Krill Oil Research

July 3, 2009 Written by JP       [Font too small?]

When selecting nutritional supplements we all strive to use the most effective products available. But what should we base that determination on? One option is to ask others about their personal experiences. This is commonly referred to as anecdotal evidence. Another source of data can be found in the scientific literature. Here we’re trusting that researchers are performing well designed and impartial research in a more controlled manner. Since these types of studies typically involve larger groups of people, the results may apply to broad segments of the population. But there’s another very prevalent manner of learning about dietary supplements and that is information provided by the manufacturers themselves. My contention is that we ought to examine all three sources of input. Ask questions of your colleagues, family and friends. Read the product literature provided by nutraceutical companies and pose any inquires that you might have. Finally, investigate whether modern science has produced any evidence to back up the other two sources. I’ll apply this model to examine an area of debate that’s currently active in the natural health community: Is krill oil superior to fish oil?

Krill oil is a supplemental source of powerful antioxidants, omega-3 fatty acids and phosholipids derived from tiny crustaceans harvested largely in the Southern Ocean waters of the Antarctic. Krill oil proponents claim that it is essentially a superior form of omega-3s. Krill contain a rather unique reddish antioxidant called astaxanthin, and they’re also rich in phospholipids, which help emulsify fatty acids and enhance their absorption and retention.

A new study presented in the Journal of Nutrition appears to support this point of view. Research conducted in a group of overweight rats found that krill oil provoked a 42% decrease in fat (triglyceride) build-up in the hearts of the test rats. Fish oil only lead to a marginal decline in cardio-lipids of 2%. When the authors of the study examined the livers of these animals, they discovered a 60% reduction in fat in their livers, as opposed to 38% in the livers of rats fed fish oil. The normalization of fat content in the heart and liver indicate potential benefits to overall heart function and an improvement in insulin sensitivity, which can be impaired in cases of fatty liver disease. In addition, the krill oil test subjects exhibited positive changes associated with a reduced “inflammatory response”. (1,2)

A study from 2008 demonstrated anti-cancer and heart benefits in relation to krill oil (KO) supplementation. In that trial, rats who were fed KO showed weight loss and a drop in LDL “bad” cholesterol, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels. The scientists also tested krill oil in an in-vitro model of colon cancer. The scientists concluded that, “Treatment of colon cancer cells with KO also resulted in time-dependent inhibition of cell growth”. (3)

Krill oil has also been evaluated in other health conditions as well. The results of those studies have all been positive and, in a roundabout way, can be applied to what we currently know about heart disease.

  • In 2007, a paper was published in the Journal of the American College of Nutrition. 90 participants with heart disease and/or arthritis (osteo or rheumatoid) with elevated CRP (C-reactive protein) levels were provided with KO or a placebo for a 30 day period. CRP is a measure of inflammation in the body. By the 7th day of treatment with KO (300 mg daily), there was a 19% drop in CRP levels. The placebo group exhibited a 16% increase in CRP. By the 30th day of treatment, there was a 31% reduction in CRP in the krill oil group and a 32% rise in CRP in the placebo group. In the arthritic patients, there were significant improvements in pain and stiffness scores, and a trend towards “reduced functional impairment”. (4)
  • A 2003 study on 70 women with PMS and dysmenorrhea (painful menstruation) found that those taking KO for a total of 90 days demonstrated reduced discomfort, pain and emotional symptoms relating to PMS. This experiment compared equal dosages of KO vs. fish oil – 2 grams daily for the first 30 days and then 2 grams daily for 8 days prior to menstruation and during the first 2 days of the menstrual cycle. (5)

Chronic inflammation is now believed to be a contributing factor in many cancers and cardiovascular disease. The fact that KO appears to reduce inflammatory markers and symptoms may provide a clue to part of its cardioprotective effect. A human trial from 2004 is perhaps the strongest piece of evidence that supports the krill/heart health link. That study produced a profoundly positive shift in cardiovascular risk factors in a group of 120 volunteers. A starting KO dosage of 500 mg daily reduced blood sugar levels, LDL, total cholesterol and triglycerides, and raised the beneficial HDL cholesterol in the participants. The men and women who were given fish oil didn’t fare nearly as well. (6)

There are several other important factors to consider when comparing fish oil and krill oil. Preliminary studies going back to the mid 90s demonstrate that krill oil appears to be safe. (7) However, some manufacturers and health authorities caution that those with severe shellfish allergies should discuss krill oil with their physicians prior to usage. It’s also important to note that fish oil has been studied extensively over the past several decades. Literally thousands of research papers have been published on the health effects of omega-3 fatty acids found in fish. Fewer than 10 studies on krill oil have been presented in peer reviewed medical journals.

When I looked over all of the reliable data I could find about krill oil, I came to the following conclusion. Krill oil seems to be an extremely promising antioxidant/omega-3 supplement. Substantial evidence suggests that the astaxanthin content of krill largely contributes to its net effect. (8,9,10) Astaxanthin is the same carotenoid that gives wild salmon its pink hue. But there may also be something to the phospholipid content of this crustacean. That’s the only explanation I’ve found as to why a lower dosage of KO could produce equal or greater effects than higher dosages of fish oil.

Be forewarned: Krill oil can be quite expensive. The real question is how much you’ll need to take to derive the same benefits as I’ve reported here. If you need a lower dosage, such as 500 mg, then it can be relatively affordable. But some users may require larger quantities (2-3 grams a day). The best deal I’ve found online costs roughly $20 for 90 (500mg) softgels. I think at that price, it’s certainly worth a shot for anyone who might benefit from it. I also think that KO may be an attractive alternative, because krill softgels are typically smaller in size and have a milder aroma. The issue of smell and taste can be further helped by freezing the KO and swallowing the frozen capsules. This is a good technique for taking any softgels with a strong after-taste.

Update: March 1, 2010 - Recent Internet reports about supposed “krill oil dangers” do not appear to be coming from reliable sources. I’ve been keeping a close eye on the scientific literature and I haven’t found any evidence of new concerns regarding krill.

Note: Please check out the “Comments & Updates” section of this blog – at the bottom of the page. You can find the latest research about this topic there!

Be well!


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Posted in Alternative Therapies, Heart Health, Nutritional Supplements

907 Comments & Updates to “Krill Oil Research”

  1. Iggy Dalrymple Says:

    Great article, JP. I started taking 2 grams of KO after you posted of your dad’s success with the supplement. Have you read of the distributor, J Edwards, offering large amounts (thousands of gelcaps) at a substantial savings. I wish we could find a buyers’ coop through which we could benefit from such savings.

  2. Iggy Dalrymple Says:

    Apparently their price is $1,060.00 for 10,000 gelcaps(500mg). That would be about 10¢ per gelcap.

  3. Iggy Dalrymple Says:

    On second thought, NSI’s deal of $40/300 sgs sounds pretty good.

  4. JP Says:

    Thanks, Iggy!

    The Superba krill oil (from your first link) is the variety that was used in the most recent study I cited. The bulk price for it is fantastic – at $.10 per softgel.

    The concern I have about the NSI product is that they don’t state that it contains phospholipids. Neptune Krill Oil and Superba (the two clinically tested krill oils) clearly state that they’re rich source of phospholipids. In addition, the NSI product appears to be substantially lower in DHA and EPA than these other two sources. In short, I’m just not sure if the NSI would be as effective.

    Be well!


  5. Aymen Says:

    thanks for posting.
    i going to give krill oil a try. i have always used fish oil and i thought it was the best.

  6. Cindy Says:

    Hi there , good article but I cant find the 90 softgels for $20.00 . Can you let us know where you got them ?

  7. JP Says:


    Here’s one online source for this kind of deal. There may be others out there.

    Be well!


  8. Natural Health Remedies Says:

    Good if it is a cure or even a treatment and remedy for arthritis…many are simply disgusted finding a cure for this pain.

  9. Geoff Says:

    Wow what a fantastically thorough article…I love soaking up information like this! Ive been using krill oils for the past 6 months and I can honestly say Ive never felt as good as I do after having used it!

  10. JP Says:

    Thanks, Geoff. I’m happy to hear of your success. :)

    Be well!


  11. Michael Says:

    I think the author has really captured the current state of knowledge on Krill Oil. I actually tried to create a neighborhood group to buy the wholesale krill oil but didn’t find the interest. And yet there is no question that there are many people who would be interested if we could just connect. In fact, I would even be willing to run it for a group of people that thought they would consistently want to participate. In the meantime I have contacted NSI and asked them about the phospholipids and their product. If I get a decent answer, I’ll post it.

  12. JP Says:

    Thanks, Michael.

    I’d love to hear what NSI has to say about the phospholipid content of their product. Please let us know.

    Be well!


  13. Chris Says:

    Great writeup. Been taking fish oil for awhile and am considering a change. I just bought my first bottle of MegaRed after seeing it on the shelves forever and after hearing dozens of weekend radio programs spamming my eardrums with their krill oil claims. First dose down (with a side of Co-Q10)..

  14. JP Says:

    Thanks, Chris! :)

    I hope you find good results with the krill oil.

    Be well!


  15. JJ Says:

    Nature’s Way Krill Oil is the one that i prefer.
    I buy Krill oil from

  16. Kriller Says:


    I noticed on my new MegaRed bottle it says NKO instead of Superba krill oil. Does anyone know when/why this changed and what it means for effectiveness etc?

  17. JP Says:


    I’m not sure why Schiff made the decision. But, to the best of my knowledge, both the NKO and Superba are excellent krill oil sources. I wouldn’t hesitate using either one.

    If you contact Schiff and get an answer, please let us know what they say. If they give you the runaround, please let me know that too and I’ll contact them myself.

    Be well!


  18. Kriller Says:

    This is for general nutrition and wellness information only. This information is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment.

    Nigel : Welcome,this is Nigel. How may I help you?

    Kriller : I noticed on my new MegaRed bottle it says NKO instead of Superba krill oil. Do you know when/why this changed and what it means for effectiveness etc?

    Nigel : We actually switched from NKO to Superba. The effectiveness is the same. It just changed who we get the krill oil from.

    Kriller : So.. it’s possible that this “new” bottle I just bought was from “old” stash?
    Kriller : Because my bottle that I had before this said Superba

    Nigel : We just switched the companies in the last couple of months. It is an older bottle. The new product is made by Superba

  19. JP Says:

    Thanks for posting your exchange, Kriller! :)

    Here’s their official public comment on the matter:

    Be well!


  20. dw Says:

    A good friend of mine had been taking MegaRed NKO Krill Oil for quite awhile. She is not getting the same mental sharpness and feeling of well being from the MegaRed Superba Krill Oil formula :(

  21. JP Says:

    Thanks for letting us know that, DW. :)

    It would be interesting to hear from anyone else who’s noticed similar differences between the two sources of krill oil.

    I’ve used NKO (Now Foods brand mostly) and Avantis krill oil (Jarrow Formulas) without any detectable difference between the two.

    I haven’t tried Schiff’s Superba krill oil yet.

    Be well!


  22. marcella Says:

    re DW’s comment. the strange thing is my experience has been the complete opposite. i felt more results in regards to skin softness from superba than the nko. i wonder how much is placebo effect and what the real difference is between the two brands.

  23. Just Wondering Says:

    JP, care to share your daily dosage and the reasons you take it? Thanks!

  24. JP Says:


    Thank you for sharing your experience comparing the two krill oil sources. It’s helpful to know.

    As best as I can tell, NKO and Superba are very similar/nearly identical from a nutritional standpoint – re: astaxanthin, DHA, EPA and total Omega-3 content. But that’s not to say that there isn’t some other difference that your body may have picked up on.

    Be well!


  25. JP Says:

    Just Wondering,

    I take 500 mg with breakfast and 500 mg with dinner.

    I’m mostly using it support cardiovascular health and to keep any systemic inflammation at a very low level.

    Be well!


  26. WH Says:

    I’ve spent a LOT of time researching krill oil. One thing people should be aware of: The level of astaxanthin naturally occurring in krill oil is rather low (about 50 micrograms per gram of Krill oil). Neptune and now Enzymotic both produce extremely high quality oil using a so-called “cold extraction” process which (it is claimed) preserves the full bioactivity of the compounds. Both companies also supplement the naturally-occurring astaxanthin with esterified astaxanthin (that’s both good for people and it also protects the krill oil against oxidation). The supplemented level is 1.5 mg/gram of oil.

    Aker BioMarine, which produces Superba krill oil now used in Mega Red and several other brands, doesn’t supplement the astaxanthin level. I’m not sure what the implication of that is with respect to product stability. Also, I don’t know what kind of extraction process Aker uses to obtain the krill oil. Because of my uncertainties, I’m hesitant to use products with Superba Krill oil. Costco sells Mega Red at a great price; however, the Mega Red label recommends a single 300 mg softgel per day – that’s the lowest recommendation on ANY krill oil product label. I’ll stick with 1000 mg/day.

    FYI: Azantis, a company in Colorado, sources Enzymotic krill oil and provides it to several companies (for example, to Source Naturals ArticPure oil and Jarrow Forumulas; interestingly, both of those companies also package a krill oil using Neptune krill oil).

    From everything I’ve seen, the best bargain in high-quality krill oil right now is NOW Foods Neptune krill oil. I’ve seen it for about $33 for 120 500-mg softgels. That’s about $16.50 a month. Many companies offer free shipping either with promotion codes or minimum orders.

    Finally, the recommendation to freeze the softgels before taking them seems to go against the recommendations of the manufacturers. I haven’t had any digestive issues with krill oil, so I have no motive to do “tricks” to make it more palatable.

  27. JP Says:

    Thank you for your valuable contribution, WH! I appreciate it! :)

    I don’t have any digestive issues with krill oil either. However my mother does and unfortunately, she’s not the only one. This is the primary reason why Now Foods has just released a 1,000 mg NKO softgel that is enterically coated.

    Be well!


  28. WH Says:

    Hi, JP,

    Yeah, I noticed that new NOW product the other day. And it’s price is pretty much the same as their “regular” krill oil.

    One other thing about price: I’ve seen brands that are VERY cheap (as low as 10 cents / 500mg softgel), but when I check the levels of EPA and DHA, they’re always significantly lower than for the Neptune, Superba, and Azantis oils (which are all around 150 mg EPA and 90 mg DHA, and about 400 mg total phospholipids). I think these less expensive brands are using krill oil produced from Euphausia crystallorophias or Euphausia pacifica krill, rather than Euphausia superba (the antarctic krill).

    An interesting point about stability for the Superba oil: I still have a couple of bottles of the Schiff’s Mega Red I purchased six months ago at Costco (it contains Neptune oil): The listed expiration date is 5/11. Last week I went to Costco and checked the expiration dates for the new version of Mega Red that uses Superba oil: the expiration date was 3/11. Six months newer, but an expiration date 2 months older. Hmmm. It could be that the Superba oil used by Schiff was from an older production run by Aker or it could be that the shelf-life of Superba oil is much shorter.

  29. JP Says:

    That’s an interesting observation, WH.

    An online site I often order from now lists the expiration dates of the products they carry. Apparently they can do so with sufficient accuracy due to their quick turn over and volume purchases. The only problem, re: krill oil, is that they don’t currently stock any Superba sourced products.

    I can contact Aker and see what they have to say about this issue. I’ll report back with any information they provide.

    Be well!


  30. JP Says:

    I recently exchanged e-mails with an AkerBiomarine representative regarding the differences between Neptune Krill Oil and Superba krill oil. Here’s a brief overview of what I was told:

    1. Superba krill oil is extracted using ethanol rather than acetone.

    2. AkerBiomarine gathers the krill themselves using their own vessel. They also utilize a sustainable collection regime in order to ensure adequate populations of krill and minimal damage to surrounding sea life.

    3. Superba does not contain added astaxanthin. However it naturally provides between 100-150 ppm of this carotenoid.

    4. Superba soft gels are guaranteed to be stable for 18 months.

    I’ll ask the same questions of Nutrisan Nutraceuticals (the makers of NKO) and see what they have to say.

    Be well!


  31. WH Says:

    Great info, LP.

    Today I received a supply of NOW krill oil. The “Best By” date stamped on the bottom of the containers is 11/2012 – 33 months from now. So I’m almost certain that NKO has a shelf life of three years.

    Is the difference merely because Aker is being very conservative and/or that Neptune Technologies & Bioressources (or is it Nutrisan Nutraceuticals? – I’ve never heard of them before) is being optimistic? Or does the astaxanthin supplementation make a big difference. Or is there something else?

    The NOW geltabs have a somewhat unpleasant but not too strong odor of “bad shrimp”. Mega Red geltabs (with Superba oil) is strongly (“cloyingly?”) scented with vanillin, and you can’t smell anything else.

    By the way, NOW on their container states a level of “esterifed astaxanthin” of only 1.25 mg, as compared with 1.5 mg for all of the other NKO krill oil brands I’ve checked. I contacted NOW and they emailed back, “We are not sourcing a different material [from Neptune], just being very specific in our labeling.”

    I’m not entirely sure what that means. Maybe Neptune supplements at a rate of 1 mg per 1000 mg of krill oil, and the “natural” level is “at least” .25 mg. So perhaps NOW is being conservative.

    The ethanol versus acetone method of extraction is very, very interesting. I would hope there’s no residue of either solvent left in the finished product. What do the manufacturers say?

  32. JP Says:


    Let’s both keep on digging for more facts/info. and see what we come up with. I’ve already sent an inquiry to the NKO people but haven’t received a response yet.

    Incidentally, did you happen to read my previous column on astaxanthin and cardiovascular health? It ties into the conversation we’re having here.

    One thing the AkerBiomarine rep also stated was that they felt as though the omega-3s and phosolipids were likely the most important elements of krill oil. However the rep did acknowledge that astanxanthin could be therapeutic at levels at or above 2000 ppm.

    I wonder how many of the benefits attributed to krill oil are due to the astaxanthin component vs. the DHA/EPA + phospholipids?

    Be well!


  33. JP Says:

    Here’s a brief update on what I’ve heard from the makers of Neptune Krill Oil so far:

    1. The shelf life of their product is 3 years.

    2. They do not recommend freezing it.

    3. One important detail that sets NKO apart from other krill oils is the amount of clinical study this particular krill has undergone.

    4. NKO’s rep promised to send some comparative information on Neptune Krill Oil vs. other krill oil sources.

    More to come …

    Be well!


  34. Chris Says:


    Thanks for your site. I have found it very informative and quite helpful.

    Hopefully, I’ve understood most of what’s been written here. For me, I am looking at Krill oil for the overall heart benefits and mood enhancement benefits. At this point, I am leaning towards the NOW 1g NKO softgel that is enterically coated. I hope I am on the right track with krill oil, especially for the mood benefit part of it. Or are the potential mood enhancements that I have read about overstated in their affect?



  35. JP Says:


    There isn’t much in the scientific literature specifically about krill oil and mood – apart from the PMS study I mentioned in the column.

    However there’s quite a lot of data suggesting that omega-3 fatty acid intake (found primarily in fish and fish oil) can provide an antidepressant effect in various populations:

    As far as I can tell, this is the primary basis for the claim that krill oil improves mood. Some health authorities also theorize that krill oil may be better absorbed and “brain ready” because it contains natural phospholipids – whereas fish oil does not.

    In my opinion, it would be reasonable to try out krill oil in order to (hopefully) improve cardiovascular health and mood issues. I think there’s enough evidence and theoretical cause to give it a shot.

    I would personally try using a 500 mg softgel twice daily rather than one 1,000 mg softgel/day. Some cardiologists, such as Dr. William Davis, believe it’s advantageous to split up the dosing of omega-3s. Finally, I’m not sure the enteric coating is beneficial or needed in most cases. For the time being, I’d avoid it.

    I hope your krill oil trial works out well. Please report back and let us know how you’re doing.

    Be well!


  36. WH Says:

    I recently went to Costco and purchased a container of the new Mega Red, made with Superba krill oil. The supply now at Costco has a use-by date of 12/2011 – 22 months from now. That’s very interesting if Aker says the shelf-live is 18 months.

    I opened the bottle to see if I could detect any differences between the “new” and “old” (Nepune-krill-oil-based) Mega Red. The new Mega Red has a, cloying vanilla odor plus a very distinct “bad shrimp” smell (similar to, but stronger than, the smell of the Neptune-based NOW krill oil, which doesn’t add any artificial fragrances). “Old” Mega Red has only the cloying vanilla odor – not a hint of shrimpyness.

    So, my totally unscientific conclusion is that the astaxanthin supplementation in Neptune-based krill oil (and by extension, to similarly-supplemented Enzymotic-based krill oil) preserves the krill oil better than the “natural” level of astaxanthin in Superba krill oil.

