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Diabetes Protection

October 25, 2010 Written by JP    [Font too small?]

Do you ever wonder what life will be like in the year 2050? Futurists are notorious for being way off base in their predictions about what’s to come. Let’s face it, we don’t see many flying cars or teleportation devices around us. Fortunately, medical predictions are generally easier to approximate. This is especially true when such prognostications involve health conditions that are largely shaped by lifestyle factors. A current report by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that one out of every three adults in the US could develop type 2 diabetes in the next 40 years. That’s an enormous leap from the present level of 1 in 10 adults. The most recent statistics from 2007 assign diabetes the seventh spot on the list of leading causes of death in the U.S. What’s more, roughly $174 billion health care dollars were spent managing the disease and its complications. My Healthy Monday tip of the week is to do all you can to not become a part of the above statistics. (1,2)

In previous blogs I’ve mentioned a number of natural alternatives that can support healthier blood sugar control including blueberry leaf extract, cinnamon, a low carbohydrate diet and vinegar. Today I’d like to get back to basics and focus on several lifestyle choices that don’t involve the use of any controversial menu plans or dietary supplements. These strategies won’t cost you additional money and are likely to be supported by your physicians.

Step 1: Dietary Protection – A systematic review and meta-analysis from October 2010 reveals that a 66% reduction in type 2 diabetes risk can be achieved through a diet that emphasizes whole foods such as fruits, fish, poultry and vegetables. These foods are commonly found in the so-called Mediterranean Diet. A study appearing in the current issue of Diabetes Care goes on to report that a Mediterranean Diet rich in nuts and olive oil is 52% more effective than a conventional low fat diet in decreasing diabetes incidence. A previous examination of this eating style discovered up to a 40 mg/dl drop in fasting blood glucose and a .6% decline in long term blood sugar or HbA1c levels. (3,4,5)

Step 2: Exercise Protection – Maintaining a regular exercise regimen works hand in hand with a healthy diet in the prevention of adult onset diabetes (DM2) and it’s never too late to start. A recent experiment asked eleven sedentary women with DM2 to participate in a 13-week aerobic training program. The average age of the study volunteers was 61 years. A sedentary control group was used as a comparison model. The older women involved in the exercise protocol exhibited a significant reduction in blood pressure and blood sugar. Please refer to the table below for more details. Much like dietary measures, physical activity is documented as lowering long range blood glucose (HbA1c levels) by approximately .6%. In fact, differences in physical activity were recently highlighted as explaining the higher rates of DM2 in the U.S. (7.6%) vs Canada (5.2%). According to the May-June edition of the journal Preventive Medicine, Canadians engage in higher levels of “moderate and high physical activity” than their U.S. counterparts – 24.6% vs. 14.3% and 23.1% vs. 14.8%. All told, the researchers “estimate that 20.8% of the U.S.-Canada difference in diabetes prevalence is associated with physical activity”. (6,7,8)

Step 3: Stress Management – A lesser known factor in developing diabetes is cortisol, a stress hormone. Higher cortisol production is associated with insulin resistance and various cardiovascular risk factors that are often found in concert with type 2 diabetes. Perhaps this is why meditation is increasingly recommended for at-risk populations and those living with diabetes. Two separate studies from 2007 and 2008 document improvements in blood sugar (postprandial plasma glucose and HbA1C levels) and blood pressure in diabetics who engaged in courses of a “Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program” and “sitting breathing meditation”. As a bonus, various psychological measures pertaining to quality of life also improved, including anxiety and depression levels. (9,10,11,12,13)

Aerobic Exercise Improves Blood Pressure, Blood Sugar & Body Mass Index in Diabetics
Source: Arq Bras Cardiol. 2010 Oct 1. (link)

It may seem that the only way to shield yourself from diabetes is to live a perfect lifestyle – no alcohol, no refined foods, no sweets. Unfortunately, I can’t tell you that eating conventional desserts and processed foods will stave off diabetes and other diseases. But an occasional alcoholic beverage is unlikely to harm your diabetes forecast. In fact, a new publication in the November 2010 issue of Diabetic Medicine reports that light-to-moderate drinkers are actually less likely to develop diabetes and insulin resistance. (14)

In closing, I want to highlight two important warnings. You may have read that low glycemic carbohydrates are healthy components of any diabetic prevention program. Generally speaking, this is true. However, some supposedly healthy carbohydrates are not always what what they seem. For instance, a recent Chinese evaluation of brown rice found that it had a higher glycemic index, glycemic load and insulinemic index than other starchy foods such as mung bean noodles, taro and yam. You may have also been told that low-dose aspirin can protect your heart from diabetes-related cardiovascular events. According to a new summary prepared by the University of North Carolina, this too is accurate. But please keep in mind that the level of protection afforded is only about 10%. The researchers are also careful to point out the real possibility of adverse reactions including an increased risk of gastrointestinal bleeding. That’s why I suggest that you carefully consider whether either of these options are worth the risk. As for me, I think I’ll stick to my three-step program. (15,16,17)

Note: Please check out the “Comments & Updates” section of this blog – at the bottom of the page. You can find the latest research about this topic there!

Be well!


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Posted in Diabetes, Exercise, Nutrition

65 Comments & Updates to “Diabetes Protection”

  1. Nina K. Says:

    Good morning, JP 🙂

    good for reminding the facts of aspirin. older people take it like sweets because they think they would benefit, but they could also eat raspberries or ginger, both have blood thining effects. the same abuse happens with paracetamol ( pain reliever) and this is acute hurtful for the liver, but people eat it like m&m’s. the big pharma did a good job 🙁 – organic farmes should try to catch up ;-).

    Greetings from almost winter-germany 😉
    Nina K.

  2. thedocsquawk Says:


    Aspirin is a medication which undergoes rigorous testing regarding the concentration of blood thinning chemical contained in each pill. Raspberries and ginger do not, because they are foods. It’s difficult for people who need blood thinners to know how many raspberries they need to eat to reach a therapeutic level.

    I do agree that big pharma did a good job, but if big farm wants to get in the business, they need to get a bigger quality assurance department.

  3. JP Says:

    Good day, Nina!

    The pharmaceutical soup that seniors are frequently taking is indeed troubling. I believe that the incorporation of better nutrition would reduce the need for this potentially toxic brew considerably. It’s an uphill battle. But an important fight to take on. Let’s keep fighting the good fight!

    Be well!


  4. Dr. Lee Says:

    Hi JP

    I came across your blog and am very impressed. I am be twitting it for sure.

    I can’t agree more with you on the fact that dietary changes is step 1 for diabetes protection/ maintenance. I also wanted to add that fiber plays an essential role together with the foods mentioned. Fiber is excellent at binding to the marco-molecules to ensure the stability of blood sugar.

    Keep up the good work!

  5. Paul F. Says:

    Hi JP,

    Thank you for another thought provoking, full of valuable information article.
    It stimulated me to learn more about the HbA1c test, how important it is. It looks worthwhile to have the test prescribed to assess your cardiac failure risk!
    Also the improvements in noted percentages may be the difference between health and sickness!
    Keep up the great work!


  6. JP Says:

    Many thanks, Paul!

    I believe the HbA1c test is a valuable indicator of overall blood sugar control. Combining it with periodic home (blood glucose) testing is ideal, IMO.

    Be well!


  7. JP Says:

    Thank you, Dr. Lee. Your comments are much appreciated.

    Like you, I’m a big proponent of eating a whole food, high fiber diet. I generally recommend such a diet to my clients and I certainly live by it as well.

    Be well!


  8. JP Says:

    Update: Milk thistle lowers inflammation, oxidative stress in diabetics …


    Effects of Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. (silymarin) extract supplementation on antioxidant status and hs-CRP in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    Aim: Diabetes is a serious metabolic disorder and oxidative stress and inflammation contribute to its pathogenesis and complications. Since Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. (silymarin) extract is an antioxidant with anti-inflammatory properties, this randomized clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of silymarin supplementation on oxidative stress indices and hs-CRP in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

    Methods: For the present paralleled, randomized, triple-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 40 type 2 diabetes patients aged 25–50 yr old and on stable medication were recruited from the Iranian Diabetes Society and endocrinology clinics in East Azarbayjan (Tabriz, Iran) and randomly assigned into two groups. Patients in the silymarin treatment group received 140 mg, thrice daily of dried extracts of Silybum marianum (n = 20) and those in the placebo group (n = 20) received identical placebos for 45 days. Data pertaining to height, weight, waist circumference and BMI, as well as food consumption, were collected at base line and at the conclusion of the study. Fasting blood samples were obtained and antioxidant indices and hs-CRP were assessed at baseline, as well as at the end of the trial.

    Results: All 40 patients completed the study and did not report any adverse effects or symptoms with the silymarin supplementation. Silymarin supplementation significantly increased superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) compared to patients taking the placebo, by 12.85%, 30.32% and 8.43%, respectively (p < 0.05). There was a significant reduction in hs-CRP levels by 26.83% (p < 0.05) in the silymarin group compared to the placebo group. Malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration significantly decreased by 12.01% (p < 0.05) in the silymarin group compared to the baseline. Conclusions: Silymarin supplementation improves some antioxidant indices (SOD, GPX and TAC) and decrease hs-CRP levels in T2DM patients. Be well! JP

  9. JP Says:

    Update: The benefits of ginger in type 2 diabetics …


    J Complement Integr Med. 2015 Feb 10.

    The effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale) on glycemic markers in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Background: Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is one of the functional foods which contains biological compounds including gingerol, shogaol, paradol and zingerone. Ginger has been proposed to have anti-cancer, anti-thrombotic, anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic, hypolipidemic and analgesic properties. Here, we report the effect of ginger supplementation on glycemic indices in Iranian patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Methods: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial was conducted on 20-60 -year-old patients with type 2 diabetes who did not receive insulin. Participants in the intervention and control groups were received 3 g of powdered ginger or placebo (lactose) (in capsules) daily for 3 months. Glycemic indices, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), malondialdehyde (MDA), C-reactive protein (CRP), serum paraoxonase, dietary intake and physical activity were measured at the beginning and end of the study, and after 12 h fasting.

    Results: Comparison of the indices after 3 months showed that the differences between the ginger and placebo groups were statistically significant as follows: serum glucose (-19.41 ± 18.83 vs 1.63 ± 4.28 mg/dL, p < 0.001), HbA1c percentage (-0.77 ± 0.88 vs 0.02 ± 0.16 %, p < 0.001), insulin (-1.46 ± 1.7 vs 0.09 ± 0.34 μIU/mL, p < 0.001), insulin resistance (-16.38 ± 19.2 vs 0.68 ± 2.7, p < 0.001), high-sensitive CRP (-2.78 ± 4.07 vs 0.2 ± 0.77 mg/L, p < 0.001), paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) (22.04 ± 24.53 vs 1.71 ± 2.72 U/L, p < 0.006), TAC (0.78 ± 0.71 vs -0.04 ± 0.29 µIU/mL, p < 0.01) and MDA (-0.85 ± 1.08 vs 0.06 ± 0.08 µmol/L, p < 0.001) were significantly different. Conclusions: This report shows that the 3 months supplementation of ginger improved glycemic indices, TAC and PON-1 activity in patients with type 2 diabetes. Be well! JP

  10. JP Says:

    Update 04/17/15:


    Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 14 April 2015

    Curcumin Attenuates Urinary Excretion of Albumin in Type II Diabetic Patients with Enhancing Nuclear Factor Erythroid-Derived 2-Like 2 (Nrf2) System and Repressing Inflammatory Signaling Efficacies

    Curcumin has a therapeutic potential in treating diabetic kidney disease (DKD) while potential mechanisms underlining this beneficial effect remain to be elucidated. In the present study, curcumin intervention was performed in patients with Type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) by oral intake of curcumin at the dose of 500 mg/day for a period of 15–30 days. Nephritic excretion of urinary micro-albumin (U-mAlb) and blood metabolic indexes were assessed before and after this intervention. In addition, the lipid oxidation index, malondialdehyde (MDA) in plasma and the status of anti-oxidative Nrf2 system in blood lymphocytes were measured. The effect of curcumin on inflammation was assessed by measuring plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS) content and inflammatory signaling protein in blood lymphocytes. A self-comparison method was used for assessing statistical significances of these measurements. Here we show that curcumin intervention markedly attenuated U-mAlb excretion without affecting metabolic control of participated patients. In addition, curcumin reduced plasma MDA level with enhanced the Nrf2 system specifically regulated protein, NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO-1) together with other anti-oxidative enzymes in patients’ blood lymphocytes. Furthermore, we observed reduced plasma LPS content and increased IκB, an inhibitory protein on inflammatory signaling in patient’s lymphocytes after curcumin administration. Finally, several gut bacterials important for maintaining gut barrier integrity and function were upregulated by curcumin.

    In conclusion, short-term curcumin intervention ablates DKD progress with activating Nrf2 anti-oxidative system and anti-inflammatory efficacies in patients with T2DM.

    Be well!


  11. JP Says:


    Nutrients. 2015 May 11;7(5):3449-63.

    One Egg per Day Improves Inflammation when Compared to an Oatmeal-Based Breakfast without Increasing Other Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Diabetic Patients.

