omega-3 PUFA blend derived from the New Zealand green lipped mussel (Perna canaliculus), on indirect markers of muscle damage and inflammation after muscle damaging exercise in untrained men: a randomized, placebo controlled trial.

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of PCSO-524®, a marine oil lipid and n-3 LC PUFA blend, derived from New Zealand green- lipped mussel (Perna canaliculus), on markers of muscle damage and inflammation following muscle damaging exercise in untrained men.

    METHODS: Thirty two untrained male subjects were randomly assigned to consume 1200 mg/d of PCSO- 524® (a green-lipped mussel oil blend) or placebo for 26 d prior to muscle damaging exercise (downhill running), and continued for 96 h following the muscle damaging exercise bout. Blood markers of muscle damage (skeletal muscle slow troponin I, sTnI; myoglobin, Mb; creatine kinase, CK), and inflammation (tumor necrosis factor, TNF-α), and functional measures of muscle damage (delayed onset muscle soreness, DOMS; pressure pain threshold, PPT; knee extensor joint range of motion, ROM; isometric torque, MVC) were assessed pre- supplementation (baseline), and multiple time points post-supplementation (before and after muscle damaging exercise). At baseline and 24 h following muscle damaging exercise peripheral fatigue was assessed via changes in potentiated quadriceps twitch force (∆Qtw,pot) from pre- to post-exhaustive cycling ergometer test in response to supra-maximal femoral nerve stimulation.

    RESULTS: Compared to placebo, supplementation with the green-lipped mussel oil blend significantly attenuated (p < 0.05) sTnI and TNF-α at 2, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h., Mb at 24, 48, 72, 96 h., and CK-MM at all-time points following muscle damaging exercise, significantly reduced (p < 0.05) DOMS at 72 and 96 h post-muscle damaging exercise, and resulted in significantly less strength loss (MVC) and provided a protective effect against joint ROM loss at 96 h post- muscle damaging exercise. At 24 h after muscle damaging exercise perceived pain was significantly greater (p < 0.05) compared to baseline in the placebo group only. Following muscle damaging exercise ∆Qtw,pot was significantly less (p < 0.05) on the green-lipped mussel oil blend compared to placebo. CONCLUSION: Supplementation with a marine oil lipid and n-3 LC PUFA blend (PCSO-524®), derived from the New Zealand green lipped mussel, may represent a useful therapeutic agent for attenuating muscle damage and inflammation following muscle damaging exercise. Be well! JP

  10. JP Says:

    Update: Hydrotherapy also benefits patients living with fibromyalgia …

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25786047

    Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2015 Mar-Apr;33 Suppl 88(1):73-81. Epub 2015 Mar 18.

    Effects of a hydrotherapy programme on symbolic and complexity dynamics of heart rate variability and aerobic capacity in fibromyalgia patients.

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of a hydrotherapy programme on aerobic capacity and linear and non-linear dynamics of heart rate variability (HRV) in women with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS).

    METHODS: 20 women with FMS and 20 healthy controls (HC) took part in the study. The FMS group was evaluated at baseline and after a 16-week hydrotherapy programme. All participants underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing on a cycle ergometer and RR intervals recording in supine and standing positions. The HRV was analysed by linear and non-linear methods. The current level of pain, the tender points, the pressure pain threshold and the impact of FMS on quality of life were assessed.

    RESULTS: The FMS patients presented higher cardiac sympathetic modulation, lower vagal modulation and lower complexity of HRV in supine position than the HC. Only the HC decreased the complexity indices of HRV during orthostatic stimulus. After a 16-week hydrotherapy programme, the FMS patients increased aerobic capacity, decreased cardiac sympathetic modulation and increased vagal modulation and complexity dynamics of HRV in supine. The FMS patients also improved their cardiac autonomic adjustments to the orthostatic stimulus. Associations between improvements in non-linear dynamics of HRV and improvements in pain and in the impact of FMS on quality of life were found.

    CONCLUSIONS: A 16-week hydrotherapy programme proved to be effective in ameliorating symptoms, aerobic functional capacity and cardiac autonomic control in FMS patients. Improvements in the non-linear dynamics of HRV were related to improvements in pain and in the impact of FMS on quality of life.

    Be well!

    JP

  11. JP Says:

    Update 05/18/15:

    http://www.jissn.com/content/12/1/22

    Influence of a montmorency cherry juice blend on indices of exercise-induced stress and upper respiratory tract symptoms following marathon running—a pilot investigation

    Background: Prolonged exercise, such as marathon running, has been associated with an increase in respiratory mucosal inflammation. The aim of this pilot study was to examine the effects of Montmorency cherry juice on markers of stress, immunity and inflammation following a Marathon.