    By the way, if I were going to purchase one of the better krill oils right now (I already have more than an 18-month supply), I’d get the NOW 1000 mg enteric-coated krill oil. A couple of web vendors sell the 60-pill container (2-month supply) for $30. In particular, also adds a 5% discount for a $200+ order (meaning 7 containers = a 14-month supply). And the shipping is a fixed $5 – not a bad deal at all.

  37. WH Says:

    Here’s a link to the site:

    Note: I’ve never ordered from netrition, but the rating is good:

  38. WH Says:


    Didn’t see the previous post about splitting the dosage. That’s a good point which I hadn’t considered.

    I learn something new about this stuff every day.


  39. JP Says:


    Thank you for adding your observations about the scent of the different krill oil products and the expiration dating.

    I’ve noticed that Jarrow’s krill oil (Phosphomega – containing Azantis Krill Oil) seems to have a milder scent than Now’s NKO. I’m not entirely sure why that would be. It could have something to do with the softgel itself. Now’s NKO appears to have a softer/thinner gelatin coating – I’m basing this on the feel of the softgels.

    I’m looking forward to hearing back from the NKO rep. I think they *may* be putting together their official comparison based on our inquiry. In any event, I’ll post it as soon as I receive it.

    Thanks again for your valuable input.

    Be well!


  40. Elizabeth Jesse Says:

    I was so happy to find this site. I have been going nuts trying to get info. on the different krill oils all on my own. One thing I have wondered is, why do the EPA and DHA values vary so much in the different brands (for the same amount, say, 1 gram, of krill oil)? Do you know anything about the NSI SKO brand? I wrote to them and they said the krill came from China, but that was all they could tell me. I have tried Dr. Mercola’s krill, which he gets from Aker, and I just ordered some krill from Vitacost and from Swanson’s Vitamins. I know the Swanson krill and Dr. Mercola’s krill come from Aker. Also, what is this about “cold extraction,” vs. ? Is the Aker (Superba) krill extracted this way? I think I will go order some of the NOW krill, now. Lol, then I can try it all.



  41. Elizabeth Jesse Says:

    According to this, NKO oil is extracted with acetone from frozen, raw krill. Aker uses extraction with ethanol from krill meal cooked and dried on the ship. I wonder if the heat from the cooking is detrimental to the EFA’s?

  42. WH Says:

    As I wrote in one of my posts above, the “big three” (Aker, Neptune, and Enzymotec) all use Euphausia superba as the source of their krill oil. And the phospholipid and EPA/DHA levels across those brands are virtually the same. I suspect that where you see lower EPA/DHA levels, the manufacturer is either using a different krill species, or using a less expensive process.

    For example, on the Azantis website (Azantis uses Enzymotec krill oil), you will find:

    “Azantis 2810 grade is a blend quality. It’s comparable with certain competing products in that it contains at least 28% phospholipids bonded with omega 3, and at least 10% omega-3. The astaxanthin levels are low.

    The Azantis standard product 4225 is extracted in a 3 step process. If we skip the third step we get the 2810 blend quality. It’s marketed to be used in proprietory blends with other oils, ie flax seed oil, or olive oil. Certain markets, such as MLM and infomercials prefer unique blends over the original product.”

    And if you search the web, you’ll find this from Enzymotec:

    “Our engineers were able to come up with a modified process, which would enable us to offer in parallel to our existing krill product, a new grade of krill oil,” it said. “The new product has modified phospholipids and omega-3 content but with a significantly lower price making this more suitable for other market segments.”

    So, brands you see with lower EPA/DHA levels are almost certainly cheaper to produce. What a surprise.

    I wrote to Mercola a few weeks ago and asked them if NKO was still the source of their krill oil (because I’d noticed that their EPA/DHA levels were VERY low – signficantly lower than for NKO). They responded:

    “While we do not use NKO for our manufacturer, at this time we can not give out the manufacturers name as this is considered proprietary information.”

    Look at Mercola’s label:

    90 mg EPA, 50 mg DHA, and only .6 mg astaxanthin per 1000 mg serving.

    Clearly, Mercola is using a “cheapy” brand. If it’s Aker, Aker – like Enzymotec – must have a “discount” line of oil.

    I find it rather interesting that Dr. Mercola – who in his video implies how his motivation is primarily to provide his customers with the highest-quality products he can find – is in fact charging a premium price ($25 for a one-month supply) for what appears to be a lower-grade oil.

  43. Elizabeth Jesse Says:

    I guarantee you that Mercola is using AKER as of late 2009. I will try to find the source. I keep asking him why his krill has less EPA, DHA, etc. He has failed to answer me. This is one of the things that has been driving me nuts.

  44. WH Says:

    Oh, about your “cold-extraction” question: I’m guessing “cold extraction” is a euphemism for the fact that the manufacturers are using solvents to extract the oil from ground raw krill, as opposed to using some other process that uses heat instead of solvents.

    So “cold extraction” may just be krill-oil-maker’s lingo for saying, “Guess you’ll find out in thirty years if the higher Omega 3 level protected you from acetone poisoning.”

  45. Elizabeth Jesse Says:

    The info is right on Mercola’s site. It is also on the Aker site. Search “Aker Mercola”

  46. WH Says:

    The answer to your “Why the lower Omega 3 level?” question is simply, “We make more money this way.”

  47. Elizabeth Jesse Says:,35&id=468&lid=3 Here is the Aker link. You won’t have to scroll down as far as on the Mercola site to get the info. I was beginning to wonder if Mercola uses smaller capsules???

  48. WH Says:

    Aker, like Enzymotec, clearly has a “cheapy” brand, and Mercola is purchasing it.

    I also find it interesting that makers justify krill harvesting by pointing out how Euphausia superba has such a huge biomass. But that’s really beside the point. If the krill reproductive capacity is in rough balance with krill predation by whales, seals, and other krill-eaters, then adding mankind to the mix will eventually cause an imbalance. It doesn’t matter if krill biomass is twice or 100 times as great as mankinds’. The point is that that huge biomass is being consumed, and man is now in competition with whales.

  49. Elizabeth Jesse Says:

    Yes, WH, but I really wanted Mercola to be an upright guy, darnit! I guess the all powerful dollar wins again :( .

  50. WH Says:

    But at least you’re not being driven nuts any longer – one of the many benefits of Bill oil.



  51. Elizabeth Jesse Says:

    :) ’s@Bill. Yes, I guess I’ll have to place a new order. What am I going to do with all of this krill, Bill?

    ;) Elizabeth

  52. JP Says:

    What an excellent exchange of information! Thanks, Bill and Elizabeth! :)

    Ready for the latest news about krill? I present to you a study about the effects of krill protein concentrate in rats.

    Be well!


  53. Elizabeth Jesse Says:

    Hi JP!
    Thank you for that article. It confirms what I already know–krill oil is good stuff! Here is a brief history of how it has helped me with depression.

    I have a family history of depression. My dad was bipolar and his side of our family had cardiac issues as well. I have lived through some serious bouts of depression throughout my life. In addition, my children all exhibit ADHD symptoms to one degree, or another.

    In my twenties, I began taking Prozac and it helped quite a bit. However, since I hit my forties, it stopped working as well. In fact, this past fall I was so deep into depression that I could barely get out of bed. I was also filled with so much anxiety (a new symptom, since my dad died five years ago) and this feeling that can best be described as dread, that I really wished I would just die.

    My doctor (I have since changed doctors) had me on Prozac, Klonopin, and sleeping pills, and I was still a mess. In November I weaned myself off of everything but the Prozac. Then, in late December, I added NSI’s KriaXanthin, and, in January, Dr. Mercola’s krill product to my daily regimen of supplements. Within a couple of weeks, my mood had lifted substantially, and now I feel as good as I ever did, if not better.

    I know some things about mental health, because I have studied psychology and I have a MA in counseling, but I seriously believe that doctors have mainly become pill pushers for Big Pharma, and that they will kill you, eventually, with all of their drugs, if you let them.

    One thing still makes me sad. After studying all about Omega-3, I am convinced my family has been Omega-3 deficient for generations. It really would explain the heart and mental health issues. I bet my dad would not have died five years ago, at the age of just 63, if he had taken EFA supplements. I also wish I had known about these when I was pregnant with my children. Perhaps they would not have the attentional issues that they have.

    The good news is, I know now, and I want to tell everyone–take your fish oil or your krill!

    Now, back to finding the BEST krill :) . I am convinced that Dr. Mercola’s krill works, but I do not believe that it is the best deal out there, and I know it costs too much. I can get twice as much from Swanson’s Vitamins for the same price.

    :-) ’s Elizabeth

  54. Elizabeth Jesse Says:

    Newsflash–I just learned today that Mercola WAS getting his krill from AKER for about three months. He has switched to a new supplier, and, Bill, you were right, he is buying the cheap stuff. He should have sprung for the high quality standard, over the mix; it would have saved his rep., at least, in my eyes. However, since his product DOES work for me, I am purchasing in bulk from his supplier, but I am springing for the higher quality product they sell. If you buy in bulk, there is no need to get the cheaper stuff.

  55. JP Says:


    Thank you for sharing your experience (and family history) with us! I’m sure others will see what you’ve been through and benefit from it. Your input is greatly appreciated! :)

    Be well!


  56. Elizabeth Jesse Says:

    I thought someone may be interested in the following correspondence I had with Tharos, a company that is working on getting us a solvent-free krill. :)

    From Tharos Ltd
    Mr Dimitri Sclabos

    Good day Elizabeth
    Thanks for contacting us per bellow quoted message.
    Please be so kind to let us know how did you get our references.

    Our solvent-free krill oil will be available by 2011, regretfully not before.

    Is this of an urgency matter for you to count on a solvent-free krill oil ??
    Do you work with krill end-products already ??
    Which is your primary business line ??

    Is there a different area within the krill industry we can serve you ??

    Sincerely yours
    Dimitri Sclabos
    General Manager
    Tharos Ltd
    Of + 56 2 273 4966
    Fx + 56 2 273 0395
    Cel + 56 99442 5107

    I am very interested in your work with krill extraction. When might a solvent free krill product be available to the public (USA)?
    Elizabeth A. Jesse, MA, LLPC

  57. JP Says:


    Thank you for posting that.

    If all goes as planned, I’ll be attending Natural Products Expo West next month. I may be able to find some additional krill info. there. :)

    Be well!


  58. Elizabeth Jesse Says:

    How cool, JP. That would be an awesome event to attend. Next week I am starting a new job, so I won’t be able to google all day. It will be good to come here to learn what you find out at the expo.

    :) ’s Elizabeth

  59. JP Says:


    It should be fun and interesting. I hope to have lots to report back on.

    Good luck with your new job! :)

    Be well!


  60. Pharma Phred Says:

    (At least) Megared is marketed as an alternative to fish oil because it’s smaller, requires less pills per day, and doesn’t produce fish burps… so.. some of the posts I’m reading above seem to say krill oil is NOT the same as taking fish oil.. so.. if I take krill oil.. should I still be taking fish oil if I want the same benefits of fish oil that I was getting from the fish oil already? Or can I dump the fish oil and take krill oil? Frustrating. The benefit of big pharma is that at least you generally know what you’re getting because of regulations before it hits advertisements.

  61. WH Says:

    Pharma Red:

    The “reasoning” is that since cell membranes are composed of phospholipids, omega-3′s from krill oil – which is bound to a high level of phospholipids – should penetrate the cell membrane much more easily that omega-3′s from fish oil.

    It’s not that the omega 3′s from krill oil are intrinsically “better” than those from fish oil; it’s that (theoretically) the omega 3′s from krill oil are more bio-available.

  62. WH Says:

    So Elizabeth, the suspense is killing me:

    Who is Mercola’s present supplier (let me guess: Azantis), and what are the details of this bulk deal?


  63. JP Says:

    Pharma Phred,

    I believe Bill already answered your primary question. I would just add that some health authorities are adopting a somewhat cautious attitude with regard to krill oil. They note that the vast majority of research on omega-3 fatty acids has been conducted on fish oil derived DHA and EPA. It could be that krill oil is many times more effective/potent than fish oil – due to the previously mentioned phospholipids and the naturally occurring and/or added astanxanthin. However not all studies show that big a difference between these two sources of omega-3s. If that turns out to be true, then the typical dosage of krill oil (1 gram daily) would likely be considerably lower, in terms of DHA + EPA content, than many fish oil supplements that are currently on the market.

    At the moment, I take a multivitamin/mineral packet with breakfast and dinner that contains a high-potency fish oil soft gel. I also take 500 mg of krill oil with the same two meals. In essence, I’m hedging my bets. :)

    Be well!


  64. Elizabeth Jesse Says:

    Aw, Bill, you already knew! You posted the Azantis material about the “blend.” I am getting the 12 packages of 60 for $192.00 plus about $7.00 for shipping. If I used my professional health practitioner status and got a sales tax ID number, I could purchase in higher quantity and at an even lower cost.

    Pharma Phred,
    I bet you could just take the krill and you would achieve the same benefits. At first, I was frustrated by the same thing as you, because most of the studies were done using fish oil; how do you compare fish oil to krill to duplicate the studies? Well, as far as dosage goes, you probably can’t right now. However, my guess is that you would get the same benefit from a gram, or two, of krill oil, and, yes, I think this is true even though the EPA and DHA in krill is substantially lower. In addition, I do not think it is the astaxanthin that makes the difference. This is only because I was taking four mg of natural astaxanthin for one year before I began taking the krill, and I was still depressed until I added the krill. This is just my opinion, of course, but I am convinced.

  65. Elizabeth Jesse Says:

    Oh, you also get choline from the krill’s phospholipids. You don’t get this from krill. Choline is very important to brain function.

  66. Elizabeth Jesse Says:

    Oops–I meant you do not get choline from FISH oil :o ! ;-)

  67. JP Says:

    Thank you for adding that info, Elizabeth. :)

    It’s interesting to note that anti-inflammatory herbs and medications also appear to improve depression and vice versa.

    Prozac and Celexa Exhibit Anti-Inflammatory Effects

    Anti-depressant like effect of curcumin and its combination with piperine in unpredictable chronic stress-induced behavioral, biochemical and neurochemical changes

    Hyperforin: More than an antidepressant bioactive compound?

    Anti-depressant like effect of curcumin and its combination with piperine in unpredictable chronic stress-induced behavioral, biochemical and neurochemical changes

    Hyperforin: More than an antidepressant bioactive compound?

    Perhaps the combination of astaxanthin, omega-3s and phopholipids forms a potent anti-inflammatory effect (greater than the sum of its parts) which contributes to improve mental health. Just a possibility. :)

    Be well!


  68. Pharma Phred Says:

    Why did MegaRed decide to go with one 300mg dosage size when every one else it seems goes in 500mg increments and recommends at least 1000mg per day?

  69. Elizabeth Jesse Says:

    JP–I am SURE there is a synergistic effect. I LOVE my astaxanthin. I just meant that I needed the krill to make the effect complete. I just got a very cool analysis from Theros, the company that has invented a solvent free way to extract krill. It came in a PDF format. Will that come through here? It has the analysis for several different companies.

  70. WH Says:

    Pharma Phred:

    Why is MegaRed marketed as a one-300mg-pill-per-day product? . . . . . Marketing.

    It’s the same reason that Dr. Mercola stresses the wonderful non-bovine-based gelatin of his krill-oil pills. Clearly, you cannot possibly accept the 1 in 100-million risk of contracting BSE from bovine-based gelatin pills, so Dr. Mercola is going to keep your brain cells safe with his SPECIAL krill oil pills (and let’s just pretend that you don’t take those other 5 or 10 or 15 bovine-based softgel pills you already take every day). And don’t worry your fragile brain cells about the fact that Mercola’s krill oil is itself an inferior product – which will reduce its ability to protect you from all sorts of terrible conditions. Just keep in mind: NO CATTLE HERE.

    Now THAT’s marketing.

  71. Pharma Phred Says:

    So.. are you saying that one should ignore the marketing and if they decide to get MegaRed.. to take at least 3 per day? (900mg)

    PS Isn’t a huge part of krill oil just… marketing.. at this point anyway? There is very little scientific evidence. Heck there’s just now conclusive stuff finally coming to fruition about fish oil..

  72. JP Says:


    I figured that’s what you meant. I just wanted to add the bit out the possible synergistic effect in case it wasn’t obvious to those just joining the comment tread. :)

    Can you please e-mail me the PDF file you mentioned? If so, I can ask my webmaster if there’s a way to create a link for it and post it here.

    Be well!


  73. JP Says:

    Pharma Phred and Bill,

    I believe this is the study that prompted the 300 mg dose:

    Be well!


  74. Elizabeth Jesse Says:

    Now I want the goods on where NSI gets its krill supply from for its new SKO krill product. I have contacted them several times. First, they only told me that the krill comes from China. They finally gave me a company name, but they gave me the name of a co. that claims it does not supply krill to anyone!

  75. JP Says:


    That would be interesting to know. I haven’t contacted NSI about this because the price really isn’t all that appealing. For instance, you can find genuine NKO products for a little bit less than the higher-end NSI product.

    I’ve noticed that NSI makes it a point to let their customers know when they’re using branded raw materials. So I’m assuming their source for this krill oil isn’t noteworthy but I could be wrong.

    Do you mind revealing what company name they gave you?

    Be well!


  76. Elizabeth Jesse Says:

    Kyolic Wakunaga Nutritional Supplements was the name they gave me for the NSI SKO krill. When I called the company, however, they told me my information was wrong and that they do not supply krill to anyone. I wrote to NSI and am waiting to hear back. An interesting bit–the SKO label is almost identical to the Azantis label. For instance, both report 420 mg of phospholipids. That is a “unique” number for krill. Usually, I have seen 400 mg on product labels. Still, Mickey, the man I talked to from Azantis, did not appear to know where the SKO krill came from. I am sure he would have known if it was from his company.

  77. WH Says:

    Hi, Elizabeth,

    Interesting. A while ago, I was checking out “NSI” krill oil (I think NSI is just Vitacost). The numbers on the SKO label exactly match those quoted on the Azantis website for their main (high quality) oil, so I concluded that SKO is just Azantis (= Enzymotec) krill oil.

    On the other hand, the numbers on the label of NSI’s “KriaXanthin” product are REALLY low, so I wouldn’t be surprised if the source is some Chinese company whose real specialty is melamine.

    FYI: For the cheapest krill oil out there, check out:

    1000 softgels, 1000 mg each, for $229! For comparison, that’s like $6.87 a month (assuming 1000 mg a day). But the numbers on the label are pretty low. And the quoted value of 15 mg phospholipids is totally wacky (since 300 to 420 mg is typical).


  78. JP Says:


    I thought it might be Azantis too. Very curious indeed. Please keep us posted!

    Be well!


  79. WH Says:

    Oops: I was responding to your previous post. I was writing my post as your were posting this new one.

  80. JP Says:


    NSI is indeed Vitacost’s product line. They claim to be very conscientious about their quality control but I’ve had an issue with one of their products in the past.

    Some krill oil supplements appear to be virtually devoid of phopholipids:

    It must have something to do with the variety of krill used and/or the extraction technique.

    Be well!


  81. Elizabeth Jesse Says:

    Hi Pharma Phred,
    I am leery of Big Pharma. They share their interests with Big Gov. and Big Gov. just launched a HUGE campaign to get us all to take a shot of H1N1 that we really did not need. I mean this. I have been keeping my vitamin D levels up for over a year and I take other natural supplements. I have not even had a cold this year. This is going to sound “on the fringe,” but I don’t mind–I believe Big Gov. has too much of an interest in population reduction for me to trust them with my health. I would prefer to ingest the krill and make up my own mind about what works for me and mine. I think we are doing well. I cannot recall the last time I had to take our children to see the doctor, and no one in my family takes the flu shot.

  82. WH Says:

    Hi, JP,

    The Puritan’s Pride numbers are identical with those of the NutraBulk oil (I thumb-fingered the phospholipid total for Nutrabulk – it’s 5 mg, too). So they’re probably from the same source.

    Maybe an extraction process that uses high heat destroys phopholipids, which would explain the use of solvents (and “cold extraction”) by other manufacturers.


  83. WH Says:

    Hi, Elizabeth,

    I have a friend who is an epidemiologist who frequently participates in colloquia about infectious diseases. He’s considered a leading authority in that area (but I’m uncomfortable citing his name without his permission, since he often tells me stuff that hasn’t yet been officially released to the public). He doesn’t work for Big Pharma – he’s works for a company with a government contract to do research. And he’s complained to me about occasions where the government doesn’t tell the public “the way it is.” And when he disagrees with what the government says, he tells me. He’s definitely not pushing the government line.

    I ask him what HE does to protect his health and that of his family. He fully believes in the H1N1 vaccine (it’s likely that there will be further “waves” of outbreak). He believes avian flu is a potential major risk for the future, and that a vaccine is badly needed. I’ve asked him about supposed links between vaccines and autism, and he doesn’t think there’s reliable data to support that conclusion.

    But what it comes down for all of us is: We judge the ill-defined risks and ill-defined rewards of taking various health-related actions, and we go with what we subjectively believe. Cause and effect is so elusive for many health-related issues that it’s impossible to know with any confidence what’s right or wrong. I personally get the seasonal vaccine, and got the H1N1 vaccine. However, given the risks I’ve dug up about the Gardasil (HPV) vaccine, if I had an 11-year-old daughter I wouldn’t have her vaccinated. And so it goes.

    You’re not wacky, just trying to figure out the unfigurable like the rest of us.


  84. Elizabeth Jesse Says:

    Thanks, Bill. Yes, I gave myself a psych. eval. just to be absolutely certain ;-) .

  85. JP Says:


    My wonderful webmaster was able to create a link to the krill oil info. you sent me. The link leads directly to a PDF file that can be downloaded. Thank you again for sharing what you’ve uncovered. Excellent info! :)

    Be well!


  86. Elizabeth Jesse Says:

    Hi JP,
    I am pleased that you can use this information. I can’t wait to learn what you find out at the expo :) !


  87. WH Says:

    Hi, Elizabeth,

    Very interesting info from Tharos. Here are two other sources for info on Superba and NKO oils:


    NKO (see tables 2 through 4, with tables 5 and 6 being kind of interesting, too):

    The values cited by Tharos don’t always match these other sources.

    I’m still searching for data sheets on Enzyomtec oil.


  88. JP Says:

    Great info, Bill! Thank you for posting it!

    Be well!


  89. WH Says:

    To get some insight into the krill business, google on Krill Industry Report. There are 12 going back to June of 2007. Some reports don’t come up unless you add a number. So google on, for example, Krill Industry Report 12. The earliest ones are hard to find, so here are the links:





  90. Elizabeth Jesse Says:

    Thank you for all of this great info. Bill! Man, I love this site. Hey, can one of you figure out where NSI gets the krill for the new SKO krill product? Customer service at vitacost is giving me the run around. They are now telling me that they cannot disclose the information!

  91. JP Says:

    Thanks, Bill! :)

    Elizabeth – I’ll give it a shot and report back with whatever they have to say.

    Be well!


  92. JP Says:

    Ladies and Gents,

    I e-mailed Vitacost today and presented our question. I mentioned that other companies, such as Jarrow Formulas and Now Foods, openly state their source of krill oil. I also commented that NSI’s/Vitacost’s other krill oil product (Kriaxanthin) provides it’s raw material source (Cyvex). We’ll see what happens …

    Be well!


  93. WH Says:

    I emailed Azantis. I figure their response, whatever it is – unless they say they have a policy of “neither confirm or deny” – will reveal whether the NSI SKO oil is azantis.

    I also asked Azantis whether Enzymotec’s process involved solvents and if so, what the solvent is (I’m almost certain Enzymotec does use solvents, but it would be nice to know if it’s ethanol [relatively benign], acetone [not as good], or hexane [ugh]). And I argued that revealing the solvent is not the same as revealing the actual proprietary process.

    We’ll see what we find out.

    By the way, I found a short article on Tharos (don’t have the link handy right now) that stated (as Elizabeth’s info has already indicated) that Tharos has a non-solvent-based extraction process. The story also indicated that Tharos said that Aker and Neptune were both interested. But the motivation is not what you probably think – to produce a “cleaner” oil.

    No, the big attraction of a non-solvent-based process is that the use of solvents is EXPENSIVE, in part because solvent-based processes cannot be performed on the ships that catch krill. Tharos’s process can be performed on-ship, and will reduce the cost of production 30%.

  94. Elizabeth Jesse Says:

    Thank you, guys! By the way, is anyone willing to say which krill product you like the best from the information available at this time?

  95. Elizabeth Jesse Says:

    I was just thinking what a chore it would be to learn the origins of every supplement I take :-) !

    Mercola’s Whole Food Plus Minerals w. 5000 IU D-3
    NSI’s Natural Astaxanthin
    NSI’s Ubiquinol
    NSI’s Resveratrol Grape Seed & Red Wine Extracts
    NSI’s Omega-3 Mood Formula
    NSI’s Superior Krill Oil (SKO, until the krill comes from Azantis)
    NSI’s Probiotic 15-35

  96. WH Says:


    I think ethanol is more benign than acetone, so if that were the only issue, I’d prefer Superba oil to NKO. But I think Superba oil is less stable than NKO (at least in part because Aker doesn’t supplement the astaxanthin), and on the web the issue of omega-3 oils going rancid is mentioned in a log of places.

    I also think that the Superba oil label exaggerates the EPA and DHA levels somewhat (if you compare the figures on the Superba-oil labels to the Superba spec sheet at the link above, you’ll see what I mean), whereas NKO clearly is using worst-case figures on its labels (they’re well below the figures on the EFSA document). So I think NKO is a little higher quality in that respect.

    Enzymotec oil is a big question mark for me. I have no idea what solvent they use, and I don’t really know what their lipid profile is, other than that data provide by Tharos. I’m guessing – based upon some info I’ve come upon – that they use some hexane-based solvent, which I don’t like at all (but maybe they use ethanol or acetone). I’m curious how Azantis will respond to my question. I also plan on asking Azantis for a spec sheet – they say on their website that they provide it “to their customers,” so what objection could they possibly have to supply it to the ultimate customers, us?

    In sum, right now I prefer NKO, and that’s what I use. However, you are getting great benefits with Azantis oil, so if I were you I wouldn’t switch.

  97. Elizabeth Jesse Says:

    Hi Bill,
    I bet Azantis will give you the spec. sheet. They were very nice when I talked to them. I simply failed to ask for one when I talked to Mickey, but I am glad you have done so, because it will be interesting to see it. As far as the solvent, Mickey told me it is eliminated from the final product, so I am not too worried. However, I would still be interested in a solvent free product, if everything else was also good and the beneficial components were still preserved in the product.

    Yes, the Azantis oil I got from Dr. Mercola gave me excellent results. I can only imagine that the premium grade from Azantis will be even better.

    :) ’s Elizabeth

  98. Elizabeth Jesse Says:

    Oh–there will be one other difference in the Azantis (compared to Mercola) oil–the gel capsule vs. Mercola’s “capliques.” I really doubt that this is going to matter, though. Any thoughts?

  99. JP Says:

    An update, a comment and a link:

    I just got word from Neptune that their comparative literature should be ready any day now. I’ll post whatever info. they send me ASAP.

    Elizabeth, I’ve used both NKO and Azantis krill oil. My choice depends on what’s in stock (at the online site I order from), the price and one other factor – I’ve noticed that the Now Foods krill oil (NKO) appears to have a stronger aroma than Jarrow’s krill oil (Azantis). The Now Foods soft gels seem to have a “thinner skin” which may explain this observation. From a sensory perspective, I tend to prefer the Jarrow product but it’s not a huge factor.

    Bill, I believe this may be the column you were referring to?

    Chilean firm proposes solvent-free krill extraction

    I’ll take a look at the “caplique” claim when I have a few free moments. Right now, I’m tap dancing as fast as I can! :)

    Be well!


  100. WH Says:

    Yep, JP, that’s the article. And notice that Hexane is mentioned and that Enzymotec reportedly indicated interest in Tharos’s process. And since we know that Aker uses ethanol and Nepune uses acetone, I put 2 and 2 together, and concluded that Enzymotec uses hexane.

    With respect to capliques: Mercola claims that the capliques preserve the krill oil better, but I’m not sure what the basis of that claim is. Capliques are based on fish gelatin and normal gel-tabs are based on bovine gelatin; despite searching for a caplique/gel-tab comparison, I wasn’t able to find anything other than Mercola’s claims.

    And Mercola’s claim is rather dubious considering the capliques have an obvious “join” at the middle, whereas gel-tab don’t. And ironically, there’s a place on Mercola’s site where he warns customers that occasionally the capliques leak. If they occasionally leak, how can they possibly be a better air-seal than gel-tab?

    Mercola’s site also mentions the following points:

    1. Improves bioavailability by promoting absorption.

    This is arrant nonsense. Since when does one type of soluble container promote better absorption than another.

    2, Avoids the use of plasticizers — chemicals that can exert a negative effect on your endocrine system.

    If this is true, why not put the krill oil in a fish-gel gel-tab without plasticizers?

    3. Possesses greater bioavailability due to reduced sensitivity to heat and moisture.

    All I can say is, wow.

    As I wrote in an earlier post, this is all “marketing” as far as I can tell. If Mercola is worried about getting the maximum amount krill lipids to human cells, why on earth does he use a low-grade krill oil?

    Note: I found one manufacturer who puts high-grade krill oil (I think it’s NKO) in capliques, but it’s VERY expensive:

  101. Elizabeth Jesse Says:

    Yep–that is expensive. I wonder how they get all that EPA in the capsule–larger amounts of oil?? Hm…

    Elizabeth Jesse
    aka, Krill Detective (lol)

  102. JP Says:

    I didn’t have time to do much digging today. But I’m pretty sure I found the manufacturer of Capliques –

    They don’t appear to have a North American e-mail address posted on their “contact us” page but they do list a phone number. I can try giving them a call tomorrow.

    Be well!


  103. WH Says:

    Here’s Neptune’s patent for extracting lipids from animal tissue:

    Turns out they use BOTH acetone (to obtain what they refer to as “fraction 1″) and then an alcohol (to obtain what they refer to as “fraction 2″).

    And how do they ultimately remove the solvents from the lipids? Why, to quote the patent: “To get rid of traces of organic solvents, lipid fractions I and II are warmed to about 125° C. for about 15 minutes under inert atmosphere.”

    125 degrees C is 45 degrees Fahrenheit above water’s boiling point. I guess it would be fair to call this a “not so cold extraction” method. But at least it does appear to preserve the phospholipids.

    Here is a quote of the most interesting parts:

    “The starting material consisting of freshly harvested and preferably finely divided marine and aquatic animal material is subjected to acetone extraction, for at about two hours and preferably overnight. However extraction time is not critical to the yield of lipid extraction. To facilitate extraction, it is preferable to use particles of less than 5 mm in diameter. Extraction is preferably conducted under inert atmosphere and at a temperature in the order of about 5° C. or less.

    “Preferably, the beginning of the extraction will be conducted under agitation for about 10 to 40 minutes, preferably 20 minutes. Although extraction time is not critical, it was found that a 2 hour extraction with 6:1 volume ratio of acetone to marine and aquatic animal material is best.

    “The solubilized lipid fractions are separated from the solid material by standard techniques including, for example, filtration, centrifugation or sedimentation. Filtration is preferably used.

    “After separation by filtration on an organic solvent resistant filter (metal, glass or paper) the residue is optionally washed with pure acetone, preferably two volumes (original volume of material) to recover yet more lipids. The combined filtrates are evaporated under reduced pressure. Optionally, flash evaporation or spray drying may be used. The water residue obtained after evaporation is allowed to separate from the oil phase (fraction I) at low temperature.

    “The solid residue collected on the filter is suspended and extracted with alcohol, such as ethanol, isopropanol, t-butanol or alternatively with ethyl acetate, preferably two volumes (original volume of material). The filtrate is evaporated leaving a second fraction of lipids (identified as fraction II). Although the extraction period is not critical, it was found that an extraction time of about 30 minutes is sufficient at temperatures below about 5° C.

    “Temperature of the organic solvents, except t-butanol, and temperature of the sample are not critical parameters, but it is preferable to be as cold as possible. However, in the case of t-butanol which is solid at room temperature, it is important to warm it before using it and to perform the extraction at 25° C. immediately.”

  104. JP Says:

    The latest wrinkle in the krill oil story:

    “Valensa has teamed up with Aker BioMarine to launch a krill oil ingredient for supplements that bolsters the astaxanthin levels in krill oil.

    Targeting general and cardiovascular health, the new Deep Ocean Krill ingredient combines Superba Krill Oil from Aker with Zanthin Natural Astaxanthin from Valensa.

    Florida-based Valensa claims that the two distinguishing features of the new ingredient are its high astaxanthin levels and its stability – the product offers guaranteed shelf-life of two years.”

    Be well!


  105. Elizabeth Jesse Says:

    Good Morning Everyone!
    I can’t say enough about astaxanthin. It is awesome stuff. My skin looks so much better since I have been on it (over a year now)., and I would post a picture, but I do not know how on this blog). The thing is, the krill people are making such a big deal about the fact that this super antioxidant is in their krill. In most cases, there are only 1.5 grams of astaxanthin in a daily dose of krill. I take EIGHT grams a day, plus whatever is in the krill. It’s very cheap, too. It is only $9.99 for 60, 4mg capsules of Natural Asataxanthin (see BioAstin) at

    Have a nice morning!


  106. WH Says:

    Interesting, JP,

    To quote from the article:

    “Thanks to the addition of its botanical O2B Peroxidation Blocker technology, Valensa says it can guarantee Deep Ocean Krill a two year shelf-life.”

    This is definitely a positive development, but it begs the question: If the addition of Valensa astaxanthin to Superba krill oil will give the combination a two-year shelf life, then presumably Superba krill oil must currently have MUCH LESS than a two-year shelf life (despite what the Superba krill oil spec sheet says). I suspected as much, but this article pretty much removes all doubt and suggests to me that the actual shelf-life of Superba krill oil is no more than 1 year.

    I know the manufacturers recommend against freezing krill oil, but what is their opinion on refrigeration?


  107. WH Says:


    I just received the spec sheet from Azantis. Where can I email it to you as an attachment?


  108. Elizabeth Jesse Says:

    Bill–I can’t wait to see it. My Azantis krill just came today!

  109. Elizabeth Jesse Says:

    Bill–I believe I have been told you should not refrigerate krill. I guess it makes it sticky.

  110. Elizabeth Jesse Says:

    Bill–can you email the Azantis spec. sheet to ?

  111. JP Says:


    You can reach me at

    Elizabeth may be correct about the humidity/refrigeration issue. I haven’t specifically asked though.

    In other news, or non-news, I wasn’t able to contact Atrium Innovations (the makers of the Caplique soft capsules) today. I called around 3:00 PM my time but they were closed. I’ll try again tomorrow.

    No word yet from Vitacost/NSI about their SKO product and nothing new from Neptune.

    Be well!


  112. WH Says:

    So I’ve emailed the Azantis data sheet to JP (and of course, Elizabeth), which should be posted relatively soon. But a little more background info:

    I exchanged emails with Mickey at Azantis, and I can confirm Elizabeth’s impressions that he is a wonderfully helpful guy. After looking at the data sheet, I noticed that the reported astaxanthin level seemed very low. Here was our next email exchange:

    Thanks, Mickey,

    I notice that a few of the numbers on the fact sheet are a little different from those on on your website and on the labels of products that use Azantis krill oil.

    For example, on the Products page of your website, where you list “Azantis Krill Oil Supplement Facts,” the astaxanthin level is listed as 1.5 mg/gram – this is also the number listed on Azantis krill oil product labels. But on the fact sheet, you indicate “0.15 mg.” Is that a typo (did you mean .15% rather than .15 mg), or are you not including supplemented esterified astaxanthin on the fact sheet ?

    Also, you show 183 mg EPA and 456 mg phospholipids (very high numbers) on the fact sheet, whereas on the website and product label the numbers are 150 and 420 mg, respectively. Are the data on the product labels conservative, worst-case values?

    Mickey’s response:

    The fact sheet was made awhile ago; the best way to figure out is a C of A on the softgels. Very good point on the esterified astaxanthin; all of our astaxanthin is esterified and is 1.5%, or 1500ppm. It is a typo on the data sheet that will be corrected. It should read 1.5mg or 1500ppm of Astaxanthin.

    As to The EPA/DHA, we use low #’s on the label, and the same for the Phospholipids, because it is very hard to hit perfect #’s on each batch. So we use the #’s we know will be the worst case. It is the same for the weight of the softgels; we state that they are 500mg when we know they are overfilled to 510mg most of the time, but we keep the 500mg as the base #.


    And Elizabeth, you’ll be interested to know that Mickey confirmed that NSI SKO is indeed Azantis oil (but Mickey also said that that oil was sold to Vita Cost 11 months ago, so buyer beware). NSI KriaXanthin is NOT Azantis oil (not even the cheaper, 2810 blend-quality oil).

    Anyway, that’s the news that’s fit to type for now.


  113. JP Says:

    Fantastico, Bill! You and Elizabeth are quickly becoming the first couple of krill oil! You’re both discovering wonderfully useful information. Thank you both!

    PS – Kriaxanthin comes from this source.

    They claim to use no solvents in the extraction process.

    Be well!


  114. JP Says:

    Ladies and Gents,

    Here’s the Azantis PDF courtesy of Bill. :)

    Be well!


  115. Elizabeth Jesse Says:

    Thanks, Bill! Awesome work. Now, I am waiting with bated breath to hear what is NOT fit for printing, lol!

    JP, I think you should do a movie about this called, The Krill Detectives. The stars of the film would all have OCD when it comes to investigating krill. What do you say? :)

    Seriously, though, this has to be one of the most informative krill research places, ever–at least for consumers.


    :) ’s Elizabeth

  116. WH Says:

    My latest “investigation” is on the refrigeration question. Some places (including Mercola) say, “Please do not refrigerate.” But they really don’t say why. I found a blog where one of the posters said (like Elizabeth suggested) that the gel-tabs get all sticky in the refrigerator.

    But I found another site that said the shelf-life of krill oil gel-tabs would be doubled (to 4 years) by refrigeration, and that the stickiness is caused by moisture penetrating the plastic bottle. So they recommend storing in glass bottles.

    Anyway, anything that can preserve the healthful qualities of krill oil to the maximum extent possible (without going crazy about it) would seem to me to be desirable. So I’d like to get to the bottom of this. It simply doesn’t make sense to me that refrigeration (as opposed to freezing) would be a bad thing.


  117. JP Says:

    The Krill Detectives, eh? It does have a ring to it. ;)

    Bill – I’m almost certain it’s the higher level of relative humidity in the refrigerator that’s the concern. In the past, I would use liquid fish oil that required refrigeration. I can’t image why krill would be any different. Glass bottles and silica packets would probably do the trick, IMO.

    Be well!


  118. WH Says:

    One difference between krill and fish oil is the phospholipids, which make the krill oil water soluble. So I can understand how, if water vapor penetrated into the plastic bottle and through the gel-tab’s shell, you could end up with more and more water getting into the krill oil, which (perhaps) would in turn cause the gel-tabs to start breaking down ==> stickiness issue. Further, the extra water (which contains dissolved oxygen) in the krill oil would probably causes the oil to oxidize more rapidly.

    So, yeah, refrigeration COULD cause serious problems. But I’m guessing it’s not the refrigeration, per se. And I guess there’s a similar concern with freezing. Still, in a well sealed (and perhaps evacuated) glass container, I wouldn’t think it would be a problem.

  119. Elizabeth Jesse Says:

    For now, the 2 year shelf life is good for me. I guess I may want to freeze it if I was planning to stockpile it. Maybe that is not such a bad idea. If Big Pharma is ever able to get a monopoly on krill, I am sure the price would go way up. It seems to me that some of the krill people are trying to do that right now with the astaxanthin *sell*. Astaxanthin is not currently expensive, though, so I am unimpressed by the hype about more astaxanthin in the krill, even though I really, really like astaxanthin and krill :) .

  120. Elizabeth Jesse Says:

    Actually, Big Pharma, if they were wise, would make a Prozac/Krill/Astaxanthin/Ubiquinol “blend” for depression. I bet it would work much better that way!

  121. JP Says:

    Good point, Bill. Thank you for making it.

    I found a contact person at Atrium Innovations. I e-mailed him and I’m awaiting a reply re: the Caplique technology.

    Here are a few krill oil links I thought might be of interest:

    Krill Oil Manufacturers and Suppliers

    Krill Oil Pre-Clinical Testing (Drug Development) –

    Significant Anti-dyslipidemic Effects Confirmed

    Drug Candidate CaPre™ Improvement of Glucose Tolerance

    Reports on Medical Food Candidate Preclinical Research


    Be well!


  122. WH Says:

    From Mickey at Azantis:

    “The reason that you should not put krill oil softgels in hot or cold weather is that the phospholipids in gelatin softgels react to the temp, phospholipids are very unstable and they clot. The exact reason for this I do not know but it does effect the softgel.

    “It is after the biomass has been processed that the oil becomes very sensitive to heat and cold. Again it is hard to explain why phospholipids act, but if a company uses a thin softgel or sometimes a two-piece capsule they will find the weak point in the capsule usually where the seal is and sometimes come through.”

    Me again:

    I don’t believe the phospholipids are “unstable” in the sense of breaking down. What I believe is actually going on is that as the krill oil absorbs water (from water vapor from the air), the volume of liquid increases, putting pressure on the capsule (and given the presence of water, perhaps partially dissolving it, too). The oil would then push through any weak point. Which explains why Mercola’s capliques are more subject to leakage (they have a very obvious seam) than normal gel-tabs.