    There is concern that egg intake may increase blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, we have previously shown that eggs reduce inflammation in patients at risk for T2DM, including obese subjects and those with metabolic syndrome. Thus, we hypothesized that egg intake would not alter plasma glucose in T2DM patients when compared to oatmeal intake. Our primary endpoints for this clinical intervention were plasma glucose and the inflammatory markers tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin 6 (IL-6). As secondary endpoints, we evaluated additional parameters of glucose metabolism, dyslipidemias, oxidative stress and inflammation. Twenty-nine subjects, 35-65 years with glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) values <9% were recruited and randomly allocated to consume isocaloric breakfasts containing either one egg/day or 40 g of oatmeal with 472 mL of lactose-free milk/day for five weeks. Following a three-week washout period, subjects were assigned to the alternate breakfast. At the end of each period, we measured all primary and secondary endpoints. Subjects completed four-day dietary recalls and one exercise questionnaire for each breakfast period. There were no significant differences in plasma glucose, our primary endpoint, plasma lipids, lipoprotein size or subfraction concentrations, insulin, HbA1c, apolipoprotein B, oxidized LDL or C-reactive protein. However, after adjusting for gender, age and body mass index, aspartate amino-transferase (AST) (p < 0.05) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (p < 0.01), one of our primary endpoints were significantly reduced during the egg period. These results suggest that compared to an oatmeal-based breakfast, eggs do not have any detrimental effects on lipoprotein or glucose metabolism in T2DM. In contrast, eggs reduce AST and TNF-α in this population characterized by chronic low-grade inflammation. Be well! JP

  12. JP Says:

    Update 05/19/15:


    PLoS One. 2015 May 15;10(5):e0126469.

    Coffee Consumption, Newly Diagnosed Diabetes, and Other Alterations in Glucose Homeostasis: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    INTRODUCTION: Observational studies have reported fairly consistent inverse associations between coffee consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes, but this association has been little investigated with regard to lesser degrees of hyperglycemia and other alterations in glucose homeostasis. Additionally, the association between coffee consumption and diabetes has been rarely investigated in South American populations. We examined the cross-sectional relationships of coffee intake with newly diagnosed diabetes and measures of glucose homeostasis, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion, in a large Brazilian cohort of middle-aged and elderly individuals.

    METHODS: We used baseline data from 12,586 participants of the Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine associations between coffee consumption and newly diagnosed diabetes. Analysis of covariance was used to assess coffee intake in relation to two-hour glucose from an oral glucose tolerance test, fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin, fasting and -2-hour postload insulin and measures of insulin sensitivity.

    RESULTS: We found an inverse association between coffee consumption and newly diagnosed diabetes, after adjusting for multiple covariates [23% and 26% lower odds of diabetes for those consuming coffee 2-3 and >3 times per day, respectively, compared to those reporting never or almost never consuming coffee, (p = .02)]. An inverse association was also found for 2-hour postload glucose [Never/almost never: 7.57 mmol/L, ≤1 time/day: 7.48 mmol/L, 2-3 times/day: 7.22 mmol/L, >3 times/day: 7.12 mol/L, p<0.0001] but not with fasting glucose concentrations (p = 0.07). Coffee was additionally associated with 2-hour postload insulin [Never/almost never: 287.2 pmol/L, ≤1 time/day: 280.1 pmol/L, 2-3 times/day: 275.3 pmol/L, >3 times/day: 262.2 pmol/L, p = 0.0005) but not with fasting insulin concentrations (p = .58).

    CONCLUSION: Our present study provides further evidence of a protective effect of coffee on risk of adult-onset diabetes. This effect appears to act primarily, if not exclusively, through postprandial, as opposed to fasting, glucose homeostasis.

    Be well!


  13. JP Says:

    Update 06/26/15:


    Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2015 Jun 24.

    Adherence to Mediterranean diet and 10-year incidence (2012-2014) of diabetes; the mediating effect of inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers: results from ATTICA cohort study.

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this work was to investigate the potential mediating effect of oxidative stress, inflammation and coagulation on Mediterranean diet- diabetes link.

    METHODS: In 2001-02, a random sample of 1514 men (18-87 years old) and 1528 women (18-89 years old) was selected to participate in the ATTICA study, where Athens is a major metropolis. A validated questionnaire was used to assess lifestyle and dietary factors. Adherence to Mediterranean diet was recorded using MedDietScore. Among others, oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers were recorded. During 2011-2012, the 10-year follow-up was performed. Diabetes incidence was defined according to American Diabetes Association criteria.

    RESULTS: 191 incident cases of diabetes were documented, yielding to an incidence of 12.9% (13.4% in men and 12.4% in women). Medium and high adherence were found to decrease diabetes risk by 49% (95%CI: 0.30, 0.88), and 62% (95%CI: 0.16, 0.88) respectively, compared to low adherence. A logarithmic trend between Mediterranean diet and diabetes incidence was also revealed (p for trend = 0.042). Individuals with abnormal waist circumference (>94 for men, >80 for women) were benefited the most. Wholegrain cereals, fruits and legumes had the greatest predictive ability. The anti-diabetic effect of Mediterranean diet was mediated by TNF-α, homocysteine and TAC.

    CONCLUSIONS: The reported results underline the role of Mediterranean diet as a promising dietary tool for the primary prevention of diabetes, by attenuating inflammation and fostering TAC; thus, this dietary pattern may have a therapeutic potential for a plethora of cardio-metabolic disorders, resulting from inflammation and/or oxidative stress.

    Be well!


  14. JP Says:

    Updated 09/23/15:


    Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Sep 9.

    Effect of improving dietary quality on carotid intima media thickness in subjects with type 1 and type 2 diabetes: a 12-mo randomized controlled trial.

    BACKGROUND: People with diabetes are at a heightened risk of cardiovascular disease compared with the general population. To our knowledge, randomized controlled trials investigating the effect of improving dietary quality on carotid intima media thickness, a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis and predictor of cardiovascular disease, have not been conducted in populations with diabetes.

    OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine whether increasing fruit (+1 serving; 150 g/d), vegetable (+2 servings; 150 g/d), and dairy (+1 serving; 200-250 g/d) intakes slows 12-mo common carotid artery intima media thickness (CCA IMT) progression, compared with a control group continuing to consume their usual diet, in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

    DESIGN: A 12-mo randomized controlled trial was conducted. The primary outcome was mean CCA IMT, measured at baseline and 12 mo, with B-mode ultrasound. Participants in the intervention group received counseling from a dietitian at baseline and 1, 3, 6, and 9 mo, and compliance was measured with a food-frequency questionnaire at baseline, 3 mo, and 12 mo. The control group continued consuming their usual diet.

    RESULTS: In total, 118 participants completed the study. Vegetable (46 g/d; 95% CI: 14, 77 g/d; P < 0.001) and fruit (179 g/d; 95% CI: 119, 239 g/d; P < 0.001) intakes were increased at 3 mo in the intervention group compared with the control group. This increase was not maintained at 12 mo, but intake increased overall in the cohort (fruit, 48 g/d; vegetables, 14 g/d). An increase in dairy consumption was not achieved, but yogurt intake was higher in the intervention group at 3 mo (38 g; 95% CI: 12, 65 g; P < 0.001); this was not maintained at 12 mo. At 12 mo, CCA IMT regressed (mean ± SD: -0.01 ± 0.04 mm; P < 0.001), with a greater effect in the treatment group (mean ± SD: -0.02 ± 0.04 mm vs. -0.004 ± 0.04 mm; P = 0.009). CONCLUSION: Improving dietary quality in people with well-controlled type 1 and type 2 diabetes may slow CCA IMT progression. Be well! JP

  15. JP Says:

    Updated 02/23/16:


    Korean J Fam Med. 2016 Jan;37(1):7-13.

    Effect of Coffee Consumption on the Progression of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus among Prediabetic Individuals.

    BACKGROUND: A previous large-scale cohort study investigated the relationship between coffee intake and the progression of diabetes mellitus in the United States. However, studies on the effects of coffee on diabetes are rare in South Korea. Therefore, this study assessed the amount and method of coffee intake in Koreans in order to determine if coffee intake has a prophylactic effect on diabetes progression.

    METHODS: This study included 3,497 prediabetic patients from a single medical institution, with glycated hemoglobin levels ranging from 5.7% to 6.4%. Cross-tabulation and Kaplan-Meier survival analyses were performed to compare patients with and without diabetes progression based on the frequency and method of coffee intake. Cox proportional hazard analysis was performed to correct for confounding variables.

    RESULTS: The observation period (mean±standard deviation) was 3.7±2.3 years. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that the risk of diabetes progression was lowest in patients who drank black coffee three or more times per day (P=0.036). However, correction for confounding variables in Cox proportional hazard analysis revealed that, while the risk was lower for the patients who typically consumed black coffee than for those who mixed creamer and sugar into their coffees, the difference was not significant.

    CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that drinking coffee without sugar and creamer at least three times daily has the greatest preventive effect on diabetes onset.

    Be well!


  16. JP Says:

    Updated 04/06/16:


    Am J Med. 2016 Apr 1. pii: S0002-9343(16)30309-6.

    A Blend of Sesame and Rice Bran oils Lowers Hyperglycaemia and Improves the Lipids.

    BACKGROUND: Considering the health benefits of sesame oil and rice bran oil, the study was conducted to determine the extent to which the daily use of these oils blend controls hyperglycaemia and improves the lipid profile.

    METHODS: In this 8-wk open-label randomized dietary intervention study, 300 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and 100 normoglycaemic subjects were grouped as i) normoglycaemic subjects treated with sesame oil blend VivoTM (n=100), ii) type 2 diabetes mellitus patients treated with sesame oil blend (n=100), iii) type 2 diabetes mellitus patients treated with glibenclamide (n=100; 5mg/d), and iv) type 2 diabetes mellitus patients treated in combination of glibenclamide (5mg/d) and sesame oil blend (n=100). 12hr fasting blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, and lipid profile followed post prandial blood glucose were measured at baseline. Sesame oil blend was supplied to the respective groups and instructed to use as cooking oil for 8-wk. Fasting and postprandial blood glucose was measured at wk-4 and wk-8 while HbA1c and lipid profile were measured at wk-8.

    RESULTS: At wk-4 and wk-8, type 2 diabetes mellitus patients treated with sesame oil blend or glibenclamide or combination of glibenclamide and sesame oil blend showed significant reduction of fasting and post prandial blood glucose (p<0.001). HbA1c, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly reduced (p<0.001) while high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was significantly increased at wk-8 (p<0.001) in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients treated with the sesame oil blend or combination of glibenclamide and sesame oil blend, whereas glibenclamide alone treated type 2 diabetes mellitus patients showed a significant reduction of HbA1c (p <0.001) only.

    CONCLUSIONS: A novel blend of 20% cold-pressed un-refined sesame oil and 80% physically refined rice bran oil as cooking oil, lowered hyperglycaemia and improved the lipid profile in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

    Be well!


  17. JP Says:

    Updated 04/20/16:


    Biofactors. 2016 Apr 4.

    Effects of n-3 pufas on fasting plasma glucose and insulin resistance in patients with impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance.

    AIM: to evaluate if a supplementation with n-3 PUFAs at high doses could give a regression of the condition of impaired glycemia.

    METHODS: we enrolled 281 overweight/obese patients with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT); 138 subjects were randomized to n-3 PUFAs group, 1 g three times a day, and 143 to placebo for 18 months. We assessed at baseline, and after 9, and 18 months: circumferences, body mass index (BMI), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting plasma insulin (FPI), HOMA-index, lipid profile. At baseline and at the end of the study, all patients underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT).

    RESULTS: we observed a decrease of glycemia and HOMA-IR with n-3 PUFAs, compared to baseline, and to placebo. Fasting plasma insulin decreased with n-3 PUFAs and increased with placebo. HDL-cholesterol increased after 18 months of n-3 PUFAs, while triglycerides decreased compared to baseline and to placebo. After OGTT performed at the end of the study, more patients returned to a condition of euglycemia with n-3 PUFAs compared to placebo.

    CONCLUSIONS: n-3 PUFAs were effective in reducing glycemia in patients affected by IFG or IGT and seem to be helpful to slow the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Be well!


  18. JP Says:

    Updated 05/26/16:


    British Journal of Nutrition, available on CJO2016.

    The effects of vitamin D, K and calcium co-supplementation on carotid intima-media thickness and metabolic status in overweight type 2 diabetic patients with CHD.

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of vitamin D, K and Ca co-supplementation on carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and metabolic status in overweight diabetic patients with CHD. This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted among sixty-six diabetic patients with CHD. Participants were randomly allocated into two groups to take either 5µg vitamin D, 90 µg vitamin K plus 500 mg Ca supplements (n 33) or placebo (n 33) twice a day for 12 weeks. Fasting blood samples were obtained at the beginning of the study and after the 12-week intervention period to determine related markers. Vitamin D, K and Ca co-supplementation resulted in a significant reduction in maximum levels of left CIMT (−0·04 (sd 0·22) v. +0·04 (sd 0·09) mm, P=0·02). Changes in serum vitamin D (+6·5 (sd 7·8) v. +0·4 (sd 2·2) ng/ml, P<0·001), Ca (+0·6 (sd 0·3) v. +0·1 (sd 0·1) mg/dl, P<0·001) and insulin concentrations (−0·9 (sd 3·1) v. +2·6 (sd 7·2) µIU/ml, P=0·01), homoeostasis model for assessment of estimated insulin resistance (−0·4 (sd 1·2) v. +0·7 (sd 2·3), P=0·01), β-cell function (−2·1 (sd 9·0) v. +8·9 (sd 23·7), P=0·01) and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (+0·007 (sd 0·01) v. −0·006 (sd 0·02), P=0·01) in supplemented patients were significantly different from those in patients in the placebo group. Supplementation resulted in significant changes in HDL-cholesterol (+2·7 (sd 7·0) v. −2·5 (sd 5·7) mg/dl, P=0·002), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (−1320·1 (sd 3758·3) v. +464·0 (sd 3053·3) ng/ml, P=0·03) and plasma malondialdehyde concentrations (−0·4 (sd 0·5) v. −1·0 (sd 1·1) µmol/l, P=0·007) compared with placebo. Overall, vitamin D, K and Ca co-supplementation for 12 weeks among diabetic patients with CHD had beneficial effects on maximum levels of left CIMT and metabolic status. The effect of vitamin D, K and Ca co-supplementation on maximum levels of left CIMT could be a chance finding.

    Be well!


  19. JP Says:

    Updated 06/01/16:


    Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2016 May;115:39-46.

    Zinc supplementation for improving glucose handling in pre-diabetes: A double blind randomized placebo controlled pilot study.

    AIMS: There are a number of studies showing that zinc supplementation may improve glucose handling in people with established diabetes. We sought to investigate whether this zinc-dependent improvement in glucose handling could potentially be harnessed to prevent the progression of pre-diabetes to diabetes. In this double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial, we determined participants’ fasting blood glucose levels, (FBG) and Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) parameters (beta cell function, insulin sensitivity and insulin resistance) at baseline and after 6 months of zinc supplementation.

    METHODS: The Bangladesh Institute of Health Sciences Hospital (BIHS) (Mirpur, Dhaka, Bangladesh) database was used to identify 224 patients with prediabetes, of whom 55 met the inclusion criteria and agreed to participate. The participants were randomized either to the intervention or control group using block randomization. The groups received either 30mg zinc sulphate dispersible tablet or placebo, once daily for six months.

    RESULTS: After six months, the intervention group significantly improved their FBG concentration compared to the placebo group (5.37±0.20mmol/L vs 5.69±0.26, p<0.001) as well as compared to their own baseline (5.37±0.20mmol/L vs 5.8±0.09, p<0.001). Beta cell function, insulin sensitivity and insulin resistance all showed a statistically significant improvement as well.

    CONCLUSION: To our knowledge this is the first trial to show an improvement in glucose handling using HOMA parameters in participants with prediabetes. Larger randomized controlled trials are warranted to confirm these findings and to explore clinical endpoints.

    Be well!


  20. JP Says:

    Updated 06/02/16:


    Nutr Res Pract. 2016 Jun;10(3):328-35.

    Effects of vitamin D supplementation on metabolic indices and hs-CRP levels in gestational diabetes mellitus patients: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Vitamin D plays an important role in the etiology of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). This study evaluated the effect of vitamin D supplementation on metabolic indices and hs-C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in GDM patients.

    SUBJECTS/METHODS: The study was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded clinical trial. Seventy-six pregnant women with GDM and gestational age between 24-28 weeks were assigned to receive four oral treatments consisting of 50,000 IU of vitamin D3 (n = 38) or placebo (n = 38) once every 2 weeks for 2 months. Fasting blood glucose (FG), insulin, HbA1c, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, lipid profile, hs-CRP, and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were measured before and after treatment. Independent and paired t-tests were used to determine intra- and intergroup differences, respectively. ANCOVA was used to assess the effects of vitamin D supplementation on biochemical parameters.

    RESULTS: Compared with the placebo group, in the vitamin D group, the serum level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D increased (19.15 vs. -0.40 ng/ml; P < 0.01) and that of FG (-4.72 vs. 5.27 mg/dl; P = 0.01) as well as HbA1c (-0.18% vs. 0.17%; P = 0.02) decreased. Improvements in the lipid profiles were observed in the vitamin D group, but without statistical significance. Significant increases in concentrations of hs-CRP, FG, HbA1c, total cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol were observed in the placebo group. No significant change in fasting insulin and HOMA-IR was observed in either group. CONCLUSIONS: In GDM patients, vitamin D supplementation improved FG and HbA1c but had no significant effects on lipid profile or hs-CRP. Be well! JP

  21. JP Says:

    Updated 06/06/16:


    Complement Ther Med. 2016 Jun;26:92-7.

    Effects of Buddhist walking meditation on glycemic control and vascular function in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate and compare the effects of Buddhist walking meditation and traditional walking on glycemic control and vascular function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    METHODS: Twenty three patients with type 2 diabetes (50-75 years) were randomly allocated into traditional walking exercise (WE; n=11) or Buddhism-based walking meditation exercise (WM; n=12). Both groups performed a 12-week exercise program that consisted of walking on the treadmill at exercise intensity of 50-70% maximum heart rate for 30min/session, 3 times/week. In the WM training program, the participants performed walking on the treadmill while concentrated on foot stepping by voiced “Budd” and “Dha” with each foot step that contacted the floor to practice mindfulness while walking.

    RESULTS: After 12 weeks, maximal oxygen consumption increased and fasting blood glucose level decreased significantly in both groups (p<0.05). Significant decrease in HbA1c and both systolic and diastolic blood pressure were observed only in the WM group. Flow-mediated dilatation increased significantly (p<0.05) in both exercise groups but arterial stiffness was improved only in the WM group. Blood cortisol level was reduced (p<0.05) only in the WM group.

    CONCLUSION: Buddhist walking meditation exercise produced a multitude of favorable effects, often superior to traditional walking program, in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Be well!


  22. JP Says:

    Updated 06/13/16:


    Clin Nutr. 2016 May 28.

    Extra virgin olive oil improves post-prandial glycemic and lipid profile in patients with impaired fasting glucose.

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) improves post-prandial glycaemia in healthy subjects but it has never been investigated if this can be detected in pre-diabetic patients. We investigated if EVOO affects post-prandial glucose and lipid profile in patients with impaired fasting glucose (IFG).

    METHODS: Thirty IFG patients were randomly allocated to a meal containing or not 10 g of EVOO in a cross-over design. Before, 60 min and 120 min after lunch a blood sample was taken to measure glucose, insulin, Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP1), dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 (DPP4) activity, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and Apo B-48.

    RESULTS: The meal containing EVOO was associated with a reduction of glucose (p = 0.009) and DPP4 activity (p < 0.001) and a significant increase of insulin (p < 0.001) and GLP-1 (p < 0.001) compared with the meal without EVOO. Furthermore, the meal containing EVOO showed a significant decrease of triglycerides (p = 0.002) and Apo B-48 (p = 0.002) compared with the meal without EVOO. Total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol levels did not significantly change between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to show that in IFG patients EVOO improves post-prandial glucose and lipid profile with a mechanism probably related to incretin up-regulation. Be well! JP

  23. JP Says:

    Updated 06/27/16:


    J Diabetes Res. 2016;2016:5147468.

    Silymarin in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and nephropathy-now the leading cause of end-stage renal disease and dialysis in Europe and the United States. Inflammation and oxidative stress play a pivotal role in the development of diabetic complications. Silymarin, an herbal drug with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, may improve glycemic control and prevent the progression of the complications. In a systematic review and meta-analysis including five randomized controlled trials and 270 patients, routine silymarin administration determines a significant reduction in fasting blood glucose levels (-26.86 mg/dL; 95% CI -35.42-18.30) and HbA1c levels (-1.07; 95% CI -1.73-0.40) and has no effect on lipid profile. Benefits for silymarin on proteinuria and CKD progressions are reported in only one small study and are uncertain. However, being aware of the low quality of the available evidence and elevated heterogeneity of these studies, no recommendation can be made and further studies are needed.

    Be well!


  24. JP Says:

    Updated 07/20/16:


    J Nutr Metab. 2016;2016:5190846.

    Effects of a Multispecies Probiotic Mixture on Glycemic Control and Inflammatory Status in Women with Gestational Diabetes: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Objective. This trial aims to examine the effects of a Probiotic Mixture (VSL#3) on glycemic status and inflammatory markers, in women with GDM.

    Materials and Methods. Over a period of 8 weeks, 82 women with gestational diabetes were randomly assigned to either an intervention group (n = 41) which were given VSL#3 capsule or to a control group which were given placebo capsule (n = 41). Fasting plasma glucose, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, glycosylated hemoglobin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, Interferon gamma, and interleukin-10 were measured before and after the intervention.

    Results. After 8 wk of supplementation FPG, HbA1c, HOMA-IR, and insulin levels remained unchanged in the probiotic and placebo groups. The comparison between the two groups showed no significant differences with FPG and HbA1c, but there were significant differences in insulin levels and HOMA-IR (16.6 ± 5.9; 3.7 ± 1.5, resp.). Unlike the levels of IFN-g (19.21 ± 16.6), there was a significant decrease in levels of IL-6 (3.81 ± 0.7), TNF-α (3.10 ± 1.1), and hs-CRP (4927.4 ± 924.6). No significant increase was observed in IL-10 (3.11 ± 5.7) in the intervention group as compared with the control group.

    Conclusions. In women with GDM, supplementation with probiotics (VSL#3) may help to modulate some inflammatory markers and may have benefits on glycemic control.

    Be well!


  25. JP Says:

    Updated 08/18/16:


    Eur J Clin Nutr. 2016 Aug 17.

    Effect of magnesium supplementation on glucose metabolism in people with or at risk of diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of double-blind randomized controlled trials.

    Although higher dietary intakes of magnesium (Mg) seem to correspond to lower diabetes incidence, research concerning Mg supplementation in people with or at risk of diabetes is limited. Thus, we aimed to investigate the effect of oral Mg supplementation on glucose and insulin-sensitivity parameters in participants with diabetes or at high risk of diabetes compared with placebo. A literature search in PubMed, EMBASE, SCOPUS, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Clinicaltrials.gov without language restriction, was undertaken. Eligible studies were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the effect of oral Mg supplementation vs placebo in patients with diabetes or at high risk of diabetes. Standardized mean differences (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used for summarizing outcomes with at least two studies; other outcomes were summarized descriptively. Eighteen RCTs (12 in people with diabetes and 6 in people at high risk of diabetes) were included. Compared with placebo (n=334), Mg treatment (n=336) reduced fasting plasma glucose (studies=9; SMD=-0.40; 95% CI: -0.80 to -0.00; I2=77%) in people with diabetes. In conditions in people at high risk of diabetes (Mg: 226; placebo=227 participants), Mg supplementation significantly improved plasma glucose levels after a 2 h oral glucose tolerance test (three studies; SMD=-0.35; 95% CI: -0.62 to -0.07; I2=0%) and demonstrated trend level reductions in HOMA-IR (homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance; five studies; SMD=-0.57; 95% CI: -1.17 to 0.03; I2=88%). Mg supplementation appears to have a beneficial role and improves glucose parameters in people with diabetes and also improves insulin-sensitivity parameters in those at high risk of diabetes.

    Be well!


  26. JP Says:

    Updated 09/01/16:


    J Clin Lipidol. 2016 Jul-Aug;10(4):798-807.

    Effects of DHA-enriched fish oil on monocyte/macrophage activation marker sCD163, asymmetric dimethyl arginine, and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic patients.

    BACKGROUND: The beneficial effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on reducing cardiovascular risks are well documented. However, the relative effect on some markers of macrophage activation and vascular function is unclear.

    OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this study was to investigate the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-enriched fish oil on the marker of monocyte/macrophage activation factor soluble CD163, asymmetric dimethyl arginine (ADMA), and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic patients.

    METHODS: In this double-blind randomized controlled trial, 72 type 2 diabetic patients with an age between 30-70 years and body mass index (BMI) of 18.5 to 40 kg/m(2) were randomly assigned to receive 2.4-g DHA-enriched fish oil or placebo per day for 8 weeks. Anthropometric measurements, biochemical, and body composition analyses were assessed at baseline and end of study. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was conducted by controlling for possible confounders to assess between-group differences.

    RESULTS: Serum levels of sCD163, triglycerides, waist circumference (WC), and weight to height ratio (WHtR) decreased significantly in the fish oil group when compared with the control group. Serum ADMA concentration decreased in the fish oil group with no significant between-group differences. Controlling for confounders revealed that the differences observed in sCD163, triglycerides, WC, and WHtR remained statistically significant.

    CONCLUSIONS: Short-time fish oil supplementation decreased serum sCD163, triglycerides levels, WC, and WHtR in T2DM patients. Because of the positive relationship between sCD163 levels and some T2DM and obesity-related complications, it seems that DHA can be considered as a key intervention in obesity and T2DM.

    Be well!


  27. JP Says:

    Updated 09/13/16:


    Nutrients. 2016 Sep 7;8(9). pii: E549.

    Short- and Long-Term Effects of Wholegrain Oat Intake on Weight Management and Glucolipid Metabolism in Overweight Type-2 Diabetics: A Randomized Control Trial.