    Methods: Twenty recreational Marathon runners consumed either cherry juice (CJ) or placebo (PL) before and after a Marathon race. Markers of mucosal immunity secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA), immunoglobulin G (IgG), salivary cortisol, inflammation (CRP) and self-reported incidence and severity of upper respiratory tract symptoms (URTS) were measured before and following the race.

    Results: All variables except secretory IgA and IgG concentrations in saliva showed a significant time effect (P <0.01). Serum CRP showed a significant interaction and treatment effect (P < 0.01). The CRP increase at 24 and 48 h post-Marathon was lower (P < 0.01) in the CJ group compared to PL group. Mucosal immunity and salivary cortisol showed no interaction effect or treatment effect. The incidence and severity of URTS was significantly greater than baseline at 24 h and 48 h following the race in the PL group and was also greater than the CJ group (P < 0.05). No URTS were reported in the CJ group whereas 50 % of runners in the PL group reported URTS at 24 h and 48 h post-Marathon. Conclusions: This is the first study that provides encouraging evidence of the potential role of Montmorency cherries in reducing the development of URTS post-Marathon possibly caused by exercise-induced hyperventilation trauma, and/or other infectious and non-infectious factors. Be well! JP

  12. JP Says:

    Update 06/26/15:

    http://www.jissn.com/content/12/1/25

    J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2015 Jun 4;12:25.

    Sodium bicarbonate intake improves high-intensity intermittent exercise performance in trained young men.

    BACKGROUND: Sodium bicarbonate intake has been shown to improve exercise tolerance, but the effects on high-intensity intermittent exercise are less clear. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the effect of sodium bicarbonate intake on Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 2 performance in trained young men.

    METHOD: Thirteen men aged 23 ± 1 year (height: 180 ± 2 cm, weight: 78 ± 3 kg; VO2max: 61.3 ± 3.3 mlO2 · kg(-1) · min(-1); means ± SEM) performed the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 2 (Yo-Yo IR2) on two separate occasions in randomized order with (SBC) and without (CON) prior intake of sodium bicarbonate (0.4 g · kg(-1) body weight). Heart rate and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured during the test and venous blood samples were taken frequently.

    RESULTS: Yo-Yo IR2 performance was 14 % higher (P = 0.04) in SBC than in CON (735 ± 61 vs 646 ± 46 m, respectively). Blood pH and bicarbonate were similar between trials at baseline, but higher (P = 0.003) immediately prior to the Yo-Yo IR2 test in SBC than in CON (7.44 ± 0.01 vs 7.32 ± 0.01 and 33.7 ± 3.2 vs 27.3 ± 0.6 mmol · l(-1), respectively). Blood lactate was 0.9 ± 0.1 and 0.8 ± 0.1 mmol · l(-1) at baseline and increased to 11.3 ± 1.4 and 9.4 ± 0.8 mmol · l(-1) at exhaustion in SBC and CON, respectively, being higher (P = 0.03) in SBC. Additionally, peak blood lactate was higher (P = 0.02) in SBC than in CON (11.7 ± 1.2 vs 10.2 ± 0.7 mmol · l(-1)). Blood glucose, plasma K(+) and Na(+) were not different between trials. Peak heart rate reached at exhaustion was 197 ± 3 and 195 ± 3 bpm in SBC and CON, respectively, with no difference between conditions. RPE was 7 % lower (P = 0.003) in SBC than in CON after 440 m, but similar at exhaustion (19.3 ± 0.2 and 19.5 ± 0.2).

    CONCLUSION: In conclusion, high-intensity intermittent exercise performance is improved by prior intake of sodium bicarbonate in trained young men, with concomitant elevations in blood alkalosis and peak blood lactate levels, as well as lowered rating of perceived exertion.

    Be well!

    JP

  13. frp tank karawang Says:

    First off I want to say excellent blog! I had a quick question which I’d like to ask if you do not mind. I was interested to know how you center yourself and clear your head prior to writing. I’ve had a hard time clearing my thoughts in getting my thoughts out. I truly do enjoy writing however it just seems like the first 10 to 15 minutes are generally wasted just trying to figure out how to begin. Any suggestions or tips?

    Many thanks!

  14. JP Says:

    Thank you!

    I find that daily meditation, twice-daily when possible, helps my brain to function more efficiently. Also, walking before writing works for me. Walking outside is optimal. But, even walking on a treadmill is beneficial in my experience.