  123. Elizabeth Jesse Says:

    I was reading through this blog and noticing how we have all “evolved” in our understanding about krill. It might be helpful to summarize our findings for new people who read this so they aren’t confused by reading an earlier post that someone wrote before they had more information. Does that make sense?

    :) ’s Elizabeth

  124. JP Says:

    Ladies and Gents,

    I just exchanged e-mails with Mickey of Azantis. If all goes as planned, I’ll have the opportunity to meet him in Anaheim next weekend. Looking forward to it.

    Elizabeth – I think that’s a good idea. I’ll go through the comments and try to pick up on the main points and do my best to summarize them. I’m in the middle of a few projects at the moment but I’ll have the summary up soon. We can all add to it, of course, and amend it as needed.

    Be well!


  125. JP Says:

    The latest … Neptune Technologies & Bioressources Inc. distances itself from the current fish oil controversy.

    Be well!


  126. Elizabeth Jesse Says:

    How cool. Mickey seems like a very nice and dynamic man. I wish I could come out to the expo next month.

    I started making a “krill detective chart,” lol. Mine is rather crude right now, but I think having one would make it nice and neat for new readers, so they do not have to try and follow our brain storming through a hundred plus posts.

    Oh, Mickey sent along a great book with my Azantis order, by the way. It is called Brain-Building Nutrition: How Dietary Fats and Oils Affect Mental, Physical, and Emotional Intelligence, by Michael A. Schmidt, Ph.D. The book is filled with great information and it does discuss krill more than the earlier book written by Dr. Stoll.

    :) ’s Elizabeth

  127. JP Says:


    The good news: you got an interesting book about krill oil. The bad news is that we’ll be expecting a book report! ;)

    Seriously though, I’d/we’d love to hear your thoughts about Dr. Schmidt’s book. :)

    Be well!


  128. WH Says:

    That Neptune article has some very interesting information. I was under the impression that Neptune supplements the astaxanthin content of its krill oil, pretty much in the same way Aker will soon be doing with Valensa astaxanthin. But Neptune’s Harland says NKO astaxanthin is “naturally occurring”, as if no supplementation is performed.

    If you look at Table 17 of Neptune’s patent (see link above), you’ll see that the total astaxanthin resulting from the two lipid fractions produced by the extraction process is about 215 micro-grams/gram of oil, or .215 mg of astaxanthin. That .215 mg is what I would refer to as “naturally occurring.”

    So, where does the additional 1.3 mg come from? I have a guess:

    Those two concepts (supplementation and “naturally occurring”) can be reconciled if by “naturally occurring” Harland actually means “naturally occurring in krill,” but not necessarily naturally present at full (1.5%) strength in NKO immediately after oil extraction. Perhaps Neptune extracts astaxanthin from the solid matter (including krill exo-skeletons) left over after oil extraction, and then some sort of process is performed to esterify it (bind it) with omega-3′s in the krill oil.

    Enzymotec krill oil also has 1.5 mg of “esterified” astaxanthin. Maybe, JP, when you meet with Mickey you can find out what all this astaxanthin stuff really means.

    At any rate (and Elizabeth, this is for you), I think it’s quite likely that the NKO and Azantis esterified astaxanthin is probably much more bio-available than plant-based astaxanthin.

    Another, unrelated, tidbit that I picked up from that article is this designation, “NKO(R)”. What does that “R” stand for? To me, the implication is that there’s some other letter that designates another, lower (blend) grade of Neptune oil.

  129. WH Says:

    My bad. I think the “R” in NKO(R) is just supposed to the the “Registered Trademark” designation.

    My imagination sometimes goes a little crazy. :-/

  130. Elizabeth Jesse Says:

    Hi Bill,
    Well, darnit, they should not have put that (R) in such an unrecognizable format ;-) !

    Have you seen the book on astaxanthin? I will send the link to JP. Anyway, BioAstin does make the natural version of astaxanthin. I am not sure about this esterified vs. plant based issue. I will need to check it out.

    :) ’s Elizabeth

  131. Elizabeth Jesse Says:

    Aw, JP, a book report? That will require me to access my higher order cognitive capabilities, lol! Are you expecting master’s level work? Okay–I will do it, but it may take a couple of days.

    :) ’s Elizabeth

  132. Elizabeth Jesse Says:

    More “skinny” on the SKO product from Vitacost: The manufactured date on my bottle says 0110. I assume this means that the product was made in January of this year. Now, if Vitacost (or NSI) bought the krill a year ago, my guess is this SKO only has one year left of shelf life. Hm. I wonder how long they will continue to sell it?

  133. WH Says:


    What Use By date is on the SKO bottle? It SHOULD be based on the date the krill oil was manufactured, not the date the pills were manufactured and/or bottled by NSI.

    One thing I forgot to ask Mickey was: What is the shelf-life of Azantis oil? If they supplement their astaxanthin in the same way Neptune does, then the oil should be stable for three years (assuming Neptune’s claimed shelf life is accurate).

    Of course, the clock actually starts ticking on the date the oil is manufactured by Enzymotec. On average, it might take a couple of months for Azantis to receive it, and then up to a few more months before all of a given batch of oil is completely sold out to manufacturers. So the NSI oil could easily have been 4 months old before NSI received it.

    Now you know, Elizabeth, why I’m concerned about stability. And this isn’t just a question of whether the oil is consumed within the oil’s shelf-life. Frankly, I’d hope to consume oil well before the shelf life has expired. Same-day bread is wonderful; four-day-old bread may not be stale yet, but it isn’t nearly as good.

    Fresh is better (and I can be awfully fresh).

  134. Elizabeth Jesse Says:

    Mickey said the shelf life in Azantis oil is 2 years. However, he also said that after 2 years, the oil only loses about 5% of the beneficial components. This is not too bad when you consider that Azantis puts more “good stuff” in it than what they report. Maybe this is why Neptune claims a 3 year shelf life. My guess is that Azantis could get away with the same claim, but they want to make sure they are absolutely not scamming people.

    There is no use by date on the SKO product, and since we have heard it was purchased by NSI a whole year ago, my guess is that it only has one year left if a use by date were to be placed on the bottle. So, the question is, how “fresh” is the NKO oil, really ;-) ?


  135. JP Says:

    Bill – I’ll try to find out all I can about the astaxanthin issue when I speak to Mickey at Expo West.

    Elizabeth – Thank you for the book link. Any type of book report will be welcome. No pressure. We grade on a curve around here. :)

    Still no reply from Neptune or NSI.

    Be well!


  136. WH Says:

    I don’t know if the FDA has rules regarding whether supplement manufacturers (by whom I mean those slapping a label on the product and selling it to consumers) are required to be restricted by the supplement’s inherent shelf life as opposed to when they placed it in the bottle.

    Because of the uncertainty as to the actual age of supplements, I think it’s wise to purchase supplements originally manufactured by major players (rapid turnover of raw materials), packaged by major manufacturers (high turnover of inventory), and sold by major resellers (rapid turnover of stock). So, for example, krill oil from Mercola is probably fresh. Same for NOW NKO sold by Swansons. And if the seller will cooperate, we can always ask for the Use By date (if there is one).

    I have a feeling that the Use By date is left off the most recent NSI SKO bottles because it would have looked bad.

  137. WH Says:


    I wrote Neptune, too, asking about astaxanthin and quoting from yesterday’s article and their patent.


  138. Elizabeth Jesse Says:

    Brain-Building Nutrition: How Dietary Fats and Oils Affect Mental, Physical, and Emotional Intelligence, 3rd edition, by Michael A. Schmidt, PhD.

    Dr. Schmidt provides readers with a valuable resource that looks into the world of essential fatty acids (EFAs) and their effects on almost every aspect of human physiology.

    In Dr. Schmidt’s book, we learn that our brains are made up of nearly 6o percent fat and that we have the capability to improve our health, substantially, by including certain fats and oils in our daily diets. Dr. Schmidt covers the science behind EFAs and discusses how to get the brain-fats we need in his chapter on food and supplements. He also talks about the dangers of trans fatty acids on the brain in a chapter entitled, The French Fry Generation.

    One thing I like about Dr. Schmidt’s book is the fact that he addresses the benefits of using krill oil. Most of the earlier work written on EFA’s mainly discussed the use of fish oil as a source for beneficial fats. As we know from all of the studies, fish oil can be helpful for protecting heart health, reducing bad cholesterol, treating depression, PMS and ADHD; however, it does not contain the choline rich phospholipids that our brains need. In his book, Dr. Schmidt discusses what can happen when we do not get enough choline. He refers to the work of Dr. Richard Wurtman, who found that the brain can actually “cannibalize” when enough choline is not provided in the diet! Dr. Schmidt also discusses phospholipid supplements in his book and mentions that the fatty acid in krill is a close match for our own brain phospholipids.

    The other parts I really like about Dr. Schmidt’s book are all of the studies that he includes discussing how EFA’s protect the brain against neurological disorders, like Multiple Sclerosis, Cerebral Palsy, and Alzheimer’s disease. The case study he writes about concerning the use of EFA’s in reducing violence in prisoners is also quite fascinating.

    Finally, the book includes a helpful question and answer section and several useful appendixes–a table of foods with the highest antioxidant content, a body mass index (BMI) table, contents of Omega-3 in marine and fresh water fish, and much more.

    Despite my joy in finding this wonderful book, I still believe there is an audience out there (including me) who would like to see a newer book written where krill oil is used as the main source for EFAs in all of the case studies. Until that happens, Dr. Schmidt’s book is a very, very useful reference.

    ~Elizabeth A. Jesse, MA, LLPC

  139. Elizabeth Jesse Says:

    The above link is to the book review I posted on Amazon. Happy reading :) !


  140. JP Says:

    Bravo, Elizabeth! Well done. I feel like I have a good sense of the book already. :)

    Brain cannibalism? Yikes! I’m off to make some eggs (another good source of choline) and take some krill oil pronto!

    Be well!


  141. JP Says:

    Here’s some very basic information provide to me about the supposed advantages of capliques vs. soft gels. More on this to come …

    capliques vs. soft gels

    Be well!


  142. Michelle Says:

    Does anyone know anything about Good Health USA (Good Health Naturally? I have ordered from them before, but not the Krill oil and I wondered about the quality of it. Thanks!

  143. Elizabeth Jesse Says:

    Hi Michelle,
    I clicked on the label of the krill in question. It has hardly any astaxanthin, ZERO phospholipids, low levels of EPA and DHA, and it costs almost $1.00 per capsule. My conclusion? I would not buy it. Try Jarrow or Source Naturals. The krill costs less with these companies and is a much more potent.

    :) ’s Elizabeth

  144. JP Says:


    I agree with Elizabeth. The Good Health USA product is more expensive and less impressive than other krill oil products I’ve seen – in terms of the astaxanthin and omega-3 fatty acid content. I’d look for other brands that clearly state their phospholipid content and provide higher levels of astaxanthin, DHA and EPA.

    Be well!


  145. JP Says:

    Ladies and Gents,

    I’ll put together another krill oil column shortly. I have quite a lot of new information to share. Some of it is based on my recent visit to this year’s Natural Products Expo West.

    Be well!


  146. Elizabeth Jesse Says:

    Hi JP,

    I can’t wait to hear what you learned!

    :) ’s Elizabeth

  147. RON Says:

    HI ALL,
    Very interesting posts. So, what is the “best” krill available for the money? I just ordered 4 bottles (each bottle is a 3 month supply)from Mercola. It was expensive. From what I have learned from you guys, that may not have been a wise purchase. Maybe I should return them. Which product is the best choice?

  148. Elizabeth Jesse Says:

    Hi Ron,
    My issue with Dr. Mercola is that he uses oils from several different suppliers and the values for the Essential Fatty Acids (EFAs) and the astaxanthin levels in his krill product are often much lower than what you would get if you stuck with one supplier. You can check this for yourself just by reading the labels.

    After weeks of seeking answers from the main krill oil suppliers, I, personally (and I only speak for myself) have chosen the NOW brand Neptune Krill Oil (NKO) for the following reasons:

    1. The oil is extracted from frozen krill. I believe this preserves the dignity of the krill, over, say, extracting the oil from cooked krill.

    2. Neptune had the original patent on krill oil and did most of the research that is available on krill oil.

    3. Neptune is the only krill oil supplier I know of that maintains high levels of astaxanthin in their krill oil and that also extracts the astaxanthin directly from the krill–not from an outside source.

    4. The chemicals used in the extraction process for the Neptune oil seem less toxic to me than what may be used in other oils. Even though these chemicals are “washed away” in the end product, it still makes me feel better to know they were less toxic to begin with.

    5. The NOW brand of Neptune Krill Oil is reasonably priced at under $17.00 for a one month supply at Swanson Vitamins.

    6. Swanson sells a lot of supplements. The high turnover of their product assures me that my krill will likely be fresh.

    Again, the above is only my opinion.

    Best Wishes,


  149. JP Says:


    I’m putting together a new post on krill oil. One of my sources (of information) has been on vacation so I wanted to touch base with him before I compile my latest piece on krill.

    Elizabeth is very well informed about krill oil. I agree with her comments about Dr. Mercola’s product – based on what I’ve read about it. I’d personally go with another source such as the Now Foods supplement Elizabeth mentioned.

    Be well!


  150. Barbara Neubauer Says:

    Elizabeth, Ron, Michelle, JP,

    I have never heard of KRILL until today and have been trying to find out all I can on the internet and then came across this site. I have several questions and I am hoping that someone will answer them for me.

    I think I understand what brand of krill to buy….Neptune from the Swanson’s site. If this is not correct please let me know. I should take 500 mg twice a day.

    I now get my fish oil from my chiropractor and it’s expensive – Ortho Molecular. Can someone advise me on what brand I could use in place that would be less expensive?

    I have been diagnosed with mild CHF and will be having a stent placed next week Thursday. I need to start taking Plavix the end of this week and then probably for a year two after that.

    Of course my doctors (regular & heart) are both insisting that I NEED to start taking Crestor or one of the cholesterol drugs and I am resisting. I want to try lowering my numbers with exercise, diet change and supplements of some kind. Can I take krill if I am on Plavix. And do you feel that cholesterol can be lowered without taking these poisons that the medical profession and the drug companies push down our throats?

    I would appreciate any advise that any of you can give me.

  151. Elizabeth Jesse Says:

    Hi Barb,
    I would not feel right giving you medical advice. However, you can probably find a reasonably priced, high quality fish oil. I would look at the label on what you are currently getting. Then do a search for oils with similar amounts of EPA and DHA in them. Look for oil that comes from fish in the Antarctica, because the waters are cleaner, and look for a molecularly distilled oil to further insure that the oil is free of any potential contaminants.

    I do not take fish oil, anymore–just krill. I wish I could be more helpful.

    Best Wishes,


  152. Elizabeth Jesse Says:


    Krill oil is being studied as a natural remedy for high cholesterol. In one study, 120 people were given krill oil, fish oil or a placebo. Krill oil reduced LDL (commonly referred to as “bad”) cholesterol by 34% and increased HDL (“good”) cholesterol by 43.5% compared to the placebo. In comparison, fish oil reduced LDL cholesterol by 4.6% and increased HDL cholesterol by 4.2%. Krill also lowered triglycerides.”

  153. JP Says:


    I’ll add my two cents worth and then hopefully Elizabeth and Bill will chime in as well.

    + Neptune Krill Oil (NKO) is a good choice, IMO. However the Swanson Vitamins’ house brand no longer uses NKO in their product. But they do sell other brands of NKO on their site: Nature’s Way, Now Foods, Source Naturals and TwinLab. It’s important to verify that the product label specifically states that it contains Neptune Krill Oil. Otherwise it may contain a different source of krill which may not yield the same benefits.

    + 500 mg twice-daily is the typical dosage. I think that’s a good starting point – that can be adjusted as needed.

    + In terms of finding a lower-priced fish oil, it’s important to try to match a product that contains a similar amount of DHA and EPA (the primary omega-3 fatty acids). If you let us know the quantity of DHA and EPA contained in the product you’re using (per serving), we might be able to find you a more reasonably-priced source. In general, I like certain brands such as Carlson and Coromega. Nordic Naturals is also high-quality but kind of pricey.

    + I think you should ask your doctor and surgeon about the advisability of using fish oil or krill oil prior to the stent placement. Most physicians and surgeons recommend staying away from any supplements that may “thin the blood” close to surgical procedures. Fish oil and krill oil tend to inhibit platelet aggregation and thereby improve blood flow. The concern is that this effect may promote bleeding issues in the context of surgical procedures.

    + If your health team is open to the idea of combining medications and supplements (post surgery), perhaps they’ll find this abstract to be of interest:

    That’s the closest thing I’m aware of that supports the simultaneous use of omega-3s and Plavix.

    + Cholesterol can be effectively managed via diet, lifestyle and the judicious use of supplements. It’s possible that krill oil alone even may be enough to bring your lipid levels into an acceptable range – based on the target your doctors have set for you.

    What some people decide to do is to ask their doctors for a trial period in which they attempt to lower their LDL cholesterol via natural means alone. This generally involves a experiment time frame of at least 3 months. That’s often enough time to see what you can accomplish without the assistance of a statin medication.

    If you ultimately decide to use Crestor, please consult with your physicians about the wisdom of combining it with Coenzyme Q10. This *may* offset some of the adverse effects of this statin drug.

    Be well!


  154. Elizabeth Jesse Says:

    I see that the only prescription fish oil for heart health (LOVAZA) has 465mg EPA and 375 mg DHA in a capsule and the approved dose is 4 capsules a day. Maybe we can find a similar oil?

  155. JP Says:


    It sounds like Barb is using a non-prescription fish oil (the Ortho Molecular brand). If this is the product she’s using:

    … then perhaps Carlson’s Elite Omega-3 Gems may be a suitable alternative.

    It’s worth shopping around for the best price online. Prices vary dramatically. Some sites carry the 180 softgel size of the Carlson product for about $35 – which is often about half of the price of the Ortho Molecular fish oil.

    Be well!


  156. Elizabeth Jesse Says:

    Hi JP,
    Yes. I was just wondering about the EPA and DHA ratios that a doctor would suggest for heart health. I know it is different than what Dr. Stoll recommends for mood. For instance, a 7:1 EPA to DHA ratio is recommended for depression. It looks like the EPA and DHA ratio is much less for heart. Quick, get me a math whiz!

    :) ’s Elizabeth

  157. Barbara Neubauer Says:

    Thanks Elizabeth & JP for all of your input.

    Elizabeth, you are correct that is the fish oil I use with an EPA of 420 and DHA of 300. The cost with tax is $57.81 for 180 capsules and I take 2 a day. I am not able to find any info as to what waters these fish are from. I have no idea if this helps anything or not as I have been taking fish oil for about 4 years. Worth the money or not?

    I see that you said that it helps depression – just one more thing to add to my long list of medical issues and I can no longer take any kind of antidepressant because I am super sensitive to a lot of meds and if there is a side effect I will have it. That is why I am so terrified of having to take a cholesterol lowering drug and the fact that these drugs can damage muscles, brain cells, etc. all in this effort to lower the cholesterol. But as long as your numbers have been lowered – hey then it’s a success. It doesn’t matter if you can’t walk or have permanent muscle damage or can’t think clearly.

    Back to the heart issue…JP thanks for the link to the article about fish oil, aspirin & Plavix. I start my Plavix tomorrow and take it until the time of the catherization. And then it sounds to me (from scouring the internet) that I will have to be on it for a year or maybe more if they put in a stent.

    I am going to ask my doctor about Krill, which I am sure he doesn’t have a clue about. I will continue to check this blog out as I find what you have to say so intereting and valuable. Thanks for taking the time to respond to my post.


  158. Elizabeth Jesse Says:

    Hi Barb,
    The numbers game is kind of confusing when you compare fish oil to krill oil. Krill oil does not contain the same level of EPA and DHA as fish oil. Krill oil contains much less, BUT, krill oil is absorbed better by the body because it is attached to “human friendly” phospholipids. In fish oil, the EPA and DHA is attached to triglycerides, which means that less EPA and DHA is absorbed by the body. Although there really is no way to figure out how much krill oil would be comparable to a certain amount of fish oil, most of the studies that have been done used a gram, or a gram and a half of krill oil. That would be about 2-3 capsules a day of the NOW krill that you can get from Swanson Vitamins. I take 2 a day to help my mood and to maintain general health.

    If you are taking fish oil, then you should be able to take krill oil, because krill oil is almost the same thing. It is just that krill oil is purer, is absorbed better by the body, and it has astaxanthin(an antioxidant)and choline(brain food)in it as well.

    Best Wishes,

  159. Barbara Neubauer Says:


    I forgot to say thank you for mentioning the COQ10 enzyme if I end up on Crestor. I have read that this is benefical to take if you are on a statin.


    Oh…Elizabeth – thanks for explaining the difference between krill and fish oil in you last post.

  160. JP Says:


    I think Elizabeth addressed your follow up questions very well.

    I would just add a few additional details:

    1) Krill oil *may* be problematic for some people with shellfish allergies/sensitivities. I haven’t seen any actual case reports of this happening but it’s a possibility that many experts caution about.

    2) A form of Neptune Krill Oil is currently undergoing clinical trials in the hope that it will eventually be approved as a medication for the management of cardiovascular disease.

    The primary focus of this preliminary research is on elevating HDL (“good”) cholesterol. However previous research that’s been published on non-prescriptive NKO indicates that it can also lower C-reactive protein, LDL (“bad”) cholesterol and triglycerides as well.

    Please visit this site:

    Here’s a PDF file that you can print out and present to your health care team – about the lipid lowering effects of NKO:

    Be well!


  161. Robert Wirth Says:

  162. JP Says:


    It’s hard to know exactly what the truth is in this dispute. As expected, both sides have different versions of what really occurred. Ultimately, this matter will likely be settled or hashed out in court. Hopefully the whole truth and nothing but the truth will eventually come out.

    I guess my main question is this: Do you think this dispute should affect whether or not consumers choose to buy Neptune krill oil products? If so, why?

    Be well!


  163. Elizabeth Jesse Says:

    Dear Robert,
    I would like to see a big photo of all of the players in the krill oil industry,together, smiling, with a caption below the photo that reads, “why can’t we be friends?”

    Until then, I await your response to JP’s post with great interest :) .



  164. WH Says:

    There are differing opinions on whether a high EPA/DHA or high DHA/EPA ratio is better. It may be that either is good, depending on the intended benefit. I’ve read that for neurological health, a EPA is more important, but that for heart health, DHA is better. A high DHA fish oil supplement (500 mg DHA and 200 mg DHA per geltab) that’s also pretty cheap is

  165. JP Says:

    The latest news, ladies and gents:” rel=”nofollow”>Krill pre-clinicals presented at symposia

    “The pre-clinical results showed CaPre – an ingredient Acasti is hoping to enter into the prescription drug space – could reduced triglycerides by 60 percent and bad cholesterol (LDL) by 28 percent, while raising good cholesterol (HDL) by 25 percent.”

    Note: “CaPre is owned by Acasti Pharma which is a subsidiary of Canadian krill leader Neptune Technologies & Bioressources.”

    Be well!


  166. JP Says:

    Latest update: My mom’s been trying out the Now Foods enteric coated krill oil (consisting of Neptune Krill Oil) with good success. Regular krill oil doesn’t agree with her – in terms of digestive upset & repetition of the fishy taste.

    I’ll provide updates on her overall reaction to it in the coming days re: anti-inflammatory effects, etc.

    Be well!


  167. Jessica Saint Says:

    I and my husband have been taking Krill Oil for a good 8 months now. My husband more so for a odd back problem [fluid in lower back issues] as well as cholesterol. We have both been amazed at how effective Krill Oil can be. Being in the UK we couldnt get this readily if you were consuming upto 5 per day between us but we found this company


  168. Jake Says:

    RE Robert Wirth’s posting: I guess now we really know why they switched from NKO to Superba. HEH!

  169. Jake Says:

    “they” meaning Schiff’s MegaRed, which was mentioned far earlier in this thread of comments

  170. JP Says:

    Thank you for sharing your experience with us, Jessica. :)

    It appears that the form of krill oil contained in the product you’re using is the Superba extract. Has your husband found any benefit re: cholesterol?

    Be well!


  171. JP Says:

    I just spoke to my Mom tonight. She continues to feel considerably less (arthritic) pain since starting on 1,000 mg of enterically coated (NKO) krill oil per day. No digestive upset either.

    Good news indeed!

    Be well!


  172. BM Says:

    Hi all,

    First of all I wanted to say, great topic and posts.

    I need some advise. I do not eat any type of seafood and was looking into taking fish oil capsules. But after doing some research, I think I will be getting started with Krill oil capsules instead.

    I’ve noticed that the recommended dosage is 500mg twice a day.

    My questions is – Is there is difference of taking two 500mg – split up during the day versus taking one 1000mg a day. (Maybe they recommend 2 500mg per day because you can take one in the morning and one later in the day – perhaps better for the body when it’s spread out this way?)

    P.S. – I think I will be trying the 1000mg enteric coated NOW brand Krill Oil first. But also thinking that the two 500mg method may be more efficient for the body.

  173. Elizabeth Jesse Says:

    That is good news about your mom, JP :) .

  174. JP Says:


    Thank you for your kind words.

    I *think* it’s preferable to split up the dosage. That’s what I do – 500 mg in the morning and 500 mg in the evening/nighttime. I seem to recall that Dr. William Davis, a superb integrative cardiologist, recommends splitting daily omega-3 supplementation.

    My Mom takes the 1,000 mg softgel once a day because the enterically-coated variety only comes in the 1,000 mg size for now. Fortunately, the size isn’t too big for her to comfortably swallow.

    My only question is whether the enteric-coated softgels may actually *improve* the bioavailability of the krill oil. I have no proof of this – just wondering.

    Enteric-coated fish oil seems to be useful in select populations – such as those with Crohn’s disease.

    Be well!


  175. JP Says:

    Thank you, Elizabeth! :)

    I’m thrilled that she’s doing well with it. I hope the results continue onward and possibly even build with time. I’ll keep you all posted!

    Be well!


  176. Iggy Dalrymple Says:

    I recently noticed that Sam’s Club lowered their price for
    Schiff’s MegaRed (90 softgels) from over $18 to under $14.

  177. JP Says:

    Thanks for reporting that, Iggy.

    Be well!


  178. JP Says:

    Well, there’s been some rather big news in the krill oil world. Whole Foods, a major chain of health food stores, has decided to pull krill oil from their shelves due to “sustainability concerns”.

    I’m following this story closely and will post an update with some comments of my own in the upcoming week.

    In the meantime, I recently had a conversation with a krill oil insider – who shall remain nameless. He’s been following the reader comments on this page and wanted to clarify a few issues:

    1) According to this source, solvent-free krill oil is indeed an attractive option. However, the solvent free extraction process apparently allows for too much water to be present in the final product which encourages higher levels of oxidative damage to the delicate oil.

    2) In addition, he stated that solvent-free krill oil does not provide as long a shelf life as extracts that are derived via acetone and ethanol.

    3) This particular krill oil provider claims that their end product is “virtually free of solvent residues” and is “way below” Proposition 65 standards.

    4) He also mentioned that new studies on krill oil are set for publication in the next few months. No details were provided beyond that.

    More to come …

  179. Elizabeth Jesse Says:

    I am more concerned about the recent crude oil spill creating “sustainability” issues in the ocean than I am about catching krill for human consumption. I find it odd that a company is pulling krill from their shelves at this time, and I have to wonder if dirty politics, and not eco-politics, are somehow involved. I also have a strange feeling that the cost of krill oil is going to go up. Hm.

  180. JP Says:


    I’m still in the process of reviewing the matter. But if what Mickey states is accurate (in the linked article) then it does appear that this action by Whole Foods may be based on incomplete information.

    I sure hope the krill oil prices don’t go up. Not only would that put more strain on my pocket book but it would probably inspire more lower priced and lower quality krill oil products to enter the market. A lose-lose situation, IMO.

    Be well!


  181. JP Says:

    The latest wrinkle in the unfolding story of krill oil at Whole Foods:

  182. JP Says:

    A natural products insider offers advice to the krill oil industry re: the Whole Foods issue:

  183. Chris Says:

    Hey JP and Elizabeth a quick question. I was at GNC today and picked up the GNC brand Krill Oil. It says it’s made with Neptune Krill Oil but does not have specifics on the label as far as EPA’s and DHA’s. I bought it as opposed to the NOW brand Krill which you guys say is good. Basically I’m asking if the GNC UltraOmega made with Neptune is legit or should I abort and just get the NOW brand. Thanks!

  184. Elizabeth Jesse Says:

    Hi Chris,
    I would hesitate to buy krill that does not disclose the EPA, DHA and astaxanthin levels AND a “use by” date on their label. NOW does all of this, and it is priced competitively as well.

    Good luck!


  185. JP Says:


    I visited GNC’s website and found that the “supplement facts” state that each soft gel contains 500 mg of Neptune Krill Oil. That looks good. The confusing part is that the label (available in a PDF format only) claims that the NKO contains a minimum of 15% omega-3 fatty acids. Other brands of NKO, such as Now Foods, offer a label claim of 30% omega-3s.

    To my mind, one of two things are responsible for this discrepancy: 1) GNC is using a different grade of NKO or 2) GNC is being more conservative about the actual omega-3 content of NKO.

    Let’s see if we can get to the bottom of this. Please try calling or e-mailing GNC and asking them about this oddity. If that leads to a dead end, try contacting Neptune directly. *If* they give you the run around, please let me know and I’ll contact them myself.

    I’d love to know what they have to say about this matter. So please report back! :)

    Be well!


  186. Chris Says:

    Hey Elizabeth and JP thanks for your help. I e-mailed both GNC and Neptune about this issue yesterday and still have not heard anything back. I will let you know if they give me a response.

  187. JP Says:

    Thanks for doing that, Chris. Looking forward to reading their response.

    Please let us know if they don’t respond as well. If that’s the case, I’ll e-mail my contacts at Neptune.

    Be well!


  188. JP Says:

    re: update on the sustainability issue

    At this time, I don’t plan to discontinue using krill oil in my personal supplement program. I don’t feel it’s warranted based on the data I’ve come across.

    I originally intended to add some additional information on this topic but I’m still waiting on documentation that I was promised (by a krill insider) that has yet to arrive.

  189. Chris Says:

    Hey guys

    I got an Email back from GNC. Let me know what you think.

    Dear Chris,

    Thank you for taking the time to contact GNC, we appreciate your interest in our company. As the largest manufacturer and retailer of nutritional supplements, we understand that customers depend on us for quality products and quality information.

    The GNC UltraOmega Krill Oil contains 500 mg of Krill Oil per capsule, which is guaranteed to contain 30% of the weight of the Krill Oil as omega 3′s, therefore 150 mg total omega 3′s. The ratio of the omega 3′s is 15% EPA and 9% DHA, with the other minor omega 3′s at 7% of the total.

    If you have any more questions or comments, please do not hesitate to email us back or call our Customer Service Department toll-free at 1-888-462-2548.


    GNC Customer Service Representative II

    Live Well

  190. Elizabeth Jesse Says:

    Dear Chris,
    It was nice of them to respond, but the totals are low. You would get more of everything in a different brand of krill.

    Best Wishes,


  191. JP Says:


    Thank you for relaying GNC’s reply. Based on their response, it appears that the Neptune Krill Oil (NKO) they’re using is the same as you’d find in comparable 500 mg softgels. I’m basing this solely on the omega-3 fatty acid breakdown – which is almost identical to what’s described on the Now Foods label.

    Just to be on the safe side, you can also ask them how many milligrams of choline, phospholipids and esterified astaxanthin is contained in their product.

    As a comparison aid, the Now Foods NKO product (and similar NKO supplements) contain about 70 mg of choline, 400 mg of phospholipids and 1.25 mg of esterified astaxanthin – per 1,000 mg serving.

    If you contact GNC again, please let us know if that’s what they claim as well. Thanks!

    Be well!


  192. JP Says:


    Please correct me if my math is off. It wouldn’t be the first time! :)

    Be well!


  193. Elizabeth Jesse Says:

    I am confused. If the GNC total Omega-3 Fatty Acids are 150mg per serving, then how does this compare to the NOW brand of Neptune Krill Oil, which has 300mg per serving? I must have missed something in the translation.


  194. Elizabeth Jesse Says:

    Okay–I see–if the GNC is claiming 150 mg per capsule, THEN it is the same as the NOW krill. Duh. :) .

  195. JP Says:


    I had to have a cup of coffee before tackling the numbers myself. ;)

    The labels differ with each brand you look at. Tricky!

    Be well!


  196. Michele Says:

    Am wondering which brand of Krill is better. Jarrow or NOW? I’ve taken both, but went back to Jarrow as it doesn’t have a fishy odor. However, it does list other marine lipids such as anchovy and sardine in it’s ingredients. NOW lists Krill as it’s only marine source. Can someone explain?

  197. JP Says:


    Jarrow uses Azantis krill oil. But the Jarrow label doesn’t quite match up with what pure Azantis krill oil provides. Perhaps the addition of fish body oil is at play here.

    Would you mind contacting Jarrow and seeing what they have to say about this? If you do so, please report back and let us know their response. If you can’t get an answer from them, please let me know and I’ll follow up with Jarrow and/or Azantis myself.

    Be well!


  198. Landon Says:

    Mercola convinced me to get krill oil, though I dont think I will buy from him.

    I have been wanting to buy Source Naturals NKO from Amazon for months, but have been waiting for the weather to warm up. Are low temperatures bad for the krill oil? The lows have gotten up to the 50s where I’m at but it will dip to the 30s(!) for a few days. Should I buy now or wait?

    “Krill Oil is very stable and will last up to 2 years. However, do not store it in the freezer or refrigerator; extended exposure to temperatures higher than 100 degrees or lower than 50 degrees diminish effectiveness of the phosopholipid ingredients.”

  199. JP Says:


    I’m looking into Dr. Mercola’s phospholipid/temperature claim. I’ll report back as soon as I find a reliable answer.

    Be well!


  200. Michele Says:

    Yes, I already contacted Jarrow and will post their reply. I’ve contacted them in the past and either received no reply or a very late one. Will keep you posted but I think I’m going to change back to NOW brand until I hear from them.

  201. Michele Says:

    Has anyone had any experience with the new NOW enteric coated 1000 mg softgel Krill Oil? One gelcap contains 1000 mg. compared with the usual 2 500 mg. softgels. Enteric coated to prevent fish odor.

  202. JP Says:


    My mom takes Now Food’s enteric coated krill oil. She tolerates it better than the standard softgels. Based on her reaction, I’d say that it appears to be effective. She’s not a reduction in inflammation.

    Looking forward to hear what Jarrow has to say about the fish oil/krill oil issue.

    Be well!


  203. Landon Says:

    Thanks JP.

  204. Michele Says:

    I contacted Jarrow by phone and spoke with Ken. Jarrow has only 70% Krill Oil in their product. He said the other marine lipids were to “standardize” the oil. I didn’t think you needed other oils to standardize Krill as it should be consistent either way. After speaking to a very nice gentleman at NOW, he agreed and said their Krill Oil was 100% Krill. He also explained the very strong odor saying Krill has the strongest fish odor he’s ever smelled. So, actually that’s a sign of a fresh product. No added astaxanthin in the NOW brand. I also question the 70% as Krill is listed last on the list of ingredients. I’ve tried to contact Jarrow in the past about supplements and they rarely answer an email, which I consider poor customer service. I’ll be switching to NOW.

  205. Breakfast Combo Says:

    It seems the general consensus here is that NOW NKO is the best krill product because they did all the initial research and they are the most open with the complete contents of their product. Any idea where to get it at the lowest price? I think I want to stock up. I have been using Mega Red for about a year now and believe it’s time to plunge into the “upgrade.”

  206. Breakfast Combo Says:

    OK – Checked Now-2-U, SwansonVitamins and Vitacost before stumbling on a distributor who fulfills thru Amazon.

    Cheapest I found is 120 count bottle at Amazon for $31.97 with free shipping. Not sure if this link will work for you:

    Can anyone recommend a lower price? Never heard of the distributor before but I generally believe anything thru Amazon is pretty reliable since you have Amazon as your contact in case of fraud/quality issues.

  207. Iggy Dalrymple Says:

    I’ve found VitaGlo to have excellent prices on NOW products.

  208. Iggy Dalrymple Says:

    VitaGlo’s price for 120 gelcaps is $32.02 / free shipping over $50.

  209. Michele Says:

    That’s a great price on Amazon. I just payed $41.43 per 120 ct. bottle on iherb. You do get a 5% discount when you spend $60.00 and over. I like to order from a source that moves their product quickly. Thanks for the info.

  210. JP Says:

    Thank you for sharing that information, Michele. :)

    Be well!


  211. JP Says:

    The Amazon and Vitaglo prices are very good. That’s better than the price I usually pay! :)

    Be well!


  212. WH Says:

    Swanson’s is currently having a “marathon” promotion: If you type in MARATHON as the promotional code, you get varying discounts, depending on the size of your purchase. The largest discount is $26 for a purchase of $150 or more. Since Swanson sells NOW’s NKO 60-ct bottles for $16.86, if your purchase 9 bottles ($151.74) + $4.99 shipping – $26 discount, the total is $130.73, or $14.53 a 60-ct bottle. That’s the best price I’ve seen so far.

  213. JJ Says:

    Guys, beware of VitaGlo. I did some investigating on the company and was overwhelmed by the plethoras of negative reviews regarding their practice:

  214. Iggy Dalrymple Says:

    I’ve never investigated VitaGlo except to google for best price. I’ve bought from them over a dozen times, always with accurate and prompt service. I was angered when they refused to allow me to return unopened product that I had purchased over 6 months previously but was still a year before “use by date”. They told me that their policy was not to accept returns over 6 months old.

    I’ve had problems with short shipments, mis-addressed shipments, and failure to give promised discounts from more famous suppliers, but not from VitaGlo.

    I don’t trust online ratings and/or complaints because they can easily be posted by competitor-shills.

    I only use VitaGlo for NOW products. I use Swanson for a few items, mainly 200mg Ubiquinol. I use iHerb for 5 lb bags of stevia and I use Beyond-a-Century for most other bulk powdered supplements.

  215. JP Says:

    The latest on the sustainability issue:

    Be well!


  216. Michele Says:

    This is the email I got back from Jarrow. They currently use Azantis:

    Dear Michelle,

    Thank you for your e-mail to Jarrow Formulas.

    Jarrow Formulas Krill Oil contains 70% krill lipid.

    The next batch of Jarrow Formulas Krill Oil will be 100% krill, from a new supplier.

    Best Regards,
    Sarah Arias
    Tech Support
    Jarrow Formulas,Inc

  217. Gary Says:

    JP, I tried reading through all the comments here, but didn’t see the answer to my question. Have you heard of JD Premium’s Krill Oil? How does it compare to others? And, who is their manufacturer? Thanks. Gary

  218. JP Says:

    Thank you for posting that, Michele. That’s a really interesting development. I’ll look forward to seeing what supplier they choose to use.

    I’ve e-mailed my contact at Azantis but he’s currently out of the office – vacation?. No response about the Jarrow question or the phospholipid/temperature question that Landon posed last week. Maybe soon.

    Thanks again for sharing your findings with us. Much appreciated.

    Be well!


  219. JP Says:


    It appears that JD Premium uses the Superba (Aker) krill oil extract – the same variety that is currently contained in Schiff’s Mega Red product.

    I don’t know much about JD Premium. But I can tell you that Superba krill oil contains comparable levels of omega-3s (DHA and EPA) and phospholipids as the Azantis and Neptune krill oil extracts. The primary difference is that the Superba krill oil doesn’t add any astaxanthin to their product – the antioxidant carotenoid.

    The folks at Aker believe their product is more natural because it doesn’t add anything to the mix. The reps for Azanthis and Neptune would likely tell you that they believe that the added/standardized astaxanthin content of their krill is partially responsible for the health promoting properties.

    Thus far, only Neptune krill can really claim to have clinical proof that their krill oil impacts a number of health conditions. In the future, other (published) studies may help clarify if other krill oil extracts will yield similar results.

    Be well!


  220. Gary Says:

    Thanks JP. I found this blog that shows it may be from Neptune? And what are they talking about when they say “esterified” Are all Krill Oils “esterified”? And, do you believe that because of Neptune’s clinical proof that they are the superior Krill Oil on the market today? How much should I expect to pay for the best types of Krill Oil? Thanks… just trying to make a decision which to try. Gary

  221. Gary Says:

    And thanks for all the insights and links in these comments… I’ve been reading for hours!

  222. JP Says:


    Sorry about that. It appears that I was mistaken. I saw the mention of the a “Superba extract” on this site and jumped to an incorrect conclusion:

    Superba is a specific krill oil extract made by Aker BioMarine. However it’s also a variety of wild krill. The site must have been referring to the type of krill rather than the manufacturer. My error.

    Not all krill oils contain esterified astaxanthin. Some manufacturers “supplement” their krill with algae-based astaxanthin. Others claim to use only krill derived astaxanthin.

    For the time being, the Neptune research is the best we have available. I’ve been told that forthcoming studies (from other manufacturers) will help consumers compare competing brands to Neptune. Hopefully that will come to pass soon.

    Price-wise … I think you can expect to pay as low as $15 – $20 for 60 softgels of high-quality krill oil. Please refer to some of the price quotes reported by others a few comments back.

    Be well!


  223. JP Says:


    I think I’ve solved the mystery. Jarrow has likely been using Azantis’ 45/25 grade krill oil. I originally thought they were using the 40/14 (pure) krill oil. That appears not to the be the case.

    “Azantis also markets a standardized krill product in a 42/25 grade, with 1,500 ppm astaxanthin. This grade is standardized with fish oil, medium chain triglycerides and astaxanthin from algae to meet the premium quality specifications of the original krill oil quality. The high astaxanthin levels in this product give it a deep red, almost black color”.

    Based on the e-mail they sent you, it seems as though they’re not planning on “upgrading” to the 40/14 extract. I guess they’re moving on to another krill oil supplier altogether.

    Be well!


  224. Barb Says:

    I started taking MegaRed a few days ago and I think it is helping with my aches and pains. My husband has artritis and takes Plavix for a previous stroke 9 years ago. Does anybody know if it is safe for him to take krill oil. Thanks

  225. JP Says:


    It would be best to consult with his cardiologist prior to combining the two, IMO. More info. can be found at the following link:

    Be well!


  226. Michele Says:

    Thanks for the info. You’re right. Lot’s of great info on this site. I have lost my trust in Jarrow. You also had a great article on vitamin D. My husband has MS and I have my daughter taking 1000 mg daily as perhaps, a preventative since there is a strong genetic link.

  227. JP Says:


    Please keep an eye out because I regularly post columns about MS. I have a few friends that are also living with MS.

    Good idea about the Vitamin D, IMO.

    Be well!


  228. Elizabeth Jesse Says:

    On vitamin D–Do any of you have your D levels checked? I have done so twice through my doctor and the hospital lab since I began supplementing with D3. My last level was 41, and I am trying to get the numbers in the 50-80 range, as has been suggested for optimal health. So, I began supplementing with 5000 IU’s of D3 daily, Feb. 1. I just did a new blood level and am awaiting the result. What I wanted to let you know is that I am trying the home test that you mail in, through The Vitamin D Council. The test, through them, is just $65.00 and requires me to poke my finger with a lancet and catch the blood drops on a special card to mail. The price was so much better than what the labs and doctor visit costs, which is a big deal to me because we have a very high copay ($4,000. a year before our insurance kicks in). I just mailed my test in last week. I will let you know when I get my results.

    :) ’s Elizabeth

  229. Elizabeth Jesse Says:

    This is the link to the Vitamin D Council in case anyone is interested.

  230. JP Says:


    Most of my family does. My parents get their testing through their doctor and is covered by insurance. Lucky! My wife and I need to pay for it on our own.

    It would be great to hear about your new test results. I think I may need to increase my D a little bit. My last score was 51.2 ng/mL. This is even after supplementing with about 6,000 IUs. This goes to show you that our needs and requirements vary.

    Maybe the added Summer sun will help out some as well. :)

    Be well!


  231. Iggy Dalrymple Says:

    Taking 10,000 iu/day,I got up to 79ng/ml. Then I cut back to 5,000 iu and my level dropped 23 points. I’ve now gone back to 10,000 iu.

  232. Elizabeth Jesse Says:

    Hi Iggy,
    Thank you. I wondered about that–if, once you reach optimal levels, you can cut back and maintain. It sounds like in your case the answer is no. How often do you check levels? I have noticed that I do not get sick with colds and crap in the winter even at 41ng/ml., but there is cancer in my family (Mom) and I want the protection that may be available by maintaining higher levels.

    :) ’s,


  233. Iggy Dalrymple Says:

    I get checked in spring and fall through my membership in GrassRootsHealth.

  234. JP Says:

    re: sustainability/Whole Foods controversy

    A video interview with a rep from Azantis and Neptune:

    Be well!


  235. Michele Says:

    Thanks for posting the video.

  236. Michele Says:

    Elizabeth Jesse,
    I take 1000 mg of Carlson vitamin D per day and my levels are up to 66. Will check them again in another few months.

  237. Elizabeth Jesse Says:

    Okay–I just got my vitamin D levels. I have been on 6,000 iu’s of D3 for about 4 months and my levels only increased by 5 points. The level is 46. My goal is to get beyond 50, so I am increasing my D3 from 6,000, to 10,000 iu’s a day.

    Where do you live Michele? Do you get a lot of sun?

    JP–Thanks for the video with Mickey and the Neptune rep.


  238. JP Says:


    Thank you for sharing your results with us.

    What brand of Vitamin D are you using? Is it the dry form or a liquid filled soft gel? I believe Dr. William Davis recommends the latter – based on the notion that it will improve bioavailability.

    I think Michele is probably using a soft gel or drops – because of the Carlson brand mention.

    Michele – If you see this, can you please confirm which form you’re using? Thanks!

    Be well!


  239. Elizabeth Jesse Says:

    Hi JP,
    They are the Swanson brand capsules, but the capsules contain a dry powder. I always take them with my krill oil and other supplements. I just read somewhere that you should take your D3 with the largest meal of the day as well.

    :) ’s Elizabeth

  240. JP Says:


    Indeed. That advice is probably based on a recently published study:

    Be well!


  241. Michele Says:

    Elizabeth and JP,
    I live 5 minutes outside of NYC, a suburb in NJ, so I don’t get much sun and always use sunscreen anyway. It is a liquid gel cap and I take it right after breakfast with Ubiquinol, Krill Oil and B12 sublinguals. Hope that helps.

  242. ar Says:


    just read almost all the posts, definitely going to go with the NOW. i used Lovaza fish oil for a while last year, stopped then got a new prescription and i am pretty certain that it made me itchy. took a food allergy test and it showed no allergies. and ive been meaning to get back on the omega 3 bandwagon. anyway, the only reason i am posting is to respond to elizabeth’s post on how her mother has cancer. i am so sorry. but i see how much help you’ve been to everyone on this blog, and i am considering getting the book you recommended, and i thought i had to reciprocate by giving you some info that i came across that has changed my life.

    G. Edward Griffin: World Without Cancer

    you can find the videos online, and you can order the book. ive read the book, and other books written by the same author and i can say with 100% certainty that i will not contract cancer based on the simple adjuncts i’ve made in my diet based on this information. whether or not this has similar effect on your life or your mothers, i wish you both luck. thanks.

    thanks everyone for the info

  243. Elizabeth Jesse Says:

    Re: ar

    Hello! Thank you for the info. I just looked at the video you posted and read about the vitamin B17 and cancer. Do you take B17? What form do you take it in and where do you get it?

    :) ’s Elizabeth

  244. ar Says:

    did you watch the entire video? because it explains everything; even part of what you probably read explaining that its unproven and quackery. i know it looks outdated, but the information in it has not been disproved. everything in the video is cited information in the book. he has another video(2005) which explains further the politics of cancer therapy which i recommend you watch as well.

    i use the apricot seeds..i eat like 7-10 a day. you can get them on amazon from apricot power. but for a cancer patient, much higher dosages are required, and those levels are safely administered via injection, in addition to pancreatic enzymes.there are high dosage b17 pills and pancreatic enzyme pills that apricot power also sells. i’m betting they are quite safe and good quality but you should investigate. eating too many of the seeds can technically kill you although no such case has ever been validated. and ive personally eaten up to 20 seeds in a day with no ill side effects. i am about 170 lbs for your reference. mind you they are very bitter and every other person i know who i’ve had taste them cannot stand them. i personally don’t mind the slight bitterness for the health benefits. you can get the seeds at whole foods too. they claim they seeds are from the hunza apricots. and they are much better tasting, though i’ve read they contain no “b17″; explaining the better taste. however, griffin states in the book that the hunza seeds naturally contain a lower concentration of “b17″ in comparison to California’s.


  245. Iggy Dalrymple Says:

    I’ve watched the video and make it a point to eat apple seeds and occasionally apricot kernels…also millet and alfalfa sprouts.

  246. Elizabeth Jesse Says:

    I think I will try them. It sounds like they go down best with something sweet so I will probably chew them with raisins.

  247. JP Says:

    Dear Healthy Fellow Readers,

    I’m so sorry about the disgusting SPAM messages that have recently been posted – sometimes even claiming to be from me. These are obviously not coming from me and I’m currently working with my webmaster to tighten security measures.

    We recently instituted additional SPAM measures but they appear to be inadequate. Further steps will be necessary and will most certainly be taken.

    I’m deeply sorry for any upset these comments have caused. Please accept my sincerest apology.


  248. Elizabeth Jesse Says:

    Hi JP,
    This blog is a wonderful resource. Thank you for looking out for us!

    :) ’s Elizabeth

  249. JP Says:

    Thanks, Elizabeth! :) I do my best!

    I hope/think we have the problem resolved. Fingers crossed!

    BTW, you too are a wonderful resource. You’ve added a lot of really great content to this column. Thank you for that. :)

    Be well!


  250. Gwen C Says:

    Elizabeth Jesse Hi I just found this site I was going to buy from Dr Mercola until I found this site. Could u tell me what supplements you take & where you buy them – I have similar health conditions as you – Do you take extra choline? I live outside Vancouver, BC Canada – would u possibly know where I can get these products here
    Thank you so much

  251. Elizabeth Jesse Says:

    Hi Gwen. You may have to try different things to see what works best for you. I am still making adjustments. Most of the supplements that I take come from Swanson Vitamins (online) and include a whole food multi-vitamin, vitamin d-3 (10,000 iu’s a day, but I check my blood levels every few months)the NOW brand of krill oil, astaxanthin and uniquinol. I also take the NSI brand of probiotics from every day.

    If I had to pare it down, I would not be without: a good multi-vitamin (I also like the Vitacost Synergy 3 formula and am thinking of switching back to it) krill, vitamin d-3, and probiotics. As far as extra choline, I get mine from krill oil and there are 30 mg in my multi, too.

    Best Wishes,


  252. Mike Says:

    A company that sells krill oil in CA just tested the Walgreens & Costco krill oil and found that the Omega 3 levels are only about 50% of what they are claiming on their label. This is the Mega Red product.

  253. JP Says:


    I’d be interested in seeing the lab results or certificate of analysis if it’s available/published anywhere.

    Be well!


  254. Ted Hutchinson Says:

    You will find an interesting monograph summarizing krill oil science to date at the following link.
    It will download a PDF from the Alternative Medicine Review
    Krill Oil Monograph

    We really need more TOTALLY independent research papers on krill not funded or supported directly by those with a vested interest in promoting sales of krill oil.

  255. JP Says:

    Thank you for that, Ted.

    I agree.

    Be well!


  256. JP Says:

    A brief follow up on the recent post by Mike re: the omega-3 content of Mega Red.

    I’ve just had the opportunity to review the lab results on two lots of Mega Red which were acquired at Costco and Walgreens.

    The label claim for Mega Red states that each 300 mg soft gel contains 90 mg of omega-3 fatty acids. However the lab results I saw concluded that two separate lots of Mega Red contained the equivalent of only 36mg and 40.8mg per softgel.

    I currently have an e-mail out to a contact at Aker BioMarine, the supplier of krill oil used in Mega Red, and Schiff, the manufacturer of Mega Red. I’m hoping they can explain how this discrepancy is possible.

    I’ll report back with any additional information I come across.

    Be well!


  257. Supplements Not Regulated Says:


    Why the attacks on Megared?

    Have there been any similar “trials” on the content of NOW NKO?

  258. JP Says:

    I don’t consider this an attack. The MegaRed product either meets it’s label claim or it doesn’t. I think we all agree that nutritional supplement manufacturers ought to provide what they promise to on their labels. This is a matter of common decency and good business practices. Nutritional supplements are used to maintain and promote good health and should be produced and marketed in such a manner that reflects those goals, IMO.

    I have an e-mail out to both Aker and Schiff. They’re feel to provide documentation that refutes the lab results I’ve seen.

    It’s also possible that this a fluke finding. However the analysis I’ve seen tested two separate bottles of MegaRed and they both came up significantly short re: omega-3 fatty acids.

    I’m only interested in the truth. Nothing more and nothing less. I want to help my readers to be able to truly benefit from whatever krill oil they purchase. In order to do that, they need to as much information as they can get.

    re: Now Foods NKO

    I haven’t seen any lab results for their NKO product. But please keep in mind that it’s not very common for independent sources to have products tested. There are very few examples of this. One exception is Consumer Lab.

    Be well!


  259. Michele Says:

    We all appreciate the info you bring us JP. Keep it coming! I like to know exactly what I’m putting in my body. I was taking Jarrow Krill Oil for a year before I found out there was only 70% Krill Oil in it. Please include any Consumer Lab info you come across relating to Krill. Your blog is the most informative source I’ve seen. Thanks again.

  260. JP Says:

    Thank you, Michele. :)

    An update on Jarrow’s krill oil:

    My understanding is that they’re switching to Aker krill oil (Superba) soon.

    Be well!


  261. JP Says:


    I’m sorry for the lag time on this reply.

    re: phospholipids and refrigeration

    I spoke to a krill oil expert and he discourages freezing or refrigerating krill oil. The basis for this recommendation is that the phospholipids in softgels will expand when you remove them from the artificially cooled environment. This is problematic and undesirable.

    It seems like Dr. Mercola was on-point with this claim.

    Be well!


  262. Mickey Says:

    One of your readers states that he took Jarrow’s krill oil beforew finding out that they only had 70% krill. This is true but he should know that the 30% fish oil are MCT’s one of the highest sources of enriched Omega 3′s. This was done so that the company had an equal product to what another krill oil company was saying they had. Krill in general are not high in Omega’s, their strength lies in the Phospholipids and Astaxanthin, the phospholipids carry the Omega’s. Having fish oil MCT’s to raise the Omega’s is a PLUS!

  263. JP Says:


    Are you saying that the 30% fish oil is emulsified with medium chain triglycerides?

    Be well!


  264. JP Says:

    An update on the Mega Red omega-3 controversy:

    I received an e-mail from Schiff today stating that their own internal testing found much higher levels of omega-3s than the lab results I recently attained via a 3rd party source.

    They went on to say that they suspect that the testing I saw may not have provided accurate results or perhaps used an “invalid reference standard”.

    In closing they assured me that they planned to retrieve a “retained sample” from each lot and test them to verify their previous lab results.

    I sent an e-mail back to Schiff stating that I’d be happy to report on whatever findings their internal review discovers.

    More to come …

    Be well!


  265. Michele Says:

    Would it be better to add another fish oil, like Mega Twin Epa which is higher in DHA and EPA in addition to 1000 mgs of Krill Oil daily for heart healthy benefits? Is that too much? Concerned also about blood thinning effects.

  266. JP Says:


    There are a lot of variables involved in making that decision. Diet. What other medications and supplements you’re taking. What health goal(s) you’re hoping to achieve. Etc.

    I don’t think that adding 1,000 mg of fish oil is too much for most people in the sense that it would dangerous. Please keep in mind that many fish oil studies have used much higher amounts with relative safety. The same goes with krill oil. Preliminary studies on krill oil have employed up to 4,000 mg per day without signs of toxicity.

    Bleeding issues can be assessed via blood work and/or by observing physical signs such as bleeding gums, bruising, broken capillaries, blood shot eyes, nosebleeds, etc. Generally speaking, I believe this concern applies *mostly* to those that are combining multiple supplements with “blood thinning” properties or select supplements and medications.

    Be well!


  267. Michele Says:

    Thank you JP. I take Krill for cholesterol lowering benefits and all the benefits from the added antioxidant properties. Also for some arthritis I’ve developed. I think I might add fish oil a few times per week for the added DHA. I’m also on aspirin therapy.

  268. JP Says:


    Have you tested to see if the krill oil is helping you reach your cholesterol goals? Added fish oil may not be necessary if the krill oil is already having a big enough effect.

    Here are a few relevant links re: aspirin and fish oil

    Treatment of Aspirin-Resistant Patients With Omega-3 Fatty Acids Versus Aspirin Dose Escalation

    Be well!


  269. Michele Says:

    Thanks for the links, JP. Significant improvement in blood lipids about eight months ago on 500 mgs. Krill per day. Increased to 1,000 and will have levels rechecked in another month or so. Keep you posted. Has not brought my triglycerides down enough but I’m hoping the increase may have helped.

  270. Jan Says:

    I see nothing about Mercola’s Krill OIl. What do you think of it? Overpriced?

  271. Iggy Dalrymple Says:

    here’s a good price on Now krill oil…$14.49 for 60 X 500mg.

  272. JP Says:


    The price isn’t too bad if you buy the 3 month supply. However there are less expensive sources out there. More importantly, the levels of omega-3s and astanxanthin don’t compare very well to other brands that feature the top-tier Azantis and Neptune krill oils in their products.

    Iggy gives an excellent example above. Thank you, Iggy! :)

    Be well!


  273. josh Says:

    currently taking 1000mg NOW NKO krill oil per day. just for cardio and overall brain health


    i have recently developed scalp psoriasis (no connection to the krill oil, it just.. happens) – has anyone had any luck with increasing krill oil dosage to combat psoriasis? scalp is inflamed, with painful sores and incredibly itchy. not much scaling at this point (luckily).

  274. josh Says:

    re ^ i should mention they have me on steroid shampoos (strong stuff) as well as tar & salicylic acid shampoos + antihistamines, but im trying to feel out natural routes…

  275. JP Says:


    Thankfully I haven’t had a recurrence of my psoriasis. But I’ve posted a few columns since then that may be of interest.

    Feel free to ask any follow up questions after reading them.

    Be well!


  276. Sarah Anaïs Duteuil Says:


    Thank you so much for your clever insights and your website. I have found it to be, extremely informative and very helpful. I (hopefully) understood quite a lot, however, since my first language is french, I did not understand all unfortunately. Would you be so kind to respond to these questions. I was wondering, what is the difference between NKO and Superba Krill Oil? Is there one superior to the other, in terms of quality and better end results concerning improvement of mood issues and cardiovascular health?

    You see, I suffer with depression and currently i am taking, 1 Mega Red Superba krill oil softgel 300 mg, 3 times daily and 1 fish oil softgel 1,200 mg, once daily; EPA/DHA 684mg. In the past, I used to take 1 fish oil softgel, twice a day; however, since i started to take Mega Red krill oil last week, i cut down on my fish oil intake and I was wondering if i did the right thing. Would it be too much and can I have side effects, if i continue to take 1 fish oil softgel, twice daily with the krill oil as well?

    Now since it has been only one week, that i take Mega Red krill oil, I cannot tell you for sure, if it is helping me, with my depression or not. I will eventually know in time. With that said, I am on a low carb diet, for the purpose of losing weight. I have lost 25lbs so far and i have 12 more to go. I take 1 potassium, 1 magnesium, 1 calcium/VitD and 1 multivitamine daily and like i mentioned previosuly, I take the krill oil for my depression, but also for the benefits from the added antioxidant properties and my general health as well.

    What are your thoughts, on Big Red Superba krill oil’s quality? Do you have any idea, why they changed from NKO to Superba oil? I feel so bad, because i just purchased 3 bottles of Big Red Superba krill oil, last week and I have been going nuts, because i am not sure if i did the right thing anymore. Should i continue taking Big Red krill oil? My next purchase will be the “NOW” brand. By the way is that your preference, as far as NKO is concerned ? I would really like to take the same brand as you do.

    To conclude, I like to be informed correctly, as to what i put in my body and i can’t even begin to explain, how I despise the fact, that perhaps i have been cheated by Schiff Nutrition Group, as to the quality of their krill oil. I feel like a fool.

    Thank you for your help and your genuine interest, in keeping us informed with the truth.

    Merci beaucoup pour votre aide et mes meilleures salutations.

    Best regards


    Sarah Anaïs Duteuil

  277. JP Says:

    Welcome, Sarah. :)

    I’ll try to address all of the questions you’ve posed:

    1. The primary difference between NKO and Superba is that NKO contains a larger amount of astaxanthin – the antioxidant carotenoid that gives krill oil its distinctive reddish color.

    2. Most of the positive studies on krill oil have (thus far) utilized the NKO product. Hopefully future studies using different krill oil extracts will be published soon.

    3. I can’t specifically comment on how much fish & krill oil will be right for you. But I can tell you that both of the dosages you’ve mentioned are considered to be reasonable in general. To the best of my knowledge, there haven’t been any trials that have examined a combined dosage of fish and krill oil. Therefore, it’s a bit of a guessing game in that respect.

    4. I just received an e-mail back from Schiff, the makers of Mega Red. They contend that their products meet the stated label claims. It’s there assertion that the discrepancy found by the outside lab (which I posted about in earlier comments) is largely due to a difference in the testing methodology. In other words, Schiff and this other lab tested the products in a different manner and consequently came up with different results.

    The lack of testing consistency in the krill oil sector will invariably lead to similar issues in the future. As it stands right now, consumers are left in a position where they’re obligated to trust the word of individual manufacturers … or not.

    5. Schiff reportedly had an issue with the delivery of krill oil from Neptune Technologies. I’m guessing that played some role in the switch from NKO to Superba.

    6. I really can’t tell you whether or not to take the Mega Red product. I certainly wouldn’t throw it away. However, I might return it if I could get an exchange or refund. In general, I recommend NKO at this time because of the positive research that backs its use. I’m currently using the Now Foods version because I trust the quality and I think the price is among the lowest available.

    Congratulations on your weight loss. Continued success!

    Be well!


  278. Sarah Anaïs Duteuil Says:

    Hello JP..

    Thank you so much for responding to my message. I did some research online concerning NKO; Imagine my surprise when i found out, that Neptune Technologies & Bioressources, are in Laval Québec; approx 20 kilometers, from my home… (Neptune Technologies & Bioressources | 225, Promenade du Centropolis, Suite 200, Laval, Québec, Canada H7T 0B3 | Tél.: 450 687-2262; ) So I gave them a call ; their products are obviously available in Québec and they are distributed by Laboratoire LALCO, under the Brand Name PurKrill(TM). By the way, Laboratoire LALCO, are well known in Québec, for their excellent quality products.

    With that said, since NKO® is a registered trademark of Neptune Technologies & Bioressources Inc. in Québec, Canada and the only company that holds the patent for krill oil extraction; I’m assuming that all NKO ,are made under Neptune Technologies & Bioressources Inc. in Québec, with different distributors in the rest of Canada and the USA…Am i correct to think so?.. I was also wondering; is “Now” NKO brand, the distributor or the manufacturer in the USA? and are they the largest one in the USA as well?

    Now, please correct me if i’m wrong..but don’t all manufacturers/laboratories, have the obligation, to follow strict guidelines from Neptune Technologies & Bioressources, when they make the softgells or can they play with the NKO’s dosage /percentage/ purity of the products as they wish? I’m certain, that they must be tied, by a full proof contract with Neptune Technologies & Bioressources, in order to respect the purity of the product they distribute, for re-sale. Perhaps i am being naive; but logically, I do not think they are allowed to do so, since it is Neptune Technologies & Bioressources’s reputation and integrity on the line.

    I would be curious to find out, the percentage of NKO in the “Now” NKO brand? Do you happen to know this information, for a fact?..As far as i know, Neptune Technologies & Bioressources, assured me, that the PurKrill brand is 100% Pure krill oil.

    With that said, I contacted the store, where i purchased the Mega Red krill oil; i explained my issues and concerns (thanks to your precious informations) and i will be returning the 3 bottles tomorrow for a full refund.

    Here are some interesting and pertinent infos and links i found on the web:

    “Now” NKO 120 sgels 500mg $28.99 + $1.99 shipping :

    Thank you for looking out for us!



  279. JP Says:


    All NKO should be equal in terms of composition and purity. But not all krill oil is the same. Only krill oil manufactured by Neptune Technologies & Bioressources can claim to be to NKO.

    Now Foods is a distributor/manufacturer of NKO. Neptune T & B provides the raw material used in the Now Foods product. Now Foods is one of the biggest nutritional supplement companies in the US.

    I don’t know for certain what arrangements have been made between Neptune T & B and the companies that carry their krill oil. I have seen products with varying dosages of NKO ranging from 300 mg to 1,000 mg of NKO per softgel. I also know that Now Foods carries an enteric-coated NKO product. But the varying dosages and enteric coating do not affect the actual composition of the NKO with respect to astaxanthin, omega-3s and phospholipid concentrations.

    According to the label/supplement facts on the Now Foods NKO, it is 100% pure NKO.

    The Amazon link you posted is a good deal on the 120 softgel NKO product by Now. It really pays to shop online. :)

    I truly hope you find excellent results with krill oil. Please let us know how it works out for you.

    Be well!


  280. JP Says:

    Here’s the latest krill oil study. It’s a trial that investigated the effects of fish and krill oil in an animal (mouse) model of rheumatoid arthritis.


    Full text:

    The krill oil used in this study was Superba krill oil by Aker BioMarine.

    Be well!


  281. Elizabeth Says:

    Re: Ordering Krill in Summer

    I am running out of krill and need to re-order, but it is so hot and I do not want my krill melting during shipment. Ideas?



  282. JP Says:


    I have a rather convenient solution for this but I’m not sure if it will apply to you. I live in Southern California and my primary online source for supplements is pretty close by. So I receive my orders within one business day – even with standard shipping. Thus far I haven’t had any problems with my soft gels melting, etc.

    Some online stores offer expedited shipping for free or at a reduced cost *if* your order reaches a certain dollar minimum.

    Otherwise, you might ask if they’d be willing to pack the krill oil in a “cool container”. Some outfits do this when shipping temperature-sensitive merchandise such as probiotics.

    Hopefully others will have additional suggestions.

    Be well!


  283. Elizabeth Says:

    Thanks JP. Darn–I wish I would have kept enough krill on hand to last me through the summer heat wave. I may just have to go and buy it for 24.00 at the Better Health food store. I can only assume that theirs is in good condition.

  284. WH Says:

    Hi, Elizabeth,

    I wouldn’t be too concerned about krill gel-tabs melting. I was on a trip over the 4th of July weekend, and I had supplements – including krill oil – in my luggage, which I left in my car in 95+-degree weather for several hours. When I finally unpacked, there was no problem.


  285. Fredzilla Says:

    I’d just like to thank all of you for doing such thorough research and spending your time so that the rest of us can benefit!

  286. JP Says:

    re: krill oil label claims and purity

    Just found this and thought some of you would be interested:

    Enzymotec supplies the krill oil for Azantis.

    Be well!


  287. ar Says:

    i take krill but i’m considering supplementing that with additional DHA. anybody have any insight on a good DHA supplement?? Carlson’s makes one that is concentrated..500 mg per softgel. and Source Naturals makes one that is 275 mg per softgel. and judging by strictly their alleged sources, i’d assume the source naturals is better because it comes from arctic fish.

  288. JP Says:


    It’s not cheap but Nordic Naturals makes a fine DHA supplement – Prenatal DHA. The name isn’t important. :)

    Be well!


  289. Tina Says:


    Does Neptune or Aker has passed testing by Consumer Labs and certified ?

    Would like to find this out before I order my Krill Oil.
    Apparently, Enzymotec has this certification and wondering whether if any other company has this also.


    Thanks for the input.

  290. JP Says:


    To my knowledge, no. Companies generally need to pay to have Consumer Lab test their products. That appears to be what happened with Enzymotec. They paid a fee and passed the test.

    The only time a company does not pay to have CL test their product is if CL independently decides to test a specific class of supplements – example: fish oil, green tea extracts, protein powders, etc. To date, CL has not tested krill oil as a supplement category.

    The bottom line is that Aker and Neptune would have to pony up the money if they want CL to test (and possibly certify) their krill oil.

    This is my understanding of the situation at least.

    Be well!


  291. Tina Says:

    Hi JP,

    I am thinking CL would not pass a product if it did not meet the quality specifications otherwise they would become legally liable. I think in an environment where Neptune & Aker has been questioned recently about having issues to meet their label claims – it makes me suspicious why Aker & Neptune do not pay few dollars to get their products tested ?

    Hopefully we will see this happening soon..also, I checked from one of my old Shchiff Mega Red bottles and did not actually even see the breakdown of Astaxanthin/DHA/EPA/Phospholipids… for me it is a red flag to be honest..

  292. JP Says:

    Hello, Tina.

    I agree that CL wouldn’t verify a product that doesn’t meet their quality specs. I’m not calling their testing or veracity into question.

    re: Aker and Neptune quality

    Please keep in mind that the claims about about Aker/MegaRed have not been proven. At this point, the only thing that can be conclusively said is that two bottles of MegaRed krill oil (containing Aker’s Superba krill oil) have been called into dispute with regard to meeting their label claims.

    As far as Neptune krill oil is concerned, I’ve only heard claims from a competing manufacturer that their products are “light”. I haven’t seen any evidence to support this assertion.

    Like you, I’d also value seeing Aker and Neptune submit to CL testing. However, I can’t go so far as to assume that their lack of participation in the CL testing program = proof that their products wouldn’t pass testing. This is an important distinction, IMO.

    Do you happen to know how much it costs to go through the CL testing and verification program? I don’t. It would be interesting to know.

    Thank you for your added thoughts. I’ll post any additional information I find on this topic.

    Be well!


  293. Iggy Dalrymple Says:

    As JP knows, I consider Consumer Lab to be an ethical joke. No “independent” testing lab that publishes comparative product ratings should accept remuneration from the companies that produce the rated products. Judges regularly recuse themselves when reminded that they have a financial interest in a company that they are asked to rule on.

    Consumers Union refuses to accept any advertising or other payments from the producers of products that it rates.

  294. JP Says:


    I understand your criticism and reservations about CL. Having companies pay for testing isn’t ideal. Having consumers pay to see the results also isn’t ideal. Even so, that doesn’t negate the test results, IMO. However, I can understand why it draws suspicion.

    I agree with you that CL’s method of generating revenue could be improved. Unfortunately, I’m not on their board of directors. :)

    Be well!


  295. Madeline Says:

    I have read all the coments on krill etc and health and depression etc. My experience over 40 years as a Pharmacist that has studied vitamins and health issues and genetics and also sources of supply for nutritionals, will state in brief my own personal experience and knowledge. Everyone has personal experience and genetics in comprehending outcome. Buy cheap get cheap. First seek the supply source. USA,Canada,other country. Each has standards. KNOW THEM> My experience, is to start with a low dose of a qualified source, and notice improvement. Up the dose if no improvement. The krill I tried was no better than Omega 3. Now learn more about chemicl imbalance that also includes fish oils. Dr. Joan Larson,Minneapolis Mn has an excellent website

  296. JP Says:

    I appreciated reading your thoughts, Madeline. Thank you.

    Be well!


  297. JP Says:

    New research sheds a more positive light on krill sustainability:

    “Using smaller vessels that allow access to shallow, nearshore waters, researchers from Stony Brook University and the Southwest Fisheries Science Center conducted the first multi-year survey of the population of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) in coastal waters near Livingston Island and discovered that nearshore waters had significantly higher krill biomass density than offshore waters. They also found that the nearshore waters had less interannual variation than offshore waters.”

    “‘Although the spatial area of our nearshore survey is quite small when compared with that of the entire Scotia Sea, the high and stable densities of krill in shallow water may be more important ecologically than the offshore krill,’ said Dr. Warren.”

    Be well!


  298. JP Says:

    New research finds that krill phophatidylserine may improve learning and memory in aged mice – hopefully in humans as well:

    An upcoming study, in humans, will hopefully let us know more:

    Be well!


  299. Vivian Says:

    Hi JP,

    Could you please tell me some of the side effects of taking Krill Oil? Does it interact with any drugs? Thanks

  300. JP Says:


    There appear to be few side effects associated with krill oil use. Some people report digestive upset. There is also a theoretical concern that people with shellfish allergies may also react to krill oil – though I haven’t seen any reports of this in the medical literature. Like other sources of omega-3 fatty acids (flaxseed oil, fish oil, etc.), caution may be warranted when combining krill oil with blood thinning medications.

    Please keep in mind that krill oil is a “new kid on the block”. The number of studies that are available for review aren’t many. Therefore, it’s always possible that other adverse reactions and interactions may be clearer with time.

    Be well!


  301. RATMAN Says:

    Can anyone give me some info on the GNC versions of their Krill Oil …… it from Antartica, etc.

  302. JP Says:


    The GNC product contains Neptune Krill Oil. It is harvested from the Antarctic and contains all the components most people are looking for: astaxanthin, omega-3 fatty acids and phospholipids. It also features an enteric-coating for those who have a hard time digesting oil-based supplements. It’s a bit pricier than some other brands but other than that, it looks just fine to me.

    Be well!


  303. RATMAN Says:

    Thanks JP……….

  304. Elizabeth Jesse Says:

    New Vitamin D results after taking 2-5,000 IU gel caps of D3 a day for about 8 weeks: I am up from 46 ng/ml, to 93 ng/ml! I am cutting back to 1-5,000 gel capsule a day to get into the 50-70 ng/ml range.

  305. JP Says:

    Excellent news, Elizabeth. Thank you for the progress report! :)

    Would you mind reminding us of which brand of Vitamin D3 you’ve been using? Have you been taking both soft gels at the same time or with different meals?

    Be well!


  306. RATMAN Says:

    JP, I checked the Krill products at GNC and they had a triple strength fish oil with Krill with EPA and DHA in the 500 to to 600 range. It had Neptune 300 of Krill. They also had another Krill product that didn’t mention anything about Fish oil just Krill.


  307. Elizabeth Jesse Says:

    I am taking thr NSI brand of D3 softgels. Mine come in the 5000 IU dose, and I take two together with a snack or a meal around the middle of the day, every day. Today, I have decided to take 2 one day (10,000 IU) and take 1 (5,000 IU), the next, to lower the dose a bit, since I am looking to have my levels between 50-80.

  308. JP Says:


    Yes, they also have a combination product that’s mostly fish oil. As you mentioned, it contains 300 mg of Neptune Krill Oil per 2 soft gel serving as well.

    To the best of my knowledge, there hasn’t been any published research testing the effects of such a combination. Are the benefits additive? Competitive? Synergistic? It’s hard to say without any data to base an opinion on. So I think a reasonable position to take (for now) is the fish + krill oil product will (hopefully) provide the expected benefits associated with concentrated fish oil and a low dosage of krill oil.

    A few additional comments: The difference in price is a mainly reflection of the higher cost of the Neptune Krill Oil. The higher DHA and EPA levels are a result of the concentrated fish oil which contains more omega-3s than krill oil.

    Be well!


  309. JP Says:

    Thank you, Elizabeth. Very useful information. :)

    Be well!


  310. RATMAN Says:

    Thanks for the info everyone……….I purchased the Triple strenght fish oil with the 300mg of Krill ,,,,,,,once I have taken it for a month or so I’ll let you know the results…..


  311. JP Says:

    I hope it works out well for you, Ratman. Looking forward to hearing about your experience with it.

    Be well!


  312. Elizabeth Jesse Says:

    It’s important to also increase the amount of fat-soluble antioxidants you take when you take fish oil. Maybe you already know this.

    Best Wishes,


  313. RATMAN Says:

    Elizabeth can you explain the “”increase the amount of fat-soluble antioxidants”"…….certain other food list or what ???


  314. Elizabeth Jesse Says:

    One thing you would probably want to take with fish oil is some vitamin E. The astaxanthin in your krill probably helps as well. Fish oil just is not as pure as krill, which makes taking antioxidants more important.

  315. RATMAN Says:

    I take Dr. Seras Primal Force daily Multi Vitamin…….has plenty of Vitamin E….Thanks…..

  316. RATMAN Says:


    I meant Dr. Sears……..

  317. Michele Says:

    Any thoughts on Aker Biomarines MSC certification? Jarrow is now using 100% Superba Krill Oil in it’s new version, versus 70% Azantis in the old one. Recently had cholesterol panel done while on NOW brand Krill for the last 8 months and everything has gone up. Odd. I’m adding a Nordic Naturals Ultimate Omega and perhaps switching back to Jarrow, as Now doesn’t seem to be working for me and I have no idea why. My levels were substantially lower on the old Jarrow 70% version.

  318. JP Says:


    I think Aker is a fine company. Their Marine Stewardship Council certification comes as no surprise. I think it’s clear that their policies and practices keep in mind ecological and sustainability considerations.

    That’s disappointing news about your test results. However, if your prior krill oil experience was positive … then you should probably try to replicate it by using what the same type of krill you used before: Azantis krill oil. Jarrow previously used Azantis krill oil and only recently switched to Superba krill oil. Superba differs from the Azantis krill oil because it contains a much lower level of astaxanthin. Aker’s assertion is that this makes it more natural because it includes no concentrated astaxanthin (added to the krill oil). On the other hand, Azantis believes that higher levels of astaxanthin are required in order ensure optimal therapeutic potential.

    A few US brands that contain Azantis krill oil are: Olympian Labs and Source Naturals.

    Be well!


  319. Michele Says:

    Thanks for the info and all of your input, JP. I appreciate it as always. I think I’m going to give the Superba a shot. I found a new Swanson version which seems identical to the Jarrow formula at a third less in cost. is the only source that carries the new Jarrow Krill. I’m wondering if the higher amount of astaxanthin is that important or if it is ok to stay on the smaller natural amount long term. Don’t know. Also, I contacted Aker to get some more information on their extraction process. I seem to recall that they use ethanol and heat. Do you know anything about the pros and cons?

  320. JP Says:


    You’re most welcome. :) Please let us know how Superba works out for you. Well, I hope.

    Astaxanthin appears to matter. Most of the published literature on krill oil has used the Neptune extract which contains about 1.5 mg/gram of astaxanthin. The Azantis extract you used in the past contains the same amount but from a different source – from algae. There’s also been some positive research on algae-derived astaxanthin without omega-3s and phospholipids.

    The one, preliminary study using Superba did not result in significant changes in lipid levels. However, the participants did not have elevated lipid concentrations to begin with and the study was of short duration – 4 weeks.

    I spoke to an Aker rep awhile back and he basically stated that the heat involved in their extraction doesn’t result in significant quality differences or byproducts associated with excessive heat exposure.

    Hopefully we’ll know more about quality issues in the near future. An inside source claims that ConsumerLab is preparing to publish a krill oil report in September.

    Be well!


  321. Michele Says:

    Thanks again JP for the information and website. I did some more research and just ordered 4mg astaxanthin to supplement the krill. Seems like a powerful antioxidant without the toxicity issues of beta carotene. I’m also diabetic and read it regulates beta cells in the pancreas. My husband has MS and it will be beneficial for him as well. Sounds like a great anti inflammatory too!

  322. JP Says:

    Sounds like a reasonable combination to me. :) I hope you and your husband find positive results. Please keep us posted.

    Be well!


  323. Happy Hearter Says:

    I noticed someone earlier in the thread mentioned Amazon had SOURCE NOW NKO krill 500mg 120 caps for around $32 with free shipping. I clicked and found it is NOW(sorry I had to) just $29 with free shipping. Hey every buck counts right?? Anyway just wanted to share

  324. JP Says:

    That’s a great deal. Thanks for the heads up HH.

    Be well!


  325. Mark Hart Says:

    Hello friends, here comes my testomonial on krill oil.
    A little over 3 months ago I had my routine blood work done and a follow up doctors appt. Let me tell you I have been batteling high cholesterol and high triglycerides for more than 5 years. On my last visit my total chloresterol count was 320 and my triglycerides count was 1,480. That is the highest it has ever been and I have been taken cholesterol and triglycerides medication along with a fish oil supplement. On my way out of the office my nurse told me to try krill oil. I didn’t know what it was and never heard of it. I went home got on the computer looked up krill oil and was fasinated with what I had read. I then went to C V S and found this krill oil called Mega Red. Now the direction say only one soft gel per day, however I was desperate so I up the intake to 6 a day that’s 1800 mg a day along with a better diet and exercise plan. Well my friends, I’m here to tell you today that I just got back from my doctors appt. and here are my numbers. total cholesterol 143 triglcerides 87. WoW is that remarkable or what. Anyway thanks for your research and posting all your info. It worked for me and hopefully it will work for others that have been batteling high choletestrol and high triglycerides. Have a great day.
    Mark Hart

  326. JP Says:

    Congratulations, Mark! Thank you for sharing your experience.

    A few questions for you:

    Do you know if the Mega Red krill oil you used over the 6 month period was an older batch containing Neptune Krill Oil (NKO) or a newer batch containing Superba krill oil?

    The changes in your lipid profile are dramatic to say the least. Did you make any other changes with respect to your diet/lifestyle and/or medication regimen that could partially explain your results?

    I’d be interested to know any additional information you think might be relevant. I’m sure others would as well.

    Be well!


  327. Mark Hart Says:

    Hey JP, here’s the deal. I started taking the Mega Red krill oil the 1st week of June. It is the Superba krill oil. I was taking it along with my regular medication Niaspan 500 mg twice a day and Gemfibrozil 600 mg twice a day and liptor 20 mg once a day per doctors orders. Now prior to June 1st I was just taking the prescribed medication along with supplement fish oil 2000 mg daily and received that terrible report.
    Now I’m taking the prescribed medication along with the Mega Red Superba krill oil and dropped the fish oil.
    I exercise daily on the treadmill (which I didn’t do before) I changed my eating habits from whatever fills me up to a more sensible meal plan. and cut back on my alcohol intake.
    I am curious to know now that my numbers are all in line if I really need to continue taking the prescribed medication. What is your thoughts? My next blood work is in 3 months.

  328. JP Says:


    Thank you for adding that important information. Very helpful and interesting.

    This isn’t a simple matter to sift through. But here are my two-cents anyhow:

    Discontinuing a medication is best done under the guidance of a physician. The bottom line is that I’d tell your doctor exactly what’s going on and let her/him know that you’d like to see if you can maintain your healthy lipid levels without the prescription medications. See what he/she has to say about that. A gradual lowering of dosage and/or removing the medications one at a time may be the best way to go.

    It’s great that you’ve adopted a better diet and an exercise program. Wonderful news about the krill oil as well. The real question in my mind is what “therapy” is accomplishing your amazing results? Is it a combination of all of your healthful practices (diet, exercise & high-dose krill oil)? Could it be some sort of synergistic effect re: your medications + the healthful practices?

    There’s nothing I like better than to see someone get off of potentially dangerous medications. But this has to be done judiciously. If I were you, I’d ask for my doctors assistance in accomplishing this. In time, blood tests can help determine how well this new approach is working out. *If* your doctor is resistant to do this, I’d get a second opinion.

    Be well!


  329. RATMAN Says:


    I recently received Dr. Michael Pinkus’s OMEGA KRILL with pure contrated krill oil. The directions on the bottle suggested to take two capsules before bedtime, which I did. The next morning immediately after eating my breakfast which consists of All-Bran cereal, organic skim milk, and blueberries, (which I eat alot), I felt light headed, and fely like I was going to faint. I was real weak in the legs and it scared the heck out of me. I’m 62 years old, exercise, and watch what I eat. Do you know if anyone has had any reaction to Krill before.


  330. JP Says:

    I’m really sorry to hear that. I’ve never encountered a similar reaction myself and have never read a similar account. But perhaps some of my readers might be able to chime in with some input.

    It’s always possible that you’ve suffered an allergic reaction. Such reactions appear to be very rare. However, it is a theoretical concern for those with shell fish allergies or sensitivities.

    Another possibility is that the product itself is responsible. To be honest, I’ve examined the label and it appears that this product uses an inferior form of krill oil. It only contains 65 mg of omega-3s per 500 soft gel. Not good. I’m sorry to say.

    Be well!


  331. RATMAN Says:


    Can you explain what you mean by 65MG of omega-3s per 500 soft gel……….Not Good…………..this could be the answer…………by the way, I’m not allergic to fish……….eat it weekly………



  332. JP Says:


    I’m sorry. I goofed. The omega-3 level is actually fine. That makes 130 mg/gram – which is considered ideal. My error. I apologize for my mix up.

    Are you by chance allergic or sensitive to shrimp or any related shell fish? Some people do fine with fish but not shell fish.

    PS – I just tracked down the following information from Dr. Michael Eades site:

    Perhaps lowering the dose or separating the dosage to (1 softgel) twice-daily might help. Also, taking the krill with food might affect how you react to it. I can’t say for certain. Just possibilities.

    Be well!


  333. JP Says:


    Got an update for you. According to a krill insider, the product in question (OmegaKrill )contains Kriaxanthin krill oil made by Cyvex. This form of krill oil contains hardly any phosphlipids and low levels of astaxanthin.

    This same expert suggests NOT taking krill oil as night because it can be mentally stimulating. Instead, the recommendation is to take it earlier in the day.

    I hope this helps.

    Be well!


  334. RATMAN Says:


    I checked out Dr Mike Eades’s site, and I read that others have been having lightheadedness and dizzy feelings also taking Krill. Did you actually suggest that the OMEGAKRILL I purchaed from Dr. Pinkus isn’t a good Krill product. Also, I was taking the GNC triple strength fish oil with 300mg of Krill for a couple of weeks without any problems. It could be that popping two capsules of the OMEGAKRILL just before bed (without food) affected my brain the next morning, because as soon as I was done eating my breakfast I felt dizzy and lightheadedness, and feeling like I was going to faint. Do you recommend I stop taking the OMEGAKRILL since it has low levels of astaxanthin, and hardly any Phosphlidids…….


  335. JP Says:


    I’ve been in touch with Nutranectics, the manufacturer of OmegaKrill, twice today. Unfortunately, they didn’t have much to offer in terms of technical information. They were friendly but not very knowledgeable about their product.

    But like I mentioned yesterday I was contacted by an expert in the krill industry who periodically monitors this page. This person informed me that OmegaKrill contains the Kriaxanthin form of krill oil made by Cyvex. If that’s accurate, then I would say this is an inferior form of krill oil.

    Here’s my two cents: Most manufacturers like to showcase the finer points of their products. That’s why you’ll see so many of them list the astaxanthin and phospholipid contents on their labels. It’s a selling point. My general opinion is that products that fail to do so are typically omitting that information for a reason. In other words, it’s not advantageous for them to do so.

    I think if one is going to take krill oil, then they ought to look for a product that provides all the therapeutic components – astaxanthin, omega-3s and phosholipids. That’s what I’m doing and that’s what I recommend at this time.

    I can’t know what caused your lightheadedness. But it sounds reasonable that taking it on an empty stomach before bed *could* have caused your reaction. Another possibility is that the increased dosage (1,000 mg vs. 300 mg) was too much for your system to handle.

    How to proceed? That’s got to be up to you. I can only tell that I would opt for a different product unless you learn that OmegaKrill actually contains 200 or more milligrams of phospholipids per 500 mg softel and about .6 to .75 mg of astaxathin in the same serving size.

    Please let me know if any of this isn’t clear or you have any additional questions.

    Be well!


  336. Adam Says:

    Does anyone know if Krill oil has the heavy metal contamination issues that normal fish oil does?

    Great article and responses by everyone, thanks!

  337. JP Says:


    The major krill oil manufacturers claim to test for heavy metals. Krill offer a few advantages over fish re: heavy metal concentrations:

    1) They’re harvested in a rather remote location.

    2) They’re lower on the food chain than the fish used to produce fish oil.

    But testing is still necessary as some research indicates that krill can contain potentially toxic minerals including cadmium.

    Be well!


  338. Adam Says:

    I wonder if any Krill oil companies will submit samples to IFOS for testing or if they even can.

  339. Adam Says:

    I received Krill Oil from Source Naturals and on the bottle it says to take 2 caps with the first meal of the day. Usually I would think spreading out the dosage would be best. Anyone know why they suggest otherwise?

  340. JP Says:


    Consumer Lab is supposedly going to release an independent analysis of various krill oils later this month. At least one major krill oil manufacturer is calling for third-party testing. The other two are resisting it.

    re: morning dosage

    Some manufacturers believe that krill oil can be mentally stimulating. This appears to be one of the reasons for the recommendation. Another reason is that this is the dosing pattern used in some of the clinical studies.

    Be well!


  341. Mickey Says:

    To answer a question about bulk KO you better do your homework, KriAxanthin is NOT REAL KO it is a buy product of KO you will notice only a very very small amount of phospholipids in the product. PRICE DOES NOT MEAN YOU ARE GETTING A GOOD DEAL!

  342. bosgig Says:

    Thanks for all the insightful comments to date. I have found choosing a brand very confusing so I decided to split open a couple of different capsules to see if I could tell any difference. Specifically, I used a Now NKO softgel and a Mercola “caplique”. They smelled virtually identical (suggesting the softgel is not more rancid, contrary to Mercola’s claim). The Mercola was a slightly deeper red color, which may be better or worse, I don’t know. Then I put them under a microscope. Both had periodic circular elements, but interestingly, the Now brand also had frequent spots that looked like a radial pattern of cracked glass. The Mercola oil had no such spots, rather it looked quite pure in that respect. Does anyone know what the significance is of the color and microscopic differences? Does anyone know of any links to microscopic evaluation of KO brands? Honestly, I expected them to be identical, but they weren’t. Thanks!

  343. JP Says:


    What an excellent post! Thank you! Really interesting.

    It’s unusual that Mercola’s krill oil has a redder appearance. The reason I say this is because it only contains about half the amount of astaxanthin as the NOW Foods NKO product. The reddish hue of krill oil should primarily come from this vibrant carotenoid.

    I’m sorry but I can’t contribute much re: the microscopic differences. Hopefully one of our resident krill oil enthusiasts will chime in with some thoughts on your observation. If not, I can reach out to a few of my krill sources to see if they might have any idea.

    Be well!


  344. JP Says:


    Just a quick follow up response. A krill oil insider contacted me and shared a few insights about why (s)he suspects there could be a difference in the color and microscopy appearance.

    1) Purity *may be* a factor.

    2) The NKO product *may be* decomposing/oxidizing in the soft gel. This can apparently be caused by variations in the processing technique used which may lead to premature phospholipid breakdown.

    3) This person also explained that this is why quality testing krill oil 4-6 weeks after it’s bottled isn’t a good indicator of long-term stability.

    Be well!


  345. bosgig Says:

    Thanks. That’s really helpful. It’s been a long time since I took chemistry but it definitely looks more like an oxidizing-type dynamic than a physical impurity since it didn’t look like a solid. I’m going to repeat it with another NOW Softgel as well as a Nature’s Way KO. I’ll post what I see. In the meantime, if it is indeed decomposing or oxidizing, does this lend credibility to the notion that capliques are actually better than softgels? Thanks

  346. JP Says:


    It could have something to do with the container (Caplique vs gelatin soft gel). However, it could also have to do with the krill oil itself.

    I’ll be interested to see what you find when you test the Nature’s Way product which *should be* directly comparable to the Now Foods krill oil – as they both contain Neptune Krill Oil. Dr. Mercola’s product does not use NKO as their source of krill oil.

    Be well!


  347. Lydie Says:

    Hi Elizabeth & others

    Thank you for the wonderful information!

    a few questions

    Do fish oils go through the process of acetone or ethanol too?

    Which one go through the less process of transformation?

    Do u know if along this process the oil of fish & krill is heated? At which temperature? We should be concern about this.

    Is there some Krill oil gels out there with more DHA than EPA?

    What about eating the real thing instead of supplements?


  348. JP Says:


    Fish oil and krill oil can be processed in different ways – with or without solvent and under varying levels of heat.

    Most manufacturers will tell you that what’s important is the end product – Is there a meaningful level of solvent-residue? Is the fish or krill oil denatured by the heating process? Etc.

    One thing to keep in mind is that most of the fish we eat is also cooked/heated. That is, unless you’re eating it raw as sushi, tartar, etc.

    There are differences in DHA & EPA content among the different brands of krill oil. There are also variations in the levels of astaxanthin and phospholipids – two other important components of krill oil.

    You could eat whole krill. Though they’re very small. Penguins, sea birds and whales love them. :)

    Be well!


  349. JP Says:

    Disappointing news of the day:

    Just released ConsumerLab testing reports that the Now Foods NKO (Neptune Krill Oil) contains only:

    + 79.1% of claimed EPA

    + 88.8% of claimed DHA

    + 78.4% of the claimed total omega-3 fatty acids

    It was also found to have an unacceptable spoilage rate: 57.4 TOTOX value. A TOTOX of 26 and under is considered to be fresh.

    The Source Natural’s krill oil (Arctic Pure Krill) passed testing and contains comparable (and accurate) levels of astaxanthin, omega-3s and phospholipids. This appears to be a better option.

    Be well!


  350. Dean Says:

    Thats good to know, Ive used NOW products before and was never truly happy with them so this is not surprising.

  351. Adam Says:

    Was the Source Naturals NKO tested?

    and I always sensed that NOW Foods had inferior products and have stayed away from them. I guess this proves it.

    Thanks for the updates!

  352. JP Says:


    Edited for correction:

    Only the Source Naturals’ Arctic Krill Oil was tested. Not their NKO product. The Arctic Krill Oil received an “Approved” rating by ConsumerLab.

    Be well!


  353. Bill H Says:


    When you say Source Naturals “contains comparable (and accurate) levels of astaxanthin, omega-3s and phospholipids”, what do you mean by “comparable?” Or are you saying the levels CLAIMED for Source Naturals NKO are the same as for NOW NKO, but the tested levels were accurate (how accurate? 90%? 100%?) and the spoilage was in the acceptable range?



  354. JP Says:


    I meant that the Source Naturals label claim is comparable to the Now Foods NKO product. In other words, their labels state nearly identical amounts of the most sought after components of krill oil (astaxanthin, omega-3s and phospholipids).

    According to ConsumerLab, the Source Naturals product samples met their label claim and had not spoiled.

    In order to pass, products had to adhere to the following specifications:

    + Contain 100% of their label claim but not more than 150%.

    + Have a peroxide value of less than 5 meg/kg, an anisidine value of less than 20 and a TOTOX value of 26 or less.

    + They also test for dioxins, lead, mercury and disintegration parameters, etc.

    Be well!


  355. Carlo Says:

    Source Naturals NKO Did not pass the testing JP & Adam. That is wrong info!

    Source Naturals have 2 Krill Products

    Arctic Pure= Azantis

    NKO= Neptune

    Their product from Azantis passed the testing.

    The other product tested was Now Foods / Neptune Krill Oil and results are already known to everyone (failed)

    Actually, this we all knew all along yet everyone was after the Brand name. I personally buy Olympian Labs which is also Azantis and I am confident with quality based on improvement of my cholesterol levels in past 1 year.

    and i will leave you to make the decision on why no Superba Krill was not in the report especially Schiff mega red?

    Because Consumer Labs forgot to include it in the test? :)

    Or … we all know why too well.



  356. Adam Says:

    Dang, I was getting NKO from Source Naturals so maybe I’ll just switch to their other brand though.

    Can someone give a quick recap of which brands/types passed and which didn’t? Did all NKO’s fail and all Azantis pass? Is Mercola’s on the list?

  357. JP Says:


    I got things a bit mixed up. I first stated that Source Naturals’ Arctic Krill Oil passed the CL test. But then I misread a question that asked if CL tested the Source Naturals’ Neptune Krill Oil. I replied that they (CL) did. This was not accurate. The only krill oil products CL tested were the Now Foods NKO and the Source Naturals’ Arctic Krill Oil. I amended my previous answer to Adam to reflect this fact.

    I’d be interested in knowing why CL did not choose to test the best selling krill oil on the market – Mega Red. It would seem to be an obvious choice. But I can’t jump to any conclusions based on their decision. Personally, I would have appreciated it if their krill oil review consisted of more than just two products. However, the limited information presented is still worthwhile, IMO.

    Be well!


  358. JP Says:


    Only two brands were tested by CL: Now Foods Neptune Krill Oil (NKO) and Source Naturals’ Arctic Krill Oil (AKO).

    Now Foods NKO – failed the test.

    Source Naturals’ AKO – passed the test.

    The primary difference between the two products is that AKO is made of from the Azantis/Enzymetic krill oil. The NKO product contains krill oil manufactured by Neptune Technologies and Bioressources Inc.

    Be well!


  359. JP Says:

    And now for some positive news on the Neptune Krill Oil front:

    Be well!


  360. Adam Says:

    Do you suspect it’s NKO that’s “bad” or Now Foods that does something “bad”? I guess I’m wondering if all NKO’s should be assumed bad and all Azantis good?

  361. JP Says:


    It’s hard to say. We just don’t have enough factual data to work with. It could be one or the other or a little of both re: NKO.

    The same goes for the Azantis vs. NKO issue. The only thing we can safely say is that the Source Naturals’ AKO product tested is superior (quality-wise) than the Now Foods NKO product. And by that, I only mean the specific bottles tested!

    I’ve been told that new research is set to be published on Azantis/Enzymotec kril oil in the coming weeks. If that’s accurate, that will add more to our knowledge base as well. I say this because the biggest thing NKO has going for it is the published research that supports it’s use.

    Unfortunately, in the natural health field we often have to rely on limited and partial information in many instances. That’s illustrated quite well in this current situation as well. Unfortunate but true, IMO.

    Be well!


  362. Bill H Says:

    If I were a betting man, I’d guess that the problem isn’t with NKO generally, but with NOW Foods. Seems to me that about a year ago NOW got some bad press for contaminants in their fish oil (Elizabeth knows a lot more about this than I do).

    Maybe this CL test result is just another indicator that NOW cuts corners in order to offer seemingly high-quality products at a low price point. The numbers “make sense” in a way: NOW NKO could be consistently purchased for about 20% less than other brands’ NKO, and now we find out that the NKO levels are about 20% lower than advertised.

    I plan on returning my unused NOW NKO to Swanson (Swanson has a fantastic return policy) and replacing it with Source Naturals NKO.

  363. JP Says:


    I’ll get in touch with Neptune and Now Foods and see if you have any comment about the test results.

    I’d be interested in hearing what Elizabeth has to say as well. Hopefully she’ll drop by and chime in.

    Would love to know if you notice any difference after making the switch. Even in the appearance and odor of the soft gels.

    Be well!


  364. Comeback Geezer Says:

    Carlo posted, “and i will leave you to make the decision on why no Superba Krill was not in the report especially Schiff mega red?

    Because Consumer Labs forgot to include it in the test? :)

    Maybe Superba was wise enough to pay their insurance premium….Sounds like a nonviolent version of “the protection racket”. You pay your premium and you can retroactively opt out of test.

  365. Michele Says:

    I guess my question will seem stupid, but I’m asking it anyway. What’s wrong with Superba? I took Azantis for about 8 months(which used to be in Jarrow, but only at 70%) and my lipids went down. I then switched to NOW for the same time period and they all went back up dramatically. I now have switched to Swanson Superba. Less astaxanthin and not as much epa and dha but I supplement the dha and epa with Arctic Naturals. Why is Azantis the superior product and would it be wise to switch again, to Source Naturals Azantis?

  366. Michele Says:

    By the way, Jarrow also uses Superba now as well.

  367. Michele Says:

    Sorry for all the posts, but I just noticed that Arctic Pure Source Naturals has fish oil and medium chain triglycerides in the ingredient list. That is exactly what Jarrow used to have when it only used 70% Krill Oil. Source natural can’t use 100% Krill as that would be the only marine oil listed in the ingredients.

  368. VW Girl Says:

    It seems that Adam has an ulterior motive here… justmy two cents.

  369. Bill H Says:

    By the way, what fish oils did well in the CL tests and which ones failed? I was also taking (your guessed it) NOW Foods fish oil, but I’m pretty spooked on NOW supplements in general. Source Naturals makes “ArcticPure Omega-3 Fish Oil Ultra,” which based on the label specs looks pretty good.

  370. Adam Says:

    I am not really interested in trying to derail this thread as I have learned a lot from it. What exactly is my ulterior motive, VW Girl?

    I am not affiliated with any company and have only been taking krill oil for a month now since I found this thread. I am simply trying to find the best bang for my buck and not get cheap rancid crap which does more harm than good in me.

  371. JP Says:


    It’s not a stupid question at all. Thank you for asking it.

    I think it’s important to understand that we’re dealing with a scarcity of information here. Here’s a brief summary of what is known about the different krill oils re: the current controversy and beyond:

    + One brand of NKO (Now Foods) failed the Consumer Lab test. This doesn’t mean that NKO in general or other brands containing NKO are inferior. In fact, the majority of positive clinical research has been conducted using the NKO form of krill oil

    + One Azanthis/Enzymotec krill oil product (Source Naturals) passed the Consumer Lab test. This isn’t necessarily a reflection on all other brands that contain it. However, it’s important to point out that the Azantis/Enzymotec krill oil, as a raw material, recently received a seal of approval from Consumer Lab.

    + The main issue with Superba krill oil is the lower level of astaxanthin that it contains. Awhile back there was also some controversy about one brand of Superba krill oil (Mega Red) that *may* not be meeting its label claim – based on an independent analysis of two bottles of Mega Red. Schiff, the distributor/manufacturer of Mega Red refuted those test results and claimed that the differences noted were likely a result of difference in testing methodology rather than a faulty product.

    Be well!


  372. JP Says:


    You’re correct on both counts. Jarrow Formulas now uses Superba krill oil. Also, the Arctic Krill Oil by Source Naturals does contain some fish oil. It’s a krill oil blend. The same that was previously used in the previous Jarrow krill oil product.

    Be well!


  373. JP Says:


    A few of the highlights of the CL re: fish oil test results:


    Removed by request of CL.


    Removed by request of CL.

    The Now Foods and Source Naturals fish oils weren’t tested.

    Be well!


  374. Adam Says:

    Do many of you take both a fish oil and a krill oil? or do you think either alone is sufficient? I have never done omega 3 blood testing so am not sure if I am doing enough. Also, what omega 3 blood testing options are out there that are inexpensive if any?

  375. JP Says:


    I’m currently using both at separate times of the day. Morning: krill oil. Evening: fish oil.

    I haven’t had an omega-3 blood test yet. Here’s one option and some background information:

    Be well!


  376. JP Says:

    A major victory for Neptune Technologies & Bioressources:

    Neptune Technologies & Bioressources Inc. (“Neptune”) (NASDAQ.NEPT – TSX.V.NTB) is proud to announce that after two years of rigorous review of NKO® safety and clinical research data, the Canadian Minister of Health has approved exclusively for NKO® therapeutic and risk reduction claims, corