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Best of Natural Cancer Fighters

November 5, 2010 Written by JP    [Font too small?]

The other night I found myself at a local card room. I was sitting at a “No-Limit Texas Hold ’em” table playing poker with a motley group of strangers. Poker isn’t your standard form of gambling. It does involve a certain measure of luck, but it mostly requires a particular set of observational and social skills. It so happens that these same skills can be extremely beneficial in parts of life that extend far beyond the confines of the felt table, the clattering chips and shuffling cards. About half way through the evening, a rather gruff looking gentleman took a seat at the table. He looked like the kind of guy you wouldn’t want to upset or even look at the wrong way. But if there’s one lesson that poker teaches you it’s that you should never entirely trust the obvious. So I began chatting with this biker-type fellow as he devoured an enormous ice cream sundae with plenty of peanuts on top. In the course of about 15 minutes, he revealed to me that was suffering from terminal cancer. He didn’t much care about dressing well or shaving because he didn’t expect to be around for much longer. Talk about a punch to the gut!

Under different circumstances I might have suspected that this was just a tall tale to distract me from my primary objective – to play a solid game and win as much money as possible. But it was obvious by his delivery and his lack of relative poker skills that this was no hustler. This was just a man who wanted to have some fun and who needed a distraction from the stinging reality that life had dealt him. It’s highly unlikely that my poker playing comrade will be reading this. But even if he doesn’t know it, he inspired today’s column.

Natural Protection Against Lung Cancer

Methylation is a process that affects critical genes that control the development and spread of lung cancer. A study just published in the journal Cancer Research reports that eating plenty of dark, green leafy vegetables and taking a multivitamin/mineral rich in carotenoids, folic acid, lutein and Vitamins A, C & K may slow down gene hyper-methylation and thereby reduce the risk of lung cancer. These findings are based on an examination of 1,101 smokers and ex-smokers. Food frequency questionnaires and sputum samples were used to determine diet, supplement use and “the methylation of eight genes commonly silenced in lung cancer and associated with risk for this disease”. The participants who ate a minimum of 12 portions of dark, green leafy veggies per month were shown to have a 17% reduced risk of gene methylation. The ingestion of 750 mcg or more of folic acid brought about a 16% decline in methylation. But the most impressive finding of all was a 43% methylation drop in those actively using a multivitamin. Another study, presented this week at the Joint Conference on Molecular Origins of Lung Cancer describes a 5.16-fold increased risk of lung cancer in a group of 510 non-smokers and smokers who did not drink any green tea. A more specific examination of current smokers demonstrated an even greater risk increase of 12.71-fold. The researchers conducting the study believe that green tea consumption may affect particular genes that predispose certain people to lung tumorigenesis. (1,2)

Alpha Lipoic Acid and Low-Dose Naltrexone vs. Pancreatic Cancer

The recent passing of the famous actor Patrick Swayze attracted some much needed attention to the issue of one of the most lethal malignancies, pancreatic cancer. Mr. Swayze’s unfortunate demise was a stark reminder that even the most high-tech, conventional interventions are often inadequate. However, there is some preliminary promise in this arena coming from the field of integrative oncology. The intravenous combination of a natural antioxidant (alpha lipoic acid) and a low-dose form of an anti-addiction medication (Naltrexone) may offer new hope in advanced cases of pancreatic cancer. Three unique case reports on patients with metastatic (spreading) pancreatic cancer found unexpected remissions and survival rates. In one instance, a man whose cancer had spread to his liver was “alive and well” after 39 months. Two other patients were determined as being free of detectable tumors as assessed by a PET scan after 4 and 5 months of this combination treatment. Several modes of action are described by the supervising researchers who presented this information. They include: the promotion of apoptosis (cancer cell death), a reduction in oxidative stress, the regulation of genetic activity via NF(k)B and stimulation of the immune system. (3,4,5)

Soy and Vitamin D May Protect Against Colorectal Cancer

A new meta-analysis investigated the role of soy food consumption in the prevalence of colorectal cancer. An insignificant reduction in risk was noted when researchers looked for a generalized link between high soy intake and colorectal cancer incidence. However when the United States Department of Agricultural scientists examined the study population by gender, they determined that women alone exhibited a statistically relevant decline in colorectal cancer of 21%. Both genders can rejoice equally in a new report stemming from the Cancer Research Center at the University of Hawaii. An inquiry into the Vitamin D status of a multi-ethnic group of 663 men and women with and without colorectal cancer determined that those with the highest levels of D experienced up to 46% reduced risk or colorectal cancer. (6,7)

Cruciferous Vegetables vs. Prostate Cancer

Two recent German trials provide additional evidence for the protective role of cruciferous vegetables such as bok choy, broccoli, brussels sprouts, collard greens, cauliflower and kale in men at risk for prostate cancer. A class of phytochemicals found in said vegetables known as glucosinolates were measured as a way determining dietary consumption in a population of 11,405 men. The average follow-up time for this study was 9.4 years. During that period 328 cases of prostate cancer were diagnosed. Men who were in the top 1/4 in terms of glucosinolate consumption were 32% less likely to develop prostate cancer. There also appeared to be a connection between cruciferous vegetable intake and the severity of the malignancies as categorized by localized tumors and “low-grade cancers”. Further analysis in a separate population of 740 men also found a 28% reduced PC risk in those eating higher quantities of cruciferae. A proposed mechanism for this preventive effect may involve an interaction between glucosinolates and “the induction of biotransformation enzymes” which aid in the “elimination of carcinogens from the body”. (8,9)

Green Tea (EGCG) – Proposed Anti-Cancer Mechanisms
Source: Mayo Clinic Proceedings June 2007 vol. 82 no. 6 725-732 (link)

Prevention is obviously the desired course of action with regard to any cancer. However the unfortunate reality is that malignancies are likely to be a part of modern health care for many years to come. One of the most arduous aspects of dealing with cancer is the treatment itself. Chemotherapeutic drugs can assist in killing cancer cells but can also takes a serious toll on the host of the malignancy. The good news is that there may be a few natural ways to minimize the hardship involved in conventional cancer care. The Mayo Clinic recently completed a study that found that adding 1,000 – 2,000 mg of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolis) into the daily routine of cancer patients safely improved energy/vitality levels and resulted in no toxicity. Researchers at the Department of Internal Medicine at the University of Kansas have also reported that supplementing with high-dosages of Vitamin D (50,000 IUs per week) is a safe way to improve Vitamin D status and reduce disability and joint pain in women receiving pharmaceutical breast cancer treatment (aromatase inhibitors). However it’s important to note that both of these findings are considered preliminary in nature and warrant further study. Any changes to a cancer treatment protocol should only be made in concert with a knowledgeable health professional. (10,11)

I was posed with a dilemma that night at the card table. Should I try to intervene and offer some healthful suggestions to the poker player with terminal cancer? I thought about giving him my business card that includes this website’s address and my e-mail. I went over in my mind what I’d like to say and exactly how to say it. But ultimately I decided against it. A kind lady sitting between us attempted to offer some emotional and spiritual support to this gentleman first. It was obvious to me that this exchange made him feel uncomfortable. He was there to forget, if only for a short while. It just didn’t feel right to take that away from him. That was yet another lesson that Texas Hold ’em has taught me: pick and choose your battles carefully.

Update: November 2010 – Two new studies appearing in the October 2010 edition of the journal Nutrition and Cancer reveal that the addition of soy phystoestrogens to conventional chemotherapy and radiation therapy may reduce adverse reactions in children and adults undergoing cancer treatment. In the trial involving pediatric cancer patients, the addition of a “soy isoflavone mixture containing 8 mg of genistein” resulted in fewer side effects (diarrhea, infections, mucositis, myelosuppression and pain severity). A separate 6 month study in 42 men with prostate cancer utilized a higher dosage of 200 mg/day of soy isoflavones vs. a placebo in combination with radiation. Measurements taken at the 3 and 6 month mark of the investigation determined that the soy-treated men exhibited better erectile function, less (urinary) urgency and a lower likelihood of urinary incontinence. Other benefits noted included “less dripping/leakage of urine”, “less pain with bowel movements” and “less rectal cramping/diarrhea”. The conclusion of the study, as reported by researchers from Wayne State University in Detroit, Michigan, states that “soy isoflavones taken in conjunction with radiation therapy could reduce the urinary, intestinal, and sexual adverse effects in patients with prostate cancer”. (12,13)

Note: Please check out the “Comments & Updates” section of this blog – at the bottom of the page. You can find the latest research about this topic there!

Be well!


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Posted in Alternative Therapies, Nutrition, Nutritional Supplements

17 Comments & Updates to “Best of Natural Cancer Fighters”

  1. liverock Says:

    Poor methylation can also be responsible for other diseases besides cancer.

    It can lead to increased homocysteine levels and heart disease.