    You might also consider shifting your thoughts. Each and every day, affirm that writing is easy for you. The ideas flow freely and you can access your creativity at will. IMO, our thoughts (and related feelings) strongly influence our actions and potential. A shift in thoughts often makes a big difference.

    I hope these suggestions are helpful!

    Be well!

    JP

  15. JP Says:

    Updated 06/26/16:

    http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs40520-016-0593-7

    Aging Clin Exp Res. 2016 Jun 18.

    The interrelationship between balance, Tai Chi and depression in Latino older adults.

    Falls and associated injuries are the most serious medical problem affecting the functional independence among both White non-Hispanics and Latino older adults. Studies have shown the effectiveness of Tai Chi exercise in reducing falls but have primarily focused on White non-Hispanic older adults. There is limited research that examines the effectiveness of this exercise on balance among different racial/ethnic minority older adults. This study focused on the interrelationship between functional status (balance performance) and psychosocial status (depression) before and after a 12-week Tai Chi program among Latinos in a Midwestern metropolitan city. Results indicated that at baseline, prior to the start of the Tai Chi program, participants who were more depressed had poorer functional status. Participants who had higher depression at baseline, experienced greater improvement in functional status, following the 12-week Tai Chi exercise program, compared with those who had lower levels of depression.

    Be well!

    JP

  16. JP Says:

    Updated 06/30/16:

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27356240

    Obesity (Silver Spring). 2016 Jun 29.

    Dietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids and oleate enhances exercise training effects in patients with metabolic syndrome.

    OBJECTIVE: We studied the effects of exercise training alone or combined with dietary supplementation of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (Ω-3PUFA) and oleate on metabolic syndrome (MSyn) components and other markers of cardiometabolic health.

    METHODS: Thirty-six patients with MSyn underwent 24 weeks of high-intensity interval training. In a double-blind randomized design, half of the group ingested 500 mL/day of semi-skim milk (8 g of fat; placebo milk) whereas the other half ingested 500 mL/day of skim milk enriched with 275 mg of Ω-3PUFA and 7.5 g of oleate (Ω-3 + OLE).

    RESULTS: Ω-3 + OLE treatment elevated 30% plasma Ω-3PUFA but not significantly (P = 0.286). Improvements in VO2peak (12.8%), mean blood pressure (-7.1%), waist circumference (-1.8%), body fat mass (-2.9%), and trunk fat mass (-3.3%) were similar between groups. However, insulin sensitivity (measured by intravenous glucose tolerance test), serum concentration of C-reactive protein, and high-density lipoprotein improved only in the Ω-3 + OLE group by 31.5%, 32.1%, and 10.3%, respectively (all P < 0.05). Fasting serum triacylglycerol, glucose, and plasma fibrinogen concentrations did not improve in either group after 24 weeks of intervention. CONCLUSIONS: Diet supplementation with Ω-3PUFA and oleate enhanced cardiometabolic benefits of intense aerobic exercise training in patients with MSyn. Be well! JP

  17. JP Says:

    Updated 07/01/16:

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27359179

    Psychosom Med. 2016 Jun 29.

    Effects of Moderate Exercise on Cortical Resilience: A Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Study Targeting the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex.

    BACKGROUND: The beneficial effects of exercise on the brain regions that support cognitive control and memory are well documented. However, examination of the capacity of acute exercise to promote cortical resilience-the ability to recover from temporary pertubation-has been largely unexplored. The present study sought to determine whether single session of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise can accelerate recovery of inhibitory control centers in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex after transient perturbation via continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS).

    METHODS: In a within-participants experimental design, 28 female participants aged 18 to 26 years (mean [standard deviation] = 20.32 [1.79] years) completed a session each of moderate-intensity and very light-intensity exercise, in a randomized order. Before each exercise session, participants received active cTBS to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. A Stroop task was used to quantify both the initial perturbation and subsequent recovery effects on inhibitory control.

    RESULTS: Results revealed a significant exercise condition (moderate-intensity exercise, very light-intensity exercise) by time (prestimulation, poststimulation, postexercise) interaction (F(2,52) = 5.93, p = .005, d = 0.38). Specifically, the proportion of the cTBS-induced decrement in inhibition restored at 40 minutes postexercise was significantly higher after a bout of moderate-intensity exercise (101.26%) compared with very light-intensity exercise (18.36%; t(27) = -2.17, p = .039, d = -.57, 95% confidence interval = -161.40 to -4.40).

    CONCLUSION: These findings support the hypothesis that exercise promotes cortical resilience, specifically in relation to the brain regions that support inhibitory control. The resilience-promoting effects of exercise have empirical and theoretical implications for how we conceptualize the neuroprotective effects of exercise.