    Glycemic control and weight reduction are primary goals for the management of overweight and obese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Effective management cannot be achieved without an appropriate diet. Our study aimed to evaluate the short- and long-term effects of oat intake and develop a reasonable dietary plan for overweight T2DM patients. A randomized control trial, registered under ClinicalTrials.gov (Identification code: NCT01495052), was carried out among adult T2DM patients. A subgroup of 298 overweight subjects was selected and received a 30-day centralized intervention and 1-year free-living follow-up. Participants were randomly allocated to one of the following four groups. The usual care group (n = 60) received no intervention; the healthy diet group (n = 79) received a low-fat and high-fiber diet (“healthy diet”); the 50 g-oats group (n = 80) and 100 g-oats group (n = 79) received the “healthy diet” with the same amount of cereals replaced by 50 g and 100 g oats respectively. Anthropometric, blood glycemic and lipid variables were measured. For the 30-day intervention, significant differences in the changes of FPG (fasting plasma glucose), PPG (postprandial plasma glucose), HbA1c (glycosylated hemoglobin), HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance), TC (total cholesterol), TG (total triglycerides), and LDL-c (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol) were observed among the four groups. Compared to the healthy diet group, the 50 g-oats group had a bigger reduction in PPG (mean difference (MD): -1.04 mmol/L; 95% CI: -2.03, -0.05) and TC (MD: -0.24 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.47, -0.01); the 100 g-oats group had a bigger reduction in PPG (MD: -1.48 mmol/L; 95% CI: -2.57, -0.39), HOMA-IR (MD: -1.77 mU·mol/L²; 95% CI: -3.49, -0.05), TC (MD: -0.33 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.56, -0.10) and LDL-c (MD: -0.22 mmol/L; 95% CI: -0.41, -0.03). In the 1-year follow-up, greater effects in reducing weight (MD: -0.89 kg; 95% CI: -1.56, -0.22), HbA1c (MD: -0.64%; 95% CI: -1.19, -0.09) and TG (MD: -0.70 mmol/L; 95% CI: -1.11, -0.29) were observed in the 100 g-oats group. In conclusion, short- and long-term oat intake had significant effects on controlling hyperglycemia, lowering blood lipid and reducing weight. Our study provided some supportive evidence for recommending oat as a good whole grain selection for overweight diabetics.

    Be well!


  28. JP Says:

    Updated 09/25/16:


    Food Nutr Res. 2016 Sep 22;60:32594.

    An Okinawan-based Nordic diet improves anthropometry, metabolic control, and health-related quality of life in Scandinavian patients with type 2 diabetes: a pilot trial.

    BACKGROUND: Our hypothesis was that a modified diet would improve blood glucose control with beneficial impact on weight management and overall health in established diabetes.

    OBJECTIVE: This prospective interventional study investigated the clinical effect of an Okinawan-based Nordic diet on anthropometry, metabolic control, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Scandinavian type 2 diabetes patients.

    DESIGN: Food was prepared and delivered to 30 type 2 diabetes patients. Clinical information along with data on HRQoL, blood samples, and urine samples were collected during 12 weeks of diet interventions, with follow-up 16 weeks after diet completion.

    RESULTS: After 12 weeks of dietary intervention, a reduction in body weight (7%) (p<0.001), body mass index (p<0.001), and waist circumference (7.0 cm) (p<0.001) was seen. Improved levels of proinsulin (p=0.005), insulin (p=0.011), and fasting plasma glucose (p<0.001) were found already after 2 weeks; these improved levels remained after 12 weeks when lowered levels of C-peptide (p=0.015), triglycerides (p=0.009), total cholesterol (p=0.001), and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (p=0.041) were also observed. Insulin resistance homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance was lowered throughout the study, with a 20% reduction in hemoglobin A1c levels (p<0.001) at week 12, despite reduced anti-diabetes treatment. Lowered systolic blood pressure (9.6 mmHg) (p<0.001), diastolic blood pressure (2.7 mmHg) (p<0.001), and heart and respiratory rates (p<0.001) were accompanied by decreased cortisol levels (p=0.015) and improvement in HRQoL. At follow-up, increased levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol were found (p=0.003).

    CONCLUSION: This interventional study demonstrates a considerable improvement of anthropometric and metabolic parameters and HRQoL in Scandinavian type 2 diabetes patients when introducing a modified Okinawan-based Nordic diet, independently of exercise or other interventions. Through these dietary changes, anti-diabetes treatment could be decreased or cancelled.

    Be well!


  29. JP Says:

    Updated 10/15/16:


    J Nutr. 2016 Oct 12.

    Resistant Starch Bagels Reduce Fasting and Postprandial Insulin in Adults at Risk of Type 2 Diabetes.

    BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) incidence continues to rise. Although increasing dietary fiber intake is an established strategy for improved glycemic control, most adults consume insufficient amounts. Fiber-enhanced functional foods can increase fiber intake, and there is particular interest in resistant starch (RS) as a high-fiber ingredient. Studies show that high-amylose maize resistant starch, type 2 (HAM-RS2) improves acute and chronic glycemic responses, but more studies are needed in individuals at high risk of T2D with RS delivered in commonly consumed foods.

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine the chronic effects of consuming bagels high in HAM-RS2 on fasting and postprandial glycemic markers in adults at increased risk of T2D.

    METHODS: With the use of a randomized, double-blind crossover design, 24 men and women with a mean ± SE age of 55.3 ± 1.59 y and body mass index (in kg/m2) of 30.2 ± 0.57 consumed 1 bagel containing 25 g HAM-RS2/d or 1 control wheat bagel/d for 56 d each, separated by a 4-wk washout. Fasting and postprandial oral-glucose-tolerance test (OGTT) glucose and insulin were measured on study days 1 and 57 of each bagel treatment.

    RESULTS: The RS bagel treatment resulted in significantly lower fasting (22.1%, P = 0.04), 2-h (23.3%, P < 0.008), and 3-h (18.9%, P = 0.05) insulin incremental areas under the curve and fasting insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance; 23.1%, P = 0.04) than did the control bagel treatment. Fasting and postprandial OGTT glucose concentrations did not differ between the RS and control bagel treatments on study days 1 or 57. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that consumption of a high-HAM-RS2 bagel improves glycemic efficiency by reducing the amount of insulin required to manage postprandial glucose while improving fasting insulin sensitivity in adults at increased risk of T2D. This research provides support for a feasible dietary strategy for T2D risk reduction. Be well! JP

  30. JP Says:

    Updated 11/05/16:


    Phytother Res. 2016 Nov 3.

    The Impact of Resveratrol Supplementation on Blood Glucose, Insulin, Insulin Resistance, Triglyceride, and Periodontal Markers in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Chronic Periodontitis.

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of resveratrol supplementation along with non-surgical periodontal treatment on blood glucose, insulin, insulin resistance, triglyceride (TG), and periodontal markers in patients with type 2 diabetes with periodontal disease. In this double-blind clinical trial study, 43 patients with diabetes with chronic periodontitis were participated. Subjects were randomly allocated to intervention and control groups. The intervention and control groups received either 480 mg/day of resveratrol or placebo capsules (two pills) for 4 weeks. Fasting blood glucose, insulin, insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance), TGs, and pocket depth were measured in all subjects’ pre-intervention and post-intervention. The mean serum levels of fasting insulin and insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance) were significantly lower in the intervention group compared with control group (10.42 ± 0.28 and 10.92 ± 0.9; 3.66 ± 0.97 and 4.49 ± 1.56, respectively). There was a significant difference in the mean pocket depth between intervention and control groups (2.35 ± 0.6 and 3.38 ± 0.5, respectively) following intervention. No significant differences were observed in the mean levels of fasting blood glucose and TGs between two groups’ post-intervention. It is recommended that resveratrol supplementation may be beneficial as adjuvant therapy along with non-surgical periodontal treatment in insulin resistance and improving periodontal status among patients with diabetes with periodontal disease.

    Be well!


  31. JP Says:

    Updated 11/18/16:


    BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care. 2016 Oct 26;4(1):e000258.

    Remission of pre-diabetes to normal glucose tolerance in obese adults with high protein versus high carbohydrate diet: randomized control trial.

    OBJECTIVE: Remission of pre-diabetes to normal is an important health concern which has had little success in the past. This study objective was to determine the effect on remission of pre-diabetes with a high protein (HP) versus high carbohydrate (HC) diet and effects on metabolic parameters, lean and fat body mass in prediabetic, obese subjects after 6 months of dietary intervention.

    RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We recruited and randomized 24 pre-diabetes women and men to either a HP (30% protein, 30% fat, 40% carbohydrate; n=12) or HC (15% protein, 30% fat, 55% carbohydrate; n=12) diet feeding study for 6 months in this randomized controlled trial. All meals were provided to subjects for 6 months with daily food menus for HP or HC compliance with weekly food pick-up and weight measurements. At baseline and after 6 months on the respective diets oral glucose tolerance and meal tolerance tests were performed with glucose and insulin measurements and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scans.

    RESULTS: After 6 months on the HP diet, 100% of the subjects had remission of their pre-diabetes to normal glucose tolerance, whereas only 33.3% of subjects on the HC diet had remission of their pre-diabetes. The HP diet group exhibited significant improvement in (1) insulin sensitivity (p=0.001), (2) cardiovascular risk factors (p=0.04), (3) inflammatory cytokines (p=0.001), (4) oxidative stress (p=0.001), (5) increased percent lean body mass (p=0.001) compared with the HC diet at 6 months.

    CONCLUSIONS: This is the first dietary intervention feeding study, to the best of our knowledge, to report 100% remission of pre-diabetes with a HP diet and significant improvement in metabolic parameters and anti-inflammatory effects compared with a HC diet at 6 months.

    Be well!


  32. JP Says:

    Updated 11/21/16:


    J Endocrinol Invest. 2016 Nov;39(11):1295-1301.

    Consumption of extra-virgin olive oil rich in phenolic compounds improves metabolic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a possible involvement of reduced levels of circulating visfatin.

    AIM: Phenolic compounds naturally contained in extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) have demonstrated anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. The present study aimed at evaluating the effects of a polyphenol-rich extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) (high-polyphenol EVOO, HP-EVOO) on the metabolic control and the production of specific pro-/anti-inflammatory adipokines in overweight patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D).

    METHODS: Eleven overweight T2D patients not in treatment with insulin were invited to follow their habitual diet for a total of 8 weeks. During the first 4 weeks (wash-out period), they were asked to consume refined olive oil (ROO, polyphenols not detectable) and then to replace ROO with HP-EVOO (25 mL/day, 577 mg of phenolic compounds/kg) for the remaining 4 weeks. Anthropometric parameters, fasting glycaemia, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), high-sensitive C-reactive protein, plasma lipid profile, liver function and serum levels of TNF-α, IL-6, adiponectin, visfatin and apelin were assessed at the end of each 4-week period.

    RESULTS: HP-EVOO consumption significantly reduced fasting plasma glucose (P = 0.023) and HbA1c (P = 0.039) levels as well as BMI (P = 0.012) and body weight (P = 0.012). HP-EVOO ingestion determined a reduction in serum level of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, P = 0.0056) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT, P = 0.024). Serum visfatin levels strongly decreased after HP-EVOO ingestion (P = 0.0021).

    CONCLUSIONS: Daily consumption of polyphenol-rich EVOO might improve metabolic control and circulating inflammatory adipokines profile in overweight T2D patients.

    Be well!


  33. JP Says:

    Updated 12/11/16:


    Nutr Res. 2016 Nov 17.

    Dietary tartary buckwheat intake attenuates insulin resistance and improves lipid profiles in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial.

    Tartary buckwheat (TB) is rich in protein, dietary fiber, and flavonoids and has been reported to affect type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in animal experiments, but limited information on the benefit of TB as a whole food in T2DM patients is available. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that a daily replacement of a portion of the staple food with TB will improve risk factors of T2DM, including fasting glucose, insulin resistance, and lipid profile. In a parallel, randomized, open-label, controlled trial, 165 T2DM patients were randomly assigned to a control diet group (DC group; systematic diet plans and intensive nutritional education) or a TB intervention group (TB group; daily replacement of a portion of staple food with TB food). Blood samples and diet information were collected at baseline and after 4 weeks of intervention. The TB group decreased fasting insulin (2.46-2.39 Ln mU/L), total cholesterol (5.08-4.79 mmol/L), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (3.00-2.80 mmol/L) compared with the DC group at 4 weeks (P<.05). No significant differences in blood glucose or glycated hemoglobin levels were noted between the TB and DC groups. In addition, subgroup analyses based on daily TB intake dose showed a reduction in insulin, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, but also insulin resistance was observed when TB intake dose was greater than 110 g/d. These results support the hypothesis that TB may improve insulin resistance and lipid profile in T2DM patients. Be well! JP

  34. JP Says:

    Updated 12/18/16:


    Kidney Int. 2016 Dec 4.

    Probiotic supplementation in diabetic hemodialysis patients has beneficial metabolic effects.

    This study determined the effects of probiotic supplementation on glycemic control, lipid concentrations, biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress in 60 diabetic patients on hemodialysis in a parallel randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Participants were initially matched based on sex, duration of dialysis and diabetes, body mass index and age. Subsequently, they were randomly divided into two groups to take either a capsule containing the probiotics Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium bifidum or placebo for 12 weeks. Based on three-day dietary records throughout the trial, there was no significant change in dietary macro- and micro-nutrients or total dietary fiber to confound results. After the 12 weeks, analysis of patients who received probiotic supplements compared with the placebo showed they had significantly decreased fasting plasma glucose (-22.0 vs. +6.6 mg/dl), serum insulin (-6.4 vs. +2.3 μIU/ml), homeostasis model of assessment-estimated insulin resistance (-2.9 vs. +2.5), homeostasis model of assessment-estimated beta-cell function (-14.1 vs. +6.1) and HbA1c (-0.4 vs. -0.1%,), and improved quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (+0.03 vs. -0.02). Additionally, compared with the placebo, probiotic supplementation resulted in significant reductions in serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (-1933 vs. +252 ng/ml), plasma malondialdehyde (-0.3 vs. +1.0 μmol/l), subjective global assessment scores (-0.7 vs. +0.7) and total iron binding capacity (-230 vs. +33 μg/dl), and a significant increase in plasma total antioxidant capacity (+15 vs. -88 mmol/l). Thus, probiotic supplementation for 12 weeks among diabetic hemodialysis patients had beneficial effects on parameters of glucose homeostasis, and some biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress.

    Be well!


  35. JP Says:

    Updated 12/20/16:


    J Ethnopharmacol. 2016 Oct 27.

    Effect of Diabetea Tea TM Consumption on Inflammatory Cytokines and Metabolic Biomarkers in Type 2 Diabetes Patients.

    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Diabetea tea TM (DT) is an anti-diabetic alternative medicine in some Asian countries. The main constituent of DT is black tea originating from Camellia sinensis that is supplemented by 12 other medicinal plants. Black tea contains a large amount of the flavonoids catechins especially epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) which has anti-inflammatory and antioxidative capacity. This study was undertaken to evaluate the possible effects of DT intake on inflammatory cytokines, regulatory T cells (Tregs) and metabolic biomarkers in T2DM.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 50 patients with T2DM. The patients had received 3 cups (600ml) of DT extract or placebo (PL) extract per day during a period of 12 weeks. Intracellular cytokine expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) as well as the glycemic and lipid profiles were measured at baseline and after the treatment period. The active constituents of the medicinal plants included in DT were investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS).

    RESULTS: Ingestion of DT suppressed CD4+ T cell expression of IL-1β and Il-8 (p<0.05) and up-regulated the expression of IL-10 and the Treg/IL-17 ratio (p<0.05) which was not shown in PL. A significant decrease in HbA1C and LDL was observed at the end of the study period (p<0.05) in DT. The GC/MS analyses of DT indicated the presence of lupeol, β-Amyrin and β-sitosterol. Also analyses of individual herbs showed the presence of higher levels of lupeol and β-Amyrin in Nuga Ficus bengalensis and β-sitosterol in the Attikka Ficus racemosa, indicating that the active ingredients of DT are concentrated in these two herbs.

    CONCLUSION: The present study provides evidence that DT has hypoglycemic and antihyperlipidemic properties. Interestingly, DT has anti-inflammatory effects. These properties are attributed to the flavonoids, triterpenes and phytosterol contents of the tea. We suggest that DT protects against diabetes complications in the long term.

    Be well!


  36. JP Says:

    Updated 01/24/17:


    Metab Syndr Relat Disord. 2017 Jan 4.

    Effect of Almond Supplementation on Glycemia and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Asian Indians in North India with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A 24-Week Study.

    BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) statistics have reached menacing proportions in India. Appropriate dietary intervention, as part of healthy lifestyle, is imperative to curb further spread of this disease.

    OBJECTIVES: This pre-post intervention study was conducted in New Delhi, India, to investigate the effects of daily consumption of almonds for 24 weeks in T2D subjects, specifically on measures of glycemia and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors.

    METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: In this study, the 24-week intervention period was preceded by a control diet and exercise run-in period of 3 weeks. Raw almonds (20% of energy intake) were provided to the patients for consumption along with diet and physical activity counseling. Patients were assessed for anthropometry, blood pressure, measures of glycemia (fasting blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin), lipids [total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, lipoprotein(a)], surrogate marker of atherosclerosis (Pulse wave velocity), and marker of inflammation (high sensitivity C-reactive protein [hs-CRP]) at baseline and after the intervention period.

    RESULTS: Statistically significant improvement in mean values for various parameters post intervention was as follows: waist circumference (P < 0.03), waist-to-height ratio (P < 0.005), TC (P < 0.002), serum triglycerides (P < 0.004), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P < 0.01), glycosylated hemoglobin (P < 0.04), and hs-CRP (P < 0.01). A trend toward improvement in pulse wave velocity (P < 0.06) was also observed. CONCLUSION: The study findings illustrate that incorporation of almonds in a well-balanced healthy diet leads to multiple beneficial effects on glycemic and CVDs risk factors in Asian Indian patients with T2D. Be well! JP

  37. JP Says:

    Updated 02/25/17:


    PLoS One. 2017 Feb 21;12(2):e0172126.

    Stress increases the risk of type 2 diabetes onset in women: A 12-year longitudinal study using causal modelling.

    BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Modifiable risk factors have been found to contribute up to 60% of type 2 diabetes risk. However, type 2 diabetes continues to rise despite implementation of interventions based on traditional risk factors. There is a clear need to identify additional risk factors for chronic disease prevention. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between perceived stress and type 2 diabetes onset, and partition the estimates into direct and indirect effects.

    METHODS AND FINDINGS: Women born in 1946-1951 (n = 12,844) completed surveys for the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health in 1998, 2001, 2004, 2007 and 2010. The total causal effect was estimated using logistic regression and marginal structural modelling. Controlled direct effects were estimated through conditioning in the regression model. A graded association was found between perceived stress and all mediators in the multivariate time lag analyses. A significant association was found between hypertension, as well as physical activity and body mass index, and diabetes, but not smoking or diet quality. Moderate/high stress levels were associated with a 2.3-fold increase in the odds of diabetes three years later, for the total estimated effect. Results were only slightly attenuated when the direct and indirect effects of perceived stress on diabetes were partitioned, with the mediators only explaining 10-20% of the excess variation in diabetes.

    CONCLUSIONS: Perceived stress is a strong risk factor for type 2 diabetes. The majority of the effect estimate of stress on diabetes risk is not mediated by the traditional risk factors of hypertension, physical activity, smoking, diet quality, and body mass index. This gives a new pathway for diabetes prevention trials and clinical practice.

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  38. JP Says:

    Updated 02/26/17:


    PLoS One. 2017 Feb 22;12(2):e0172239.

    Mulberry-extract improves glucose tolerance and decreases insulin concentrations in normoglycaemic adults: Results of a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled study.

    BACKGROUND: High sugar and refined carbohydrate intake is associated with weight gain, increased incidence of diabetes and is linked with increased cardiovascular mortality. Reducing the health impact of poor quality carbohydrate intake is a public health priority. Reducose, a proprietary mulberry leaf extract (ME), may reduce blood glucose responses following dietary carbohydrate intake by reducing absorption of glucose from the gut.

    METHODS: A double-blind, randomised, repeat measure, phase 2 crossover design was used to study the glycaemic and insulinaemic response to one reference product and three test products at the Functional Food Centre, Oxford Brooks University, UK. Participants; 37 adults aged 19-59 years with a BMI ≥ 20kg/m2 and ≤ 30kg/m2. The objective was to determine the effect of three doses of mulberry-extract (Reducose) versus placebo on blood glucose and insulin responses when co-administered with 50g maltodextrin in normoglycaemic healthy adults. We also report the gastrointestinal tolerability of the mulberry extract.

    RESULTS: Thirty-seven participants completed the study: The difference in the positive Incremental Area Under the Curve (pIAUC) (glucose (mmol / L x h)) for half, normal and double dose ME compared with placebo was -6.1% (-18.2%, 5.9%; p = 0.316), -14.0% (-26.0%, -2.0%; p = 0.022) and -22.0% (-33.9%, -10.0%; p<0.001) respectively. The difference in the pIAUC (insulin (mIU / L x h)) for half, normal and double dose ME compared with placebo was -9.7% (-25.8%, 6.3%; p = 0.234), -23.8% (-39.9%, -7.8%; p = 0.004) and -24.7% (-40.8%, -8.6%; p = 0.003) respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between any of the 4 groups in the odds of experiencing one or more gastrointestinal symptoms (nausea, abdominal cramping, distension or flatulence).

    CONCLUSIONS: Mulberry leaf extract significantly reduces total blood glucose rise after ingestion of maltodextrin over 120 minutes. The pattern of effect demonstrates a classical dose response curve with significant effects over placebo. Importantly, total insulin rises were also significantly suppressed over the same time-period. There were no statistically significant differences between any of the treatment groups (including placebo) in the odds of experiencing one or more gastrointestinal symptoms. Mulberry extract may have multiple modes of action and further studies are necessary to evaluate ME as a potential target for the prevention of type 2 diabetes and the regulation of dysglycaemia.

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  39. JP Says:

    Updated 04/07/17:


    Eur J Clin Nutr. 2017 Apr 5.

    Effect of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid supplementation on C-peptide preservation in pregnant women with type-1 diabetes: randomized placebo controlled clinical trial.

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Type-1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is caused by autoimmune insulitis. There are evidences that pregnancy and n-3 fatty acids exhibit suppressive effect on human inflammatory system.

    SUBJECTS/METHODS: Ninety pregnant women with T1DM were included in the prospective randomized placebo controlled clinical trial. Forty-seven of them were put on standard diabetic diet enriched with EPA and DHA twice a day (EPA 120 mg and DHA 616 mg; Study group) and 43 pregnant diabetic women were on standard diabetic diet with placebo (Control group). Duration of T1DM in all participants was between 5 to 30 years. Blood samples were analyzed from all pregnant women for fasting C-peptide (FC-peptide), fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and HbA1c in each trimester throughout pregnancy and after delivery. Umbilical vein blood was analyzed for fetal C-peptide level, glucose concentration and insulin resistance.

    RESULTS: In the Study group FC-peptide concentration raised from 59.6±103.9 pmol/l in first trimester, to 67.7±101.3 pmol/l in the second trimester and to 95.1±152.7 pmol/l in the third trimester. Comparing the FC-peptide values during first and third trimester a statistically significant increase in third trimester was found (P<0.001). In the Control group FC-peptide concentration ranged from 41.7±91.6 pmol/l in the first trimester to 41.2±70.9 mmol/l in the second trimester while in the third trimester it reached 52.4±95.3 pmol/l. Comparing the FC-peptide values during first and third trimester the statistical difference was not significant.

    CONCLUSION: Combining of LC n-3 PUFAs and pregnancy yields immunological tolerance and stimulates the production of endogenous insulin in women with T1DM.

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  40. JP Says:

    Updated 04/11/17:


    Wound Repair Regen. 2017 Apr 10.

    The effects of zinc supplementation on wound healing and metabolic status in patients with diabetic foot ulcer: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    This study was performed to determine the effects of zinc supplementation on wound healing and metabolic status in patients with diabetic foot ulcer. The current randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted among 60 patients (aged 40-85 years old) with grade 3 diabetic foot ulcer. Participants were randomly divided into two groups (30 participants in each group) to take either 220 mg zinc sulfate supplements containing 50 mg elemental zinc or placebo daily for 12 weeks. After the 12-week intervention, compared with the placebo, zinc supplementation was associated with significant reductions in ulcer length (-1.5±0.7 vs. -0.9±1.2 cm, P=0.02) and width (-1.4±0.8 vs. -0.8±1.0 cm, P=0.02). In addition, changes in fasting plasma glucose (-40.5±71.0 vs. -3.9±48.5 mg/dL, P=0.02), serum insulin concentration (-8.0±15.4 vs. +1.1±10.3 µIU/mL, P=0.009), homeostasis model of assessment-estimated insulin resistance (-3.9±7.1 vs. +0.8±5.9, P=0.007), the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (+0.01±0.03 vs. -0.002±0.02, P=0.04) and HbA1c (-0.5±0.8 vs. -0.1±0.5%, P=0.01) in the supplemented group were significantly different from the changes in these indicators in the placebo group. Additionally, significant increases in serum HDL-cholesterol (+4.1±4.3 vs. +1.1±5.1 mg/dL, P=0.01), plasma total antioxidant capacity (+91.7±213.9 vs. -111.9±188.7 mmol/L, P<0.01) and total glutathione (+68.1±140.8 vs. -35.0±136.1 µmol/L, P=0.006), and significant decreases in high sensitivity C-reactive protein (-20.4±24.6 vs. -6.8±21.3 µg/mL, P=0.02) and plasma malondialdehyde concentrations (-0.6±0.9 vs. -0.2±0.7 µmol/L, P=0.03) were seen following supplementation with zinc compared with the placebo. Zinc supplementation for 12 weeks among diabetic foot ulcer patients had beneficial effects on parameters of ulcer size and metabolic profiles.

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  41. JP Says:

    Updated 04/14/17:


    Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2017 Apr 13.

    Effects of A One-week Fasting Therapy in Patients with Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus and Metabolic Syndrome – A Randomized Controlled Explorative Study.

    There is increasing experimental evidence for beneficial effects of calorie restriction and intermittent fasting in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In humans, prolonged fasting is established as a health-promoting complementary treatment in Europe and claimed to improve metabolism by a complex hormetic response. We aimed to investigate effects of a one-week fasting period compared to usual care in T2DM by means of a pilot trial. Patients with manifest T2DM medically treated with oral hypoglycemic agents and/or insulin were randomly assigned to a 7-day fasting program followed by dietary advice or to usual care and dietary advice only. Fasting was performed according to the method of Buchinger with a nutritional energy intake of 300kcal/day by liquids only and stepwise re-introduction of solid food thereafter. Outcomes were assessed baseline and after 4 months. Of 46 enrolled participants, 32 (n=16 each group) completed the trial and were included for final analyses. Fasting was well accepted, there were no serious adverse events. After 4 months mean weight decreased by 3.5 kg and 2.0 kg in the fasting vs. control group (p=0.03) paralleled by greater reduction of abdominal circumference (p=0.001). Fasting led to a significant decrease of systolic/diastolic blood pressure (p=0.01; p=0.003) and increased quality-of-life (p=0.04), while for HbA1c, insulin and HOMA-index only non-significant improvements were observed. Results of this study suggest that prolonged fasting is feasible and might have beneficial clinical effects. The effectiveness of fasting should be proved in larger confirmatory trials that include intermittent fasting in follow-ups to enable more pronounced and long-term effects.

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  42. JP Says:

    Updated 04/24/17:


    Eur J Sport Sci. 2017 Apr 10:1-11.

    Exercise but not metformin improves health-related quality of life and mood states in older adults with type 2 diabetes.

    The aim of this cohort study is to analyse the effect of three types of treatment: (i) exercise training with multicomponent exercise (E); (ii) pharmacologic treatment with oral hypoglycaemic drug – metformin (M); and (iii) a combined therapy – exercise and metformin (E + M) on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and mood states in older adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D) with comorbidity in an early stage of the disease. Participants (n = 284) underwent 1 of the following 3 conditions: (i) E (n = 59) trained three times/week; (ii) M (n = 30) used 850 mg of metformin twice daily; and (iii) E + M (n = 195) combined exercise and metformin. Furthermore, participants completed baseline and 2-year follow-up evaluations including a Shortform Health Survey 36, Profile of Mood States – Short-form, the health history questionnaires, anthropometric, and blood biochemistry. E and E + M revealed improved mood states, with large effect size on the vigour domain, and moderate effect size in the anger and total mood disturbance (TMD) domains (P <  0.05), in comparison with the M group. After 24 months' intervention, the E and E + M groups perceived better physical and mental HRQoL than the M group. The M group unchanged HRQoL domains (P > 0.05). Metformin had no significant effect on the self-referred HRQoL in T2D participants aged above 60 years, in an early stage of the disease. The E and E + M were the most effective long-term therapies to improve mood states and HRQoL in older adults with T2D.

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  43. JP Says:

    Updated 07/09/17:


    Eur J Nutr. 2017 Jul 7.

    Co-administration of a konjac-based fibre blend and American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) on glycaemic control and serum lipids in type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled, cross-over clinical trial.

    PURPOSE: Use of polypharmacy in the treatment of diabetes is the norm; nonetheless, optimal control is often not achieved. Konjac-glucomannan-based fibre blend (KGB) and American ginseng (AG) have individually been shown to improve glycaemia and CVD risk factors in type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine whether co-administration of KGB and AG could improve diabetes control beyond conventional treatment.

    METHOD: Thirty-nine participants with type 2 diabetes (6.5 > A1c < 8.4%) were enrolled between January 2002 and May 2003 at the Risk Factor Modification Centre at St Michaels Hospital in a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial with each intervention lasting 12-weeks. Medications, diet and lifestyle were kept constant. Interventions consisted of 6 g of fibre from KGB together with 3 g of AG (KGB and AG) or wheat bran-based, fibre-matched control. Primary endpoint was the difference in HbA1c levels at week 12. RESULTS: Thirty participants (18M:12F; age: 64 ± 7 years; BMI: 28 ± 5 kg/m2; HbA1c: 7.0 ± 1.0%) completed the study, and consumed 5.5 and 4.9 g/day of fibre from KGB and wheat bran control, respectively, and 2.7 g/day of AG. At week 12, HbA1c levels were 0.31% lower on the KGB and AG compared to control (p = 0.011). Mean (±SEM) plasma lipids decreased on the KGB and AG vs control by 8.3 ± 3.1% in LDL-C (p = 0.002), 7.5 ± 2.4% in non-HDL-C (p = 0.013), 5.7 ± 1.9% in total-C (p = 0.012), 4.1 ± 2.1% in total-C:HDL-C ratio (p = 0.042), 9.0 ± 2.3% in ApoB (p = 0.0005) and 14.6 ± 4.2% in ApoB:ApoA1 ratio (p = 0.049). CONCLUSIONS: Co-administration of KGB and AG increases the effectiveness of conventional therapy through a moderate but clinically meaningful reduction in HbA1c and lipid concentrations over 12 weeks in patients with type 2 diabetes. Be well! JP

  44. JP Says:

    Updated 08/09/17:


    Nutr Metab (Lond). 2017 Aug 2;14:51.

    Almonds ameliorate glycemic control in Chinese patients with better controlled type 2 diabetes: a randomized, crossover, controlled feeding trial.

    BACKGROUND: Almonds can decrease glycemic index of co-consumed foods and are a rich source for oleic acid and α-tocopherol. The aim of the randomized, crossover, controlled feeding trial was to examine whether as compared to NCEP step II diet as control (CON), ~60 g/d almonds (ALM) added to CON would improve glucoregulation and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in 33 Chinese T2DM patients.

    METHODS: Forty T2DM patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive CON or ALM for 12 wks after a 2-wk. run-in period. Blood and urine samples were collected in the beginning and at the end of each dietary intervention phase for the assessment of biomarkers of glucoregulation, lipid profile, inflammation, and oxidative stress.

    RESULTS: While ALM had a better overall nutritional quality than CON, neither ALM nor CON improved the glycemic status as the primary study outcome and other CVD risk factors, except the circulating nitric oxide being decreased by ALM compared to CON. Among 27 of 33 patients with the baseline HbA1c ≤8, ALM decreased post-interventional fasting serum glucose and HbA1c by 5.9% and 3.0% as compared to that of CON, respectively (P = 0.01 and 0.04). Mean total and LDL-cholesterol concentrations were not changed by both diets.

    CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest almonds incorporated into healthful diets can improve glycemic status in diabetic patients with a better glycemic control.

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  45. JP Says:

    Updated 10/14/17:


    Sci Rep. 2017 Oct 6;7(1):12763.

    Association of Plasma Magnesium with Prediabetes and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Adults.

    Our study aimed to assess the associations of plasma magnesium with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes (T2D) among Chinese adults. We conducted a case-control analysis of 4447 participants: 867 newly diagnosed prediabetes patients, 1475 newly diagnosed T2D patients and 2105 normal glucose tolerance (NGT) individuals. In a subsample of 599 apparently healthy individuals, we measured plasma hs-CRP levels to examine their relation to plasma magnesium. Plasma magnesium and hs-CRP were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Plasma magnesium decreased from NGT to prediabetes to T2D, and was inversely associated with prediabetes and T2D. After adjustment for potential confounding factors, the ORs from the lowest to highest quartiles of plasma magnesium were 1, 0.57 (95%CI, 0.44-0.74), 0.49 (0.37-0.65) and 0.51 (0.37-0.70) for prediabetes, and 1, 0.26 (0.20-0.33), 0.15 (0.12-0.20) and 0.15 (0.11-0.20) for T2D. Consistently, plasma magnesium was inversely correlated with plasma hs-CRP in our subsample analysis; the geometric mean hs-CRP concentration for ascending quartiles of plasma magnesium were 1.29 (1.06-1.57), 1.16 (0.95-1.41), 1.00 (0.81-1.22), and 0.71 (0.58-0.88) mg/l. Plasma magnesium was independently and inversely associated with prediabetes and T2D in Chinese adults.

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  46. JP Says:

    Updated 10/17/17:


    Acta Med Iran. 2017 Aug;55(8):486-495.

    The Effect of Eicosapentaenoic Acid on the Serum Levels and Enzymatic Activity of Paraoxonase 1 in the Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Paraoxonase 1 is known as one of the most important ant oxidative enzymes associated with HDL-c, and because of its antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities. EPA has the antioxidant, anti inflammatory, antithrombogenic, and antiarteriosclerotic properties. Therefore, we investigated the effect of EPA supplementation on the serum levels and activity of PON1 in type 2 diabetic patients. This study was designed as a randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled clinical trial. Thirty-six patients with type 2 diabetes were given written; informed consent randomly was classified into 2 groups. They were supplemented with 2 g/day of the capsules of EPA or placebo for eight weeks. Blood sample was given for measurement of the serum levels of lipids, the activity of PON1, FBS and HbA1c. The patients supplemented with EPA showed a significant increase in the serum levels and activity of PON1 and the serum ratio of PON1/HDL-c. There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding any demographic, clinical or biochemical data, total energy intake, and macronutrient intake at the baseline during the intervention, except for a significant increase of protein intake and the levels of HbA1c in the placebo group, and a significant increase of HDL-c, as well as a slight reduction of total cholesterol, LDL-c, TG and FBS in the supplement group. EPA is atheroprotective via increase in the serum levels and activity of PON1, as well as change in the serum levels of lipids, FBS and HbA1c.

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  47. JP Says:

    Updated 11/09/17:


    Nutrition Research – Volume 43, July 2017, Pages 25-32

    Reduced water intake deteriorates glucose regulation in patients with type 2 diabetes

    Epidemiological research has demonstrated that low daily total water intake is associated with increased diagnosis of hyperglycemia. Possible mechanisms for this increase include hormones related to the hypothalamic pituitary axis as well as the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). Therefore, the hypothesis of the present study was that acute low water intake would result in differential hormonal profiles and thus impaired blood glucose regulation during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Nine men (53 ± 9 years, 30.0 ± 4.3 m∙kg−2, 32% ± 6% body fat) diagnosed with T2DM completed OGTTs in euhydrated (EUH) and hypohydrated (HYP) states in counterbalanced order. Water restriction led to hypohydration of −1.6% of body weight, with elevated plasma (EUH: 288 ± 4, HYP: 298 ± 6 mOsm·kg−1; P < .05) and urine (EUH: 512 ± 185, HYP: 994 ± 415 mOsm·kg−1; P < .05) osmolality. There was a significant main effect of condition for serum glucose (at time 0 minute 9.5 ± 4.2 vs 10.4 ± 4.4 mmol∙L−1 and at time 120 minutes 19.1 ± 4.8 vs 21.0 ± 4.1 mmol∙L−1 for EUH and HYP, respectively; P < .001) but not insulin (mean difference between EUH and HYP −12.1 ± 44.9 pmol∙L−1, P = .390). An interaction between time and condition was observed for cortisol: decrease from minute 0 to 120 in EUH (−85.3 ± 82.1 nmol∙L−1) vs HYP (−25.0 ± 43.0 nmol∙L−1; P = .017). No differences between conditions were found within RAAS-related hormones. Therefore, we can conclude that 3 days of low total water intake in people with T2DM acutely impairs blood glucose response during an OGTT via cortisol but not RAAS-mediated glucose regulation. Be well! JP

  48. JP Says:

    Updated 12/1/17:


    Iran J Kidney Dis. 2017 Nov;11(6):438-446.

    Metabolic Response to Mulberry Extract Supplementation in Patients With Diabetic Nephropathy: a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of mulberry extract administration on markers of insulin metabolism, lipid concentrations, and biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress in patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN).

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty patients were randomly allocated into 2 groups to receive either 300 mg/d of mulberry extract (n = 30) or placebo (n = 30), twice per day for 12 weeks. Fasting blood samples were taken at the onset of the study and 12 weeks after supplementation to examine markers of insulin metabolism, lipid concentrations, and biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress.

    RESULTS: Mulberry extract, compared to placebo, resulted in significant reductions in serum triglycerides (-37.3 ± 64.7 mg/dL versus 3.0 ± 78.8 mg/dL, P = .03) and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-7.4 ± 12.9 mg/dL versus 0.6 ± 15.8 mg/dL, P = .03), and a significant increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration (0.5 ± 4.0 mg/dL versus -2.0 ± 5.0 mg/dL, P = .03). Other significant changes were in serum high-sensitivity C-reaction protein (-2.3 ± 4.5 µg/mL versus -0.1 ± 2.2 µg/mL, P = .02), plasma glutathione (87.8 ± 159.7 µmol/L versus -24.2 ± 138.8 µmol/L, P = .005) and malondialdehyde (-0.03 ± 0.5 µmol/L versus 0.7 ± 1.0 µmol/L, P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: These findings showed that mulberry extract administration had favorable effects on serum lipids, HSCRP, glutathione, and malondialdehyde levels in DN patients; however, it did not affect markers of insulin metabolism or biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress. Be well! JP

  49. JP Says:

    Updated 12/06/17:


    J Clin Transl Endocrinol. 2017 Nov 7;10:28-35.

    Effect of a vitamin and mineral supplementation on glycemic status: Results from a community-based program.

    Aims: Diet is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus. As cofactors necessary for enzyme function of all metabolic pathways, vitamins and minerals have the potential to improve glucose metabolism. We investigated the effects of a nutrient intervention program on glycemic status.

    Methods: We used a form of natural experiment to compare Pure North program participants (n = 1018) that received vitamin D alone (Vital 1) or vitamin D in combination with other nutrients (Vital 2) during two different time periods. Changes in 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], high-sensitivity C reactive protein (hs-CRP), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and glycemic status were characterized over one and two years.

    Results: Serum 25(OH)D concentrations increased significantly in both Vital 1 (to 111  ±  49 nmol/L) and Vital 2 (to 119  ±  52 nmol/L) over one year. HbA1c and hs-CRP were significantly reduced over time in Vital 2. Higher 25(OH)D levels after one year were associated with larger decreases in HbA1c and hs-CRP in Vital 2. At one year, 8% of Vital 2 and 16% of Vital 1 participants progressed from normoglycemia to prediabetes/diabetes, whereas 44% of Vital 2 and 8% of Vital prediabetes/diabetes subjects regressed to normoglycemia.

    Conclusions: Vitamin D combined with other nutrients was associated with a reduced risk of progression to diabetes and with an increased rate of reversion to normoglycemia in high risk participants. The results suggest that nutrient supplementation regimes may provide a safe, economical and effective means for lowering diabetes risk. Further examination of this potential via randomized controlled trials is warranted.

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  50. JP Says:

    Updated 12/31/17:


    Diabetes Metab Syndr. 2017 Dec 21.

    The effect of 12 weeks of aerobic training on serum levels high sensitivity C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, lipid profile and anthropometric characteristics in middle-age women patients with type 2 diabetes.

    AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 12 weeks of aerobic training on serum levels of high sensitivity C- reactive protein (hs-CRP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), lipid profile and anthropometric characteristics in middle-aged women patients with type-2 diabetes.

    METHODS: A quasi-experimental study, 20 women patients with type-2 diabetes (mean age, 50.25 ± 4.36 years, Body mass index, 25.51 ± 2.91 kg/m2, and body fat percentage 23.67 ± 3.05%) were randomly categorized into two experimental and control groups. The protocol aerobic training included eight-minute jogging and eight-minute running with 75-85 percent maximum heart rate reserve in the first session. Per both sessions, one minute added to running time and it increased up to 32 min after 12 weeks. Blood sampling and anthropometric measurements, 24 h before and 48 h after the last training session were conducted.

    RESULT: The result showed a significant reduction in hs-CRP and TNF-α in the experimental than control group (P = 0.01). Exercise training-treated patients showed a significant decrease in TG, LDL and increase HDL in comparison with baseline and the control group (P < .05). The results also showed a significant decrease in weight, body mass index, body fat percentage, and waist-hip ratio (P values 0.02, 0.03, 001, 0.04 respectively) following the 12 weeks aerobic training.

    CONCLUSION: It seems that long-term aerobic training, improved some important anthropometric and biochemical parameters in patients with type-2 diabetes. These observations give a new insight into the mechanisms by which aerobic training can reduce the cardiovascular risk in diabetes.

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  51. JP Says:

    Updated 1/19/18:


    Int J Endocrinol Metab. 2017 Aug 27;15(4):e57927.

    The Effects of Ginger on Fasting Blood Sugar, Hemoglobin A1c, and Lipid Profiles in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Background: Lipid and glycemic abnormalities are prevalent in diabetes leading to long term complications. Use of safe and natural foods instead of medications is now considered by many scientists.

    Objectives: This study aimed at determining the effect of ginger on lipid and glucose levels of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Methods: In a double-blind placebo-controlled trial, 50 patients with type 2 diabetes were randomly allocated to 2 groups of intervention (n = 25) and placebo (n = 25). Each patient received 2000 mg per day of ginger supplements or placebo for 10 weeks. Serum levels of fasting blood sugar (FBS), total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) were analyzed. Daily dietary intakes and anthropometric parameters were also determined.

    Results: Data from 45 patients were analyzed (23 patients in the ginger group and 22 patients in the control group) at the end of the study. Ginger consumption significantly reduced serum levels of fasting blood glucose (-26.30 ± 35.27 vs. 11.91 ± 38.58 mg/dl; P = 0.001) and hemoglobin A1C (-0.38 ± 0.35 vs. 0.22 ± 0.29 %; P < 0.0001) compared to the placebo group. Ginger consumption also reduced the ratio of LDL-C/HDL-C (2.64 ± 0.85 vs. 2.35 ± 0.8; P = 0.009). However, there was no significant change in serum concentrations of triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-C, and HDL-C due to the ginger supplements.

    Conclusions: The current results showed that ginger could reduce serum levels of fasting blood glucose and hemoglobin A1C in patients with diabetes.

    Be well!


  52. JP Says:

    Updated 1/25/18:


    J Hum Nutr Diet. 2018 Jan 23.

    Diets with a low glycaemic load have favourable effects on prediabetes progression and regression: a prospective cohort study.

    BACKGROUND: To date, no study assessing the associations among glycaemic index (GI), glycaemic load (GL) and progression to diabetes has focused specifically on prediabetes. Moreover, the available data on the association between these variables and regression to normal glucose regulation (NGR) are insufficient. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the longitudinal associations among GI, GL and prediabetes outcomes.

    METHODS: This prospective study included 640 adults aged 40-79 years with prediabetes at baseline. Dietary data were assessed using a previously validated 3-day food record. The participants were divided into three groups according to GI and GL tertiles. Outcomes were defined based on annual oral glucose tolerance test results.

    RESULTS: During a median of 5 years of follow-up, 127 incident cases of diabetes and 249 incident cases of NGR were identified. Dietary GL was positively associated with the risk of developing diabetes and negatively associated with the likelihood of reaching NGR at least once. Comparing the highest and lowest tertiles of GL, the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) were 1.85 (1.07-3.21) for progression and 0.65 (0.44-0.96) for regression. No association was observed between GI and prediabetes outcomes in the fully adjusted models.

    CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with prediabetes, high dietary GL was positively associated with diabetes risk. Furthermore, a low-GL diet contributed to an increased incidence of reaching NGR.

    Be well!


  53. JP Says:

    Updated 2/9/18:


    Nutr Res. 2018 Jan;49:96-106.

    l-Carnosine supplementation attenuated fasting glucose, triglycerides, advanced glycation end products, and tumor necrosis factor-α levels in patients with type 2 diabetes: a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial.

    Considering the pathologic importance of metabolic disturbances, advanced glycation end products (AGEs), and chronic inflammation in diabetes mellitus and ameliorating potentials of l-carnosine in hampering these detritions and because these effects have not been investigated in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) so far, we conducted the current study. We hypothesized that l-carnosine would improve glycemic control, lipid profile, AGE, soluble receptor of AGEs (sRAGE), and inflammatory markers. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 54 patients with T2D were recruited and assigned into either intervention group (n=27, receiving 2 capsules of l-carnosine 500 mg each) or control group (n=27). Blood samples and dietary intakes information were collected at baseline and after 12 weeks of intervention. l-Carnosine supplementation resulted in significant decrease in fat mass and an increase in fat-free mass in the intervention group compared with the placebo group (1.5% and 1.7%, respectively) (P< .05). A significant reduction in fasting blood glucose (13.1 mg/dL); glycated hemoglobin (.6%); and serum levels of triglycerides (29.8 mg/dL), carboxymethyl lysine (91.8 ng/mL), and tumor necrosis factor-α was detected in the l-carnosine group compared with the placebo group (P<.05). In the l-carnosine group, a significant reduction in serum pentosidine levels (2.8 ng/mL) was observed compared with those at baseline (P<.05). No significant differences were observed in dietary intake, body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fasting insulin levels, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and secretion, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, sRAGE, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1β levels between the groups after adjusting for baseline values and covariates (P>.05). Collectively, l-carnosine lowered fasting glucose, serum levels of triglycerides, AGEs, and tumor necrosis factor-α without changing sRAGE, IL-6, and IL-1β levels in T2D patients.

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  54. JP Says:

    Updated 04/16/18:


    Nutrition. 2018 Feb 13;53:59-63.

    Postprandial glucose and insulin response to a high-fiber muffin top containing resistant starch type 4 in healthy adults: a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial.

    OBJECTIVES: VERSAFIBE™ 2470 resistant starch (RS) is an RS type 4 that is derived from high-amylose maize starch,70% total dietary fiber (TDF; AOAC method 2009.01). This was a randomized, double-blind, crossover study to evaluate the postprandial blood glucose and insulin responses of healthy adults (n = 28) after the consumption of a muffin top made with VERSAFIBE™ 2470 RS (11.6 g TDF fiber muffin top) or a control muffin top (0.9 g TDF).

    METHODS: The muffin tops were matched for weight, total carbohydrate, sugars, protein, and fat. During each treatment period, subjects consumed a standard evening meal, fasted for 12 h, and arrived at the study clinic the following morning. Serum glucose, serum insulin, and capillary glucose were measured at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after muffin top consumption. The subjects completed a 7-d washout period between treatments.

    RESULTS: The consumption of the fiber muffin top resulted in a significant 33% reduction in postprandial serum glucose incremental area under the curve from 0 to 120 min and an 8% decrease in maximum glucose concentration versus the control muffin (P = 0.037 and P = 0.007, respectively). The fiber muffin top reduced postprandial serum insulin incremental area under the curve from 0 to 120 min by 38% compared with the control muffin top (P <0.001), which aligns with the blood glucose data.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that the inclusion of a practical dose of dietary fiber (11.6 g TDF) from VERSAFIBE™ 2470 RS in a bakery product significantly reduced postprandial glucose and insulin responses in healthy adults.

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  55. JP Says:

    Updated 06/27/18:


    Br J Nutr. 2018 Jul;120(1):57-63.

    Effect of liquid ubiquinol supplementation on glucose, lipids and antioxidant capacity in type 2 diabetes patients: a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial.

    Ubiquinone is a lipid antioxidant, and a novel liquid ubiquinol (a hydro-soluble, reduced form of coenzyme Q10) supplement was recently developed. The purpose of this study was to examine the levels of glucose, lipids and antioxidant capacity of type 2 diabetes patients after liquid ubiquinol supplementation. This study was designed as a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. In all, fifty participants were randomly assigned to a placebo (n 25) or liquid ubiquinol (100 mg/d, n 25) group, and the intervention lasted for 12 weeks. Plasma coenzyme Q10, glucose homoeostasis parameters, lipid profiles, oxidative stress and antioxidative enzyme activities were measured during the study. After 12 weeks of supplementation, glyco Hb (HbA1c) value was significantly decreased in the liquid ubiquinol group (P=0·03), and subjects in the liquid ubiquinol group had significantly lower anti-glycaemic medication effect scores (MES) compared with those in the placebo group (P=0·03). The catalase (P<0·01) and glutathione peroxidase (P=0·03) activities were increased significantly after supplementation. Plasma coenzyme Q10 was correlated with the insulin level (P=0·05), homoeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (P=0·07), quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (P=0·03) and the anti-hyperglycaemic agents' MES (P=0·03) after supplementation. Lipid profiles did not change after supplementation; however, the subjects in the placebo group had a significantly lower level of HDL-cholesterol after 12 weeks of intervention. In conclusion, oral intake of 100 mg/d liquid ubiquinol might benefit type 2 diabetes patients by increasing antioxidant enzyme activity levels, reducing HbA1c levels and maintaining HDL-cholesterol levels.

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  56. JP Says:

    Updated 07/10/18:


    Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2018 Jul 7;17(1):98.

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids favourably modulate cardiometabolic biomarkers in type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis and meta-regression of randomized controlled trials.

    BACKGROUND: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) suggest that supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFAs) may favourably modify cardiometabolic biomarkers in type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Previous meta-analyses are limited by insufficient sample sizes and omission of meta-regression techniques, and a large number of RCTs have subsequently been published since the last comprehensive meta-analysis. Updated information regarding the impact of dosage, duration or an interaction between these two factors is therefore warranted. The objective was to comprehensively assess the effect of n-3PUFAs supplementation on cardiometabolic biomarkers including lipid profiles, inflammatory parameters, blood pressure, and indices of glycaemic control, in people with T2DM, and identify whether treatment dosage, duration or an interaction thereof modify these effects.

    METHODS: Databases including PubMed and MEDLINE were searched until 13th July 2017 for RCTs investigating the effect of n-3PUFAs supplementation on lipid profiles, inflammatory parameters, blood pressure, and indices of glycaemic control. Data were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis and presented as standardised mean difference (Hedges g) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Meta-regression analysis was performed to investigate the effects of duration of supplementation and total dosage of n-3PUFAs as moderator variables where appropriate.

    RESULTS: A total of 45 RCTs were identified, involving 2674 people with T2DM. n-3PUFAs supplementation was associated with significant reductions in LDL [ES: - 0.10, (95% CI - 0.17, - 0.03); p = 0.007], VLDL (ES: - 0.26 (- 0.51, - 0.01); p = 0.044], triglycerides (ES: - 0.39 (- 0.55, - 0.24; p ≤ 0.001] and HbA1c (ES: - 0.27 (- 0.48, - 0.06); p = 0.010]. Moreover, n-3PUFAs supplementation was associated with reduction in plasma levels of TNF-α [ES: - 0.59 (- 1.17, - 0.01); p = 0.045] and IL-6 (ES: - 1.67 (- 3.14, - 0.20); p = 0.026]. All other lipid markers, indices of glycaemic control, inflammatory parameters, and blood pressure remained unchanged (p > 0.05).

    CONCLUSIONS: n-3PUFAs supplementation produces favourable hypolipidemic effects, a reduction in pro-inflammatory cytokine levels and improvement in glycaemia. Neither duration nor dosage appear to explain the observed heterogeneity in response to n-3PUFAs.

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  57. JP Says:

    Updated 07/12/18:


    J Diabetes Res. 2018 Jun 10;2018:1986820.

    The Impact of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction on Emotional Wellbeing and Glycemic Control of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the effect of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) intervention on emotion regulation and glycemic control of patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Materials and Methods: Sixty patients with type 2 diabetes were recruited for this randomized controlled trial from an outpatient clinic at Imam Hospital in Iran. The intervention group participated in 8 sessions of MBSR, and the control group continued the treatment as usual. Fasting blood sugar and HbA1c were measured as two indices of glycemic control. Overall mental health, depression, and anxiety were measured using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HARS), respectively. All the assessments were performed at baseline and after 8 weeks and 3 months as follow-up.

    Results: In comparison with the control group, the MBSR intervention group showed a significant reduction on all outcome measures including FBS, HbA1C, HARS, and HDRS scores (p < 0/05). Conclusion: MBSR had a remarkable improvement on emotional wellbeing and glycemic control of patients with type 2 diabetes. Be well! JP

  58. JP Says:

    Updated 08/28/18:


    Int J Prev Med. 2018 Jul 30;9:64.

    Higher Intake of Phytochemical-Rich Foods is Inversely Related to Prediabetes: A Case-Control Study.

    Background: Dietary phytochemical index (DPI) has introduced as an inexpensive method for quantifying the phytochemicals in foods. For the first time, this study was conducted to investigate the relationship between DPI and the risk of prediabetes.

    Methods: Three hundred participants were assigned to 150 prediabetics (cases) and 150 healthy (controls) groups. Anthropometric values, fasting blood glucose, and 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were measured. The DPI was calculated based on data collected from 168-item validated food frequency questionnaire.

    Results: The sex-specific energy-adjusted DPI was inversely related to fasting blood glucose (FBG) and OGTT (P < 0.001). The odds ratio (OR) of prediabetes was assessed across sex-specific energy-adjusted DPI quartiles. After adjusting for body mass index, physical activity, education, dietary intake of energy, fiber, carbohydrate (% of energy), fat (% of energy), and protein (% of energy), the OR of prediabetes across the sex-specific energy-adjusted DPI quartiles decreased significantly (P-trend < 0.001). Conclusions: We found that higher DPI score is related to lower prediabetes OR. This simple method may be used for the improvement of dietary intake to prevent prediabetes. Be well! JP

  59. JP Says:

    Updated 08/31/18:


    Med J Islam Repub Iran. 2018 Apr 28;32:34.

    A double blind randomized clinical trial to investigate the effect of vitamin D supplementation on metabolic and hepato-renal markers in type 2 diabetes and obesity.

    Background: According to the recent studies, vitamin D deficiency has been correlated with progress in type 2 Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of vitamin D supplementation on glucose and lipid profiles, blood pressure, and biomarkers of liver and kidney in type 2 diabetic patients. Methods: In this Double blinded randomized clinical trial, 90 patients with type 2 diabetes and serum 25-Hydroxy vitamin D levels of less than 30 ng/ml recruited from “Besat Diabetes Clinic” in Rasht, North of Iran. The subjects took 50000 IU vitamin D supplements or placebo for 8 weeks. We assessed the levels of serum 25 (OH) vitamin D, glucose and lipid profiles, oxidative and inflammatory indices, liver and kidney biomarkers, blood pressure, and sun exposure time, physical activity before and after intervention, and compared them between cases and controls. Results: Vitamin D supplementation significantly increased serum vitamin D level, Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) activity, and significantly decreased serum HbA1C (Glycosylated Hemoglobin) level (p<0.001). High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) Cholesterol increased significantly (p=0.016), and Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) significantly decreased (p=0.039) after the intervention. Conclusion: Our results represented that weekly supplementation with 50000 IU vitamin D for 8 weeks may be effective by improving HbA1C and lipid profile in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

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  60. JP Says:

    Updated 10/20/18:


    Curr Dev Nutr. 2018 Aug 9;2(10):nzy066.

    Substitution of Corn Starch with Resistant Starch Type 4 in a Breakfast Bar Decreases Postprandial Glucose and Insulin Responses: A Randomized, Controlled, Crossover Study.

    Background: Resistant starches type 4 (RS4) are chemically modified starches that are resistant to digestion by human enzymes.

    Objective: We aimed to test our hypothesis that replacement of standard starch with RS4 in a baked breakfast bar would decrease postprandial glycemic and insulinemic responses in healthy adults.

    Methods: In this double-blind, randomized crossover study, 21 healthy adults [10 men; 20-45 y old; BMI (kg/m2): 19.3-27.0] consumed a baked breakfast bar containing tapioca-based RS4 (Actistar 75330; Cargill, Inc.) or a macronutrient-matched control bar, delivering 32 g and 4 g of dietary fiber, respectively. Primary outcome was the incremental area under the curve (iAUC0-120 min) for postprandial capillary glucose. Other outcomes included postprandial serum insulin iAUC0-120 min, glucose and insulin maximum concentration (Cmax), and time to Cmax (Tmax).

    Results: Median glucose iAUC0-120 min was 22% lower (P < 0.05) and median insulin iAUC0-120 min was 37% lower (P < 0.05) after consumption of the RS4 food compared with the control food. Glucose and insulin Cmax and Tmax were not significantly different (P > 0.05) between foods.

    Conclusion: The results suggest that replacement of standard starch with tapioca-based RS4 is a practical approach for reducing available carbohydrate in products and achieving postprandial blood glucose management.

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  61. JP Says:

    Updated 12/11/18:


    Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2018 Nov 27.

    Proton pump inhibitors use and risk of chronic kidney disease in diabetic patients.

    AIMS: Chronic kidney disease consumes a huge amount of medical resources and proton pump inhibitors may be a potential factor for the increasing prevalence. This population-based cohort study investigates the risk of chronic kidney disease in a diabetic population using proton pump inhibitors in Taiwan.

    METHODS: This study is based on a specific diabetic database obtained from the National Health Insurance Research Database. Individuals with a new diagnosis of diabetes from 2002 to 2013 were enrolled. “Exposure” to proton pump inhibitors was defined as at least one prescription and dosage over 180 DDD (defined daily dose) in one year after the index date. A multivariable Cox proportional hazard model and competing-risk regression model were applied.

    RESULTS: There were 5,994 patients in the final cohort of proton pump inhibitor users and 23,976 patients in the matched controlled cohort based on 1:4 propensity score matching. Compared with no exposure users, PPIs exposure group had more anemia prevalence, anti-hypertension medication and NSAIDs prescriptions. The multivariable Cox proportional hazard model showed that the adjusted hazard ratio of chronic kidney disease was 1.52 (95% CI 1.40-1.65) in diabetic individuals with PPIs exposure, compared with no exposure users.

    CONCLUSIONS: Proton pump inhibitors use is associated with 1.52-fold increased risk of chronic kidney disease in diabetic patients when the dosage is over 180 DDD in one year in Taiwan.

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  62. JP Says:

    Updated 12/27/18:


    J Res Med Sci. 2018 Oct 26;23:91.

    Effects of coenzyme Q10 supplementation on the serum levels of amylase, adenosine deaminase, catalase, and total antioxidant capacity in women with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    Background: Increased levels of reactive oxygen species is a key factor involved in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is a nonenzymatic antioxidant that restores other antioxidants.

    Materials and Methods: This randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial study has been designed to evaluate the effects of CoQ10 supplementation on serum values of amylase, adenosine deaminase, catalase (CAT), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) in women with T2DM. Serum levels of CoQ10 were measured too. Sixty-eight women with T2DM were enrolled in this study and randomly divided into two groups. One group received 100 mg/day of CoQ10 supplement for 12 weeks (n = 34), and the other group was given placebo for the same time duration and dosage (n = 34).

    Results: After the intervention, serum CAT activity (P < 0.001), TAC (P = 0.006), CoQ10 (P = 0.001), and QUICKI (P = 0.005) increased and fasting blood sugar (FBS) (P = 0.05) decreased significantly in CoQ10 group. Conclusion: This study showed that daily supplementation with 100 mg of CoQ10 could increase TAC and CAT activity as, CoQ10 and QUICKI and could reduce oxidative stress and FBS in women with T2DM. Be well! JP

  63. JP Says:

    Updated 01/16/19:


    Diabetes Metab Syndr. 2019 Jan – Feb;13(1):278-283.

    The effects of vitamin D3 supplementation on some metabolic and inflammatory markers in diabetic nephropathy patients with marginal status of vitamin D: A randomized double blind placebo controlled clinical trial.

    AIMS: Diabetic nephropathy is known to be an independent risk factor in the progression of renal and cardiovascular disorders. Due to the association between vitamin D deficiency and diabetic nephropathy, vitamin D deficiency in the diabetic nephropathy population, this study conducted to examine the effects of Vitamin D3 on metabolic and inflammatory parameters in patients with diabetic nephropathy.

    METHODS: This eight-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was carried out on 50 diabetic nephropathy patients with marginal status of vitamin D. Participants were randomly assigned to two groups: control and intervention. Participants received a vitamin D3 (50000 IU) supplement weekly on a specific day. Fasting blood samples were collected from all patients at their entry to the study, and eight weeks after intervention.

    RESULTS: Analyses showed significance differences in physical activity between the intervention and placebo groups (P = 0.018). There were no significant differences between the percentage changes of HbA1c, insulin and, inflammatory parameters such as TNF-α and IL-6 (P > 0.05), while the percentage change of FBS was significantly higher in the placebo group compared to the treatment one (P < 0.0001). Lower levels of FBS (P < 0.0001), insulin (P < 0.069), HOMA-IR (P < 0.001), TNF-α (P< 0.002) and IL-6 (P < 0.037) were found after supplementation in treatment group. However, the phosphorous and protein percentage change in urine were lower (P = 0.07) and higher (P = 0.003) between groups. CONCLUSIONS: It was found that vitamin D supplementation can be regarded as an effective way to prevent the progression of diabetic nephropathy by reducing levels of proteinuria, and inflammatory markers such as TNF-α and IL-6. Be well! JP

  64. JP Says:

    Updated 02/07/19:


    Mutagenesis. 2019 Feb 6.

    Vitamin D3 as adjuvant in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus: modulation of genomic and biochemical instability.

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus has undergone a worldwide growth in incidence in the world and has now acquired epidemic status. There is a strong link between type 2 diabetes and vitamin D deficiency. Because vitamin D has beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis, the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of vitamin D3 supplementation on the modulation of glycaemic control and other metabolic effects, as well as modulation of genomic instability in patients with type 2 diabetes. We evaluated 75 patients with type 2 diabetes, registered in the Integrated Clinics of the University of Southern Santa Catarina. Participants received 4000 IU of vitamin D3 (25(OH)D) supplementation daily for 8 weeks. Blood samples were collected at the beginning and at the end of the supplementation, and 4 weeks after the end of supplementation. The glycidic and lipid profiles [total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein and triglycerides], oxidative stress, DNA damage and 25(OH)D levels were evaluated. Vitamin D3 supplementation for 8 weeks showed enough to significantly increase blood levels of 25(OH)D. A significant difference in lipid profile was observed only in non-HDL cholesterol. Significant changes were observed in glucose homeostasis (fasting glucose and serum insulin) and, in addition, a reduction in the parameters of oxidative stress and DNA damage. There was a significant reduction in the values of 25(OH)D 4 weeks after the end of the supplementation, but levels still remained above baseline. Use of vitamin D supplementation can be an ally in the health modulation of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

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  65. JP Says:

    Updated 02/18/19:


    Clin Chim Acta. 2019 Feb 14.

    Association of vitamin D deficiency with insulin resistance in middle-aged type 2 diabetics.

    BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency contributes to the pathophysiology of insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We investigated the association of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] with IR and β-cell function in middle-aged participants.

    METHODS: We enrolled 90 controls and 90 T2DM patients of both genders aged 30-50 y. Serum 25(OH)D, fasting plasma insulin (FPI), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), HbA1c, and lipid profile were measured by standard methods. Insulin resistance and sensitivity were assessed by triglyceride glucose (TyG) index, homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR), and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI), and β-cell function by HOMA-B.

    RESULTS: 25(OH)D deficiency was reported as 40% in control and 70% in T2DM patients. 25(OH)D concentration was positively associated with age, blood pressure, T2DM duration, FPG, HbA1c, TyG index, and HOMA-IR and negatively associated with HOMA-B and QUICKI among all the participants (p ≤.001). Participants with severe 25(OH)D deficiency (<10 ng/ml) were 38.927 times higher odds of being T2DM, while, those with moderate deficiency (10-19n g/ml) and insufficiency (20-29 ng/ml) were 15 times and 13 times higher odds of being T2DM, respectively.

    CONCLUSION: Sufficient 25(OH)D concentration may lower the risk of development of IR and T2DM in middle-aged control and diabetic participants.

    Be well!


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