    The increased effect of a multivitamin on lung cancer is probably due to receiving the full range of B vitamins especially B6 and B12 as well as the increased folic acid, all of which are necessary for good methylation.

    20% of the population have a genetic defect that prevents them converting the synthetic folic acid in supplements to its active form L-Methylfolate, necessary to ensure absorption.

    In those cases the active form of folic acid that does not need converting can be bought seperately as a supplement METAFOLIN.

    As far as I am aware Solgar are the only company allowed to manufacture METAFOLIN under licence from Merck.


    Its better to get as much folic acid from your greens as possible as it is the active type and doesnt need converting.

  2. JP Says:


    Excellent points, as usual. Thank you for making them.

    If I’m not mistaken, l-methylfolate is also sold by a few other brands including Life Extension, Metagenics, Thorne Research, etc.

    Be well!


  3. Daniel Says:

    Just as hypomethylation can cause cancer by awakening so-called oncogenes, hypermethylation can cause cancer by silencing protective genes (like p53 or VDR or GSH genes). Global hypomethylation and local hypermethylation… both bad. Since the Swedish (or was it Norway) randomize placebo trial finding that folic acid supplements cause an enormous (28%!) increase in cancer, I think confouding must be considered when analyzing any associative study suggesting benefits to folic acid, as folic acid is found in the food most people think is healthy. Here is a study that suggests that people with high intakes of folate have less promoter hypermethylation. That’s the opposite of what i would have thought. Is this just an association — people with the highest intakes of folate have good enough nutrient status (and consume, or produce, enough methytransferase or HDAC inhibitors — green tea, soy, cruciferous veggies, CLA, butter, garlic, melatonin) to counteract the damage of high folate diets?

  4. JP Says:


    Thank you for your insightful comments. I think more research is clearly needed re: the folate/cancer connection. Here are a few differing opinions on this controversial topic:



    Be well!


  5. Daniel Says:

    Thanks for your response. Andrew w. Saul, the author of the first article, argues that a randomized placebo controlled trial must be wrong because other “nature made a mistake.” His point is that folate is found in many vegetables so therefore it must be good. His argument has three serious flaws. First, he ignores quantity and bio-availability; there is more folic acid in supplements than a reasonable person could get from vegetables and the folate in vegetables often comes packed in other compounds, some of which may counteract folate or limit its bio-availability. Second, he assumes that humans were designed to eat a lot of vegetables, when in fact humans are likely starchy tuber and meat eaters primarily. 2000 calories from asparagus yields a lot more folate than 2000 calories of meat and potatos. Third, he is dismissing out of hand a randomized placebo controlled trial with plausibility arguments – the true mark of somebody who doesn’t understand science in my opinion. There’s room for doubt, to be sure, but the only way to dismiss this evidence to with another (independent) larger and better designed randomized placebo controlled trial.

    The second article doesn’t argue as strongly in favor of folic acid but seems to side with the pro-folate group by referencing the unquestionable benefit of folic acid on NTDs. I agree that frank folate deficiency isn’t desirable. Beyond that, there is a ceiling effect to folate supplementation with respect to NTDs. Choline and B-12 seem to lift that ceiling, by the way, suggesting that sourcing some food from animals is essential.

  6. Daniel Says:

    By the way, the trial I keep referencing is here: http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/abstract/302/19/2119

    It found 21% more cancer and 38% more cancer death in the folic acid supplementation (.8 mg) group as compared to a placebo group. The study was conducted in a population that does not consume fortified food (unlike the US).

    I think that’s an impact on cancer that is comparable to that of smoking…

    My read of this is that some unfortunate people (i.e., with the wrong MTHFR polymorphism) are poisoning themselves with their fortified breakfast cereals and multivitamins. These would-be-health-seekers are inadvertently assuming a level of risk comparable with that of a heavy smoker, all because people like Andrew Saul think it’s laughable that folic acid could be harmful… because otherwise nature made a mistake!

    There really must be a higher standard of evidence before the government mandates population-wide supplementation.

  7. JP Says:


    Thank you. You make some very persuasive points. I really appreciate it. As time permits, I’ll investigate this topic in a more in depth manner and report back on what I find. I’ll also put out feelers to some the top nutritional experts to see what they have to say about this. It’s an important topic to be sure.

    Be well!


  8. Pradip Gharpure Says:

    Interesting and useful post. It is beneficial to consume as much as possible green leafy vegetables.

  9. JP Says:

    Update 05/04/15:


    Med Sci Monit. 2015 May 1;21:1249-1255.

    Vitamin E Intake and Pancreatic Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies.

    BACKGROUND: Some epidemiological studies have suggested that vitamin E intake reduces the risk of pancreatic cancer; however, this conclusion has not been supported by all the published studies. We conducted a meta-analysis to assess the relationship between vitamin E intake and the risk of pancreatic cancer by combining the results from published articles. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We searched the published studies that reported the relationship between vitamin E intake and pancreatic cancer risk using the PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase databases through December 31st, 2014. Based on a fixed-effects or random-effects model, the RR and 95% CI were used to assess the combined risk. RESULTS: In total, 10 observational studies (6 case-control studies and 4 cohort studies) were included. The overall RR (95% CI) of pancreatic cancer for the highest vs. the lowest level of vitamin E intake was 0.81 (0.73, 0.89). We found little evidence of heterogeneity (I2=19.8%, P=0.255). In the subgroup analyses, we found an inverse association between vitamin E intake and pancreatic cancer risk both in the case-control and cohort studies. Additionally, this inverse association was not modified by different populations. CONCLUSIONS: In our meta-analysis, there was an inverse association between vitamin E intake and the risk of pancreatic cancer. A high level of vitamin E might be a protective factor for populations at risk for pancreatic cancer.

    Be well!


  10. JP Says:

    Update 06/01/15:


    J Food Sci. 2014 Sep;79(9):S1756-62.

    Consumer acceptability and sensory profile of cooked broccoli with mustard seeds added to improve chemoprotective properties.

    Broccoli, a rich source of glucosinolates, is a commonly consumed vegetable of the Brassica family. Hydrolysis products of glucosinolates, isothiocyanates, have been associated with health benefits and contribute to the flavor of Brassica. However, boiling broccoli causes the myrosinase enzyme needed for hydrolysis to denature. In order to ensure hydrolysis, broccoli must either be mildly cooked or active sources of myrosinase, such as mustard seed powder, can be added postcooking. In this study, samples of broccoli were prepared in 6 different ways; standard boiling, standard boiling followed by the addition of mustard seeds, sous vide cooking at low temperature (70 °C) and sous vide cooking at higher temperature (100 °C) and sous vide cooking at higher temperature followed by the addition of mustard seeds at 2 different concentrations. The majority of consumers disliked the mildly cooked broccoli samples (70 °C, 12 min, sous vide) which had a hard and stringy texture. The highest mean consumer liking was for standard boiled samples (100 °C, 7 min). Addition of 1% mustard seed powder developed sensory attributes, such as pungency, burning sensation, mustard odor, and flavor. One cluster of consumers (32%) found mustard seeds to be a good complement to cooked broccoli; however, the majority disliked the mustard-derived sensory attributes. Where the mustard seeds were partially processed, doubling the addition to 2% led to only the same level of mustard and pungent flavors as 1% unprocessed seeds, and mean consumer liking remained unaltered. This suggests that optimization of the addition level of partially processed mustard seeds may be a route to enhance bioactivity of cooked broccoli without compromising consumer acceptability.

    Be well!


  11. JP Says:

    Updated 1/28/16:


    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2016 Jan 25.

    Raw garlic consumption and lung cancer in a Chinese population.

    BACKGROUND: Evidence of anti-cancer properties of garlic for different cancer sites has been reported previously in in-vitro and in-vivo experimental studies but there is limited epidemiological evidence on the association between garlic and lung cancer.

    METHODS: We examined the association between raw garlic consumption and lung cancer in a case-control study conducted between 2005 and 2007 in Taiyuan, China. Epidemiological data was collected by face-to-face interviews from 399 incident lung cancer cases and 466 healthy controls. We used unconditional logistic regression models to estimate crude and adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Adjusted models controlled for age, sex, average annual household income 10 years ago, smoking, and indoor air pollution.

    RESULTS: Compared to no intake, raw garlic intake was associated with lower risk of development of lung cancer with a dose-response pattern (aOR for <2 times per week = 0.56, 95% CI: 0.39-0.81 and aOR for ≥2 times per week = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.34 - 0.74; Ptrend = 0.0002). Exploratory analysis showed an additive interaction of raw garlic consumption with indoor air pollution and with any supplement use in association with lung cancer.

    CONCLUSIONS: The results of the current study suggest that raw garlic consumption is associated with reduced risk of lung cancer in a Chinese population.

    IMPACT: This study contributes to the limited research in human population on the association between garlic and lung cancer and advocates further investigation into the use of garlic in chemoprevention of lung cancer.

    Be well!


  12. JP Says:

    Updated 04/07/16:


    “Researchers at University of California, San Diego School of Medicine report that higher levels of vitamin D — specifically serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D — are associated with a correspondingly reduced risk of cancer. The findings are published in the April 6, online issue of PLOS ONE.”

    “The only accurate measure of vitamin D levels in a person is a blood test. In the Lappe trial cohort, the median blood serum level of 25(OH)D was 30 nanograms per milliliter. In the GrassrootsHealth prospective cohort, it was higher: 48 ng/ml.

    The researchers found that the age-adjusted cancer incidence was 1,020 cases per 100,000 person-years in the Lappe cohort and 722 per 100,000 person-years in the GrassrootsHealth cohort. Cancer incidence declined with increased 25(OH)D. Women with 25(OH)D concentrations of 40 ng/ml or greater had a 67 percent lower risk of cancer than women with levels of 20 ng/ml or less.”

    Be well!


  13. JP Says:

    Updated 06/14/16:


    Cancer Causes Control. 2016 Jun 13.

    Dietary inflammatory index, Mediterranean diet score, and lung cancer: a prospective study.

    PURPOSE: To investigate prospectively the associations of Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) and Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) with lung cancer.

    METHODS: We used data from men and women aged 40-69 years at recruitment in 1990-1994, who were participants in the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study (n = 35,303). A total of 403 incident lung cancer cases were identified over an average 18-year follow-up. Hazard ratios (HR) were estimated using Cox regression, adjusting for smoking status and other risk factors, with age as the time metric.

    RESULTS: An inverse correlation was observed between the DII and MDS (ρ = -0.45), consistent with a higher DII being pro-inflammatory and less ‘healthy,’ while a high MDS reflects a ‘healthier’ diet. The DII was positively associated with risk of lung cancer in current smokers [HRQ4 vs Q1 = 1.70 (1.02, 2.82); Ptrend = 0.008] (p interaction between DII quartiles and smoking status = 0.03). The MDS was inversely associated with lung cancer risk overall [HR7-9 vs 0-3 = 0.64 (0.45, 0.90); Ptrend = 0.005] and for current smokers (HR7-9 vs 0-3 = 0.38 (0.19, 0.75); Ptrend = 0.005) (p interaction between MDS categories and smoking status = 0.31).

    CONCLUSIONS: The MDS showed an inverse association with lung cancer risk, especially for current smokers. A high DII, indicating a more pro-inflammatory diet, was associated with risk of lung cancer only for current smokers. A healthy diet may reduce the risk of lung cancer, especially in smokers.

    Be well!


  14. JP Says:

    Updated 11/02/16:


    Gut. 2016 Oct 14.

    Human oral microbiome and prospective risk for pancreatic cancer: a population-based nested case-control study.

    OBJECTIVE: A history of periodontal disease and the presence of circulating antibodies to selected oral pathogens have been associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer; however, direct relationships of oral microbes with pancreatic cancer have not been evaluated in prospective studies. We examine the relationship of oral microbiota with subsequent risk of pancreatic cancer in a large nested case-control study.

    DESIGN: We selected 361 incident adenocarcinoma of pancreas and 371 matched controls from two prospective cohort studies, the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study II and the National Cancer Institute Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. From pre-diagnostic oral wash samples, we characterised the composition of the oral microbiota using bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene sequencing. The associations between oral microbiota and risk of pancreatic cancer, controlling for the random effect of cohorts and other covariates, were examined using traditional and L1-penalised least absolute shrinkage and selection operator logistic regression.

    RESULTS: Carriage of oral pathogens, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, were associated with higher risk of pancreatic cancer (adjusted OR for presence vs absence=1.60 and 95% CI 1.15 to 2.22; OR=2.20 and 95% CI 1.16 to 4.18, respectively). Phylum Fusobacteria and its genus Leptotrichia were associated with decreased pancreatic cancer risk (OR per per cent increase of relative abundance=0.94 and 95% CI 0.89 to 0.99; OR=0.87 and 95% CI 0.79 to 0.95, respectively). Risks related to these phylotypes remained after exclusion of cases that developed within 2 years of sample collection, reducing the likelihood of reverse causation in this prospective study.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study provides supportive evidence that oral microbiota may play a role in the aetiology of pancreatic cancer.

    Be well!


  15. JP Says:

    Updated 01/13/17:


    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2017 Jan 11.

    Nut consumption and lung cancer risk: Results from two large observational studies.

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological evidence on the association between nut consumption and lung cancer risk is limited.

    METHODS: We investigated this relationship in the Environment And Genetics in Lung cancer Etiology (EAGLE) study, a population-based case-control study, and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) American Association of Retired Persons (AARP) Diet and Health Study, a prospective cohort. We identified 2098 lung cases for EAGLE and 18,533 incident cases in AARP. Diet was assessed by food frequency questionnaire for both studies. Multivariable odds ratios (ORs) and hazards ratio (HRs) and respective 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using unconditional logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards regression for EAGLE and AARP, respectively.

    RESULTS: Higher frequency of intake of nut consumption was inversely associated with overall lung cancer risk (highest-versus-lowest quintile, OREAGLE=0.74, 95% CI=0.57-0.95; HRAARP=0.86, 95% CI=0.81-0.91), regardless of smoking status. Results from the prospective cohort showed similar associations across histological subtypes, and a more pronounced benefits from nut consumption for those who smoked 1-20 cigarettes/day (OREAGLE=0.61, 95% CI=0.39-0.95; HRAARP=0.83, 95% CI=0.74-0.94).

    CONCLUSIONS: Nut consumption was inversely associated with lung cancer in two large population-based studies, and associations were independent of cigarette smoking and other known risk factors.

    IMPACT: To our knowledge, this is the first study that examined the association between nut consumption and lung cancer risk by histologic subtypes and smoking intensity.

    Be well!


  16. JP Says:

    Updated 03/01/17:


    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2017 Mar;26(2):271-277.

    Association of dietary vitamin E intake with risk of lung cancer: a dose-response meta-analysis.

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Several epidemiological studies investigating the association between dietary vitamin E intake and the risk of lung cancer have demonstrated inconsistent results. Hence, a meta-analysis was conducted to summarise evidence of the association of dietary vitamin E intake with the risk of lung cancer.

    METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: In this meta-analysis, a systematic literature search of PubMed and Web of Science was conducted to identify relevant studies published from 1955 to April 2015. If p<0.05 or I2 >50%, a random effect model was used to estimate overall relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Otherwise, a fixed effect model was applied. Publication bias was estimated using the funnel plot and Egger’s test. The doseresponse relationship was assessed using the method of restricted cubic splines with 4 knots at percentiles 5, 35, 65, and 95 of the distribution.

    RESULTS: The pooled RR of lung cancer for the highest versus lowest categories of dietary vitamin E intake was 0.84 (95% CI=0.76-0.93). With every 2 mg/d increase in dietary vitamin E intake, the risk of lung cancer statistically decreased by 5% (RR=0.95, 95% CI =0.91-0.99, plinearity=0.0237).

    CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis suggests that higher dietary vitamin E intake exerts a protective effect against lung cancer.

    Be well!


  17. JP Says:

    Updated 05/12/18:


    Eur J Nutr. 2018 May 9.

    Vitamin B2 intake reduces the risk for colorectal cancer: a dose-response analysis.

    PURPOSE: Several epidemiological studies have assessed the ability of vitamin B2 to prevent colorectal cancer (CRC), but the results are controversial results. We conducted a dose-response meta-analysis to investigate the association between vitamin B2 and CRC risk.

    METHODS: We searched the PubMed and EMBASE database until January 3, 2018 to identify relevant studies. The pooled relative risks (RRs) with the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a random-effects model or fixed-effects model. The dose-response relationship was assessed by restricted cubic splines.

    RESULTS: A total of 14 studies reporting vitamin B2 intake and two studies reporting blood vitamin B2 concentration, comprising 14,934 cases and 1593 cases, respectively, were included in the meta-analysis. Vitamin B2 intake was inversely associated with CRC risk (RR = 0.87; 95% CI 0.81-0.93). Similar results were found for total vitamin B2 intake from diet and supplements (RR = 0.86; 95% CI 0.78-0.94) and dietary vitamin B2 intake (RR = 0.89, 95% CI 0.82-0.98) in subgroup analyses. The dose-response model indicated a non-linear trend, and CRC risk was reduced by 10% when vitamin B2 intake increased to 5 mg/day. In addition, high blood concentrations of vitamin B2 could also reduce the CRC risk (RR = 0.74; 95% CI 0.59-0.92).

    CONCLUSIONS: This dose-response analysis indicates that vitamin B2 intake is inversely associated with CRC risk. The inverse association may also exist between blood vitamin B2 concentration and CRC risk. These results suggest the importance of vitamin B2 intake in the prevention of CRC.

    Be well!


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