    Be well!

    JP

  18. JP Says:

    Updated 09/01/16:

    http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09168451.2016.1224638?journalCode=tbbb20

    Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2016 Aug 26:1-6.

    Daily consumption of tea catechins improves aerobic capacity in healthy male adults: a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial.

    Our previous studies demonstrated that dietary supplementation with tea catechins combined with exercise improved endurance capacity in mice. This study aimed to demonstrate the effect of daily tea catechin consumption on aerobic capacity in humans. Sixteen Japanese non-athlete male subjects (aged 25-47 years) took 500 mL of a test beverage with or without tea catechins (570 mg) daily for 8 weeks and attended a training program twice a week. Aerobic capacity was evaluated by indirect calorimetry and near-infrared spectroscopy during graded cycle exercise. Catechin beverage consumption was associated with a significantly higher ventilation threshold during exercise and a higher recovery rate of oxygenated hemoglobin and myoglobin levels after graded cycle exercise when compared to subjects receiving the placebo beverage. These results indicate that daily consumption of tea catechins increases aerobic capacity when combined with semiweekly light exercise, which may be due to increased skeletal muscle aerobic capacity.

    Be well!

    JP

  19. JP Says:

    Updated 09/22/16:

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5017068/

    Pak J Med Sci. 2016 Jul-Aug;32(4):1005-9.

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Stuttering is one of the most common speech disorders in adolescents than adults. Stuttering results in depression, anxiety, behavioral problem, social isolation and communication problems in daily life. Our objective was to determine the effect of Aerobic Exercises (AE) on stuttering.

    METHODS: A quasi trail was conducted at National Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine (NIRM) from January to June 2015. Thirty patients were selected and placed in three different groups Experimental Group A, (EG = 10 patients, age between 7-14 years), Experimental Group B (EG =10 patients age between 15-28 years) and control group -group C, (CG = 10 patients, age between 7-28 years). Patient who stutter were included in this study and those with any other pathology or comorbidity of speech disorders were excluded. The assessment tool used was Real-Time analysis of speech fluency scale. Participants in all the groups received speech therapy while only the EG – A and B received aerobic exercises (AE) using treadmill and stationary bicycle along with the speech therapy. Pre-interventional and post interventional assessments were analyzed using the SPSS 21 in order to determine the significance of new treatment approach and the effectiveness of physical therapy on speech disorders.

    RESULTS: All the groups showed significant treatment effects but both the EG groups (Group A, Group B) showed high improvement in the severity level of stuttering as compared to control group C. The results also showed that AE treated group B had significant difference in p-value (p=0.027) as compared to control group (p<0.05) while experimental group A had no significant difference (p > 0.05) between these groups.

    CONCLUSION: The eclectic approach of aerobic exercises with the traditional speech therapy provides proximal rehabilitation of stuttering.

    Be well!

    JP

  20. JP Says:

    Updated 04/24/17:

    http://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/9/4/421/htm

    Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 421

    Supplementation with a Polyphenol-Rich Extract, PerfLoad®, Improves Physical Performance during High-Intensity Exercise: A Randomized, Double Blind, Crossover Trial

    Workout capacity is energy-production driven. To produce peak metabolic power outputs, the organism predominantly relies more on anaerobic metabolism, but this undoubtedly has a negative and limiting impact on muscle function and performance. The aim of the study was to evaluate if an innovative polyphenol-based food supplement, PerfLoad®, was able to improve metabolic homeostasis and physical performance during high-intensity exercises under anaerobic conditions. The effect of a supplementation has been investigated on fifteen recreationally-active male athletes during a randomized, double-blind and crossover clinical investigation. The Wingate test, an inducer of an unbalanced metabolism associated to oxidative stress, was used to assess maximum anaerobic power during a high-intensity exercise on a cycle ergometer. Supplementation with PerfLoad® correlated with a significant increase in total power output (5%), maximal peak power output (3.7%), and average power developed (5%), without inducing more fatigue or greater heart rate. Instead, oxidative homeostasis was stabilized in supplemented subjects. Such results demonstrated that PerfLoad® is a natural and efficient solution capable of, similarly to training benefits, helping athletes to improve their physical performance, while balancing their metabolism and reducing exercise-induced oxidative stress.

    Be well!

    JP

  21. JP Says:

    Updated 04/30/17:

    http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/sms.12906/abstract

    Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2017 Apr 28.

    Combined aerobic and resistance training decreases inflammation markers in healthy men.

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Our primary aim was to study the effects of 24 weeks of combined aerobic and resistance training performed on the same day or on different days on inflammation markers.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: Physically active, healthy young men were randomly divided into three groups that performed: aerobic and resistance training consecutively in the same training session (SS) 2-3 d·wk-1 or on alternating days (AD) 4-6 d·wk-1 as well as control (C). The total training volume was matched in the training groups. The control group was asked to maintain their habitual physical activity and exercise level. Maximal leg press strength (1RM) and peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak ) were measured. Abdominal fat mass was estimated with dual-energy absorptiometry (DXA). High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin 6 (IL6), monocyte chemo attractant protein 1 (MCP-1), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and adipocytokines resistin, adiponectin and leptin were analyzed from plasma samples. Training significantly reduced circulating hs-CRP, leptin and resistin in both training groups (P<0.05), whereas MCP-1 and TNF-α decreased only in AD (P<0.05). Significant correlations were observed between changes in abdominal fat mass and corresponding changes in MCP-1, leptin, adiponectin and resistin.

    CONCLUSION: Long-term combined aerobic and resistance training reduced markers of subclinical inflammation in healthy young men. The results indicate that a higher frequency of individual exercise sessions might be more beneficial with respect to the anti-inflammatory effects of physical activity. The decreases in inflammation markers seem to be related to decreases in abdominal fat mass.

    Be well!

    JP

  22. JP Says:

    Updated 11/10/17:

    https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00421-017-3744-4

    Eur J Appl Physiol. 2017 Oct 20.

    Glutamine supplementation reduces markers of intestinal permeability during running in the heat in a dose-dependent manner.

    PURPOSE: To examine the dose-response effects of acute glutamine supplementation on markers of gastrointestinal (GI) permeability, damage and, secondary, subjective symptoms of GI discomfort in response to running in the heat.

    METHODS: Ten recreationally active males completed a total of four exercise trials; a placebo trial and three glutamine trials at 0.25, 0.5 and 0.9 g kg-1 of fat-free mass (FFM) consumed 2 h before exercise. Each exercise trial consisted of a 60-min treadmill run at 70% of [Formula: see text] in an environmental chamber set at 30 °C. GI permeability was measured using ratio of lactulose to rhamnose (L:R) in serum. Plasma glutamine and intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) concentrations were determined pre and post exercise. Subjective GI symptoms were assessed 45 min and 24 h post-exercise.

    RESULTS: Relative to placebo, L:R was likely lower following 0.25 g kg-1 (mean difference: – 0.023; ± 0.021) and 0.5 g kg-1 (- 0.019; ± 0.019) and very likely following 0.9 g kg- 1 (- 0.034; ± 0.024). GI symptoms were typically low and there was no effect of supplementation.

    DISCUSSION: Acute oral glutamine consumption attenuates GI permeability relative to placebo even at lower doses of 0.25 g kg-1, although larger doses may be more effective. It remains unclear if this will lead to reductions in GI symptoms. Athletes competing in the heat may, therefore, benefit from acute glutamine supplementation prior to exercise in order to maintain gastrointestinal integrity.

    Be well!

    JP

  23. JP Says:

    Updated 03/12/19:

    https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S003193841930263X?via%3Dihub

    Physiol Behav. 2019 Mar 7.

    Effects of polyphenol (carob) supplementation on body composition and aerobic capacity in taekwondo athletes.

    Herbal products and supplements use by athletes has increased over the past decade. One such item being polyphenols. These are reported to reduce weight and modify body composition, which could aid athletes in many sports. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to determine the effect of 6 weeks supplementation with carob, a naturally occurring polyphenol, on body composition and aerobic capacity in youth taekwondo athletes. Twenty-three taekwondo athletes (21.9 ± 1.2 years; 1.64 ± 0.03 m; 67.4 ± 17.3 kg;BMI: 22.8 ± 5.5 kg/m2) participated in a short-term (6-week) double-blind randomized design parallel fully controlled training study (pre-to-post measurements): Supplemented group (SG), n = 11;placebo group (PG), n = 12. Body composition, aerobic capacity, heart rate and RPE were analyzed before and after 6 weeks of carob rich polyphenol ingestion. Significantly greater decreases in weight were observed for SG and PG (-2.82% and - 0.51%respectively) with differences between groups (p < 0.001). No significant differences were reported in percentage body fat and muscular volume between groups. Our results revealed an improvement of aerobic performance score and RPE with differences between groups. A cute polyphenol supplementation seemed to be effective in reducing body weight and improving aerobic performance in athletes. Be well! JP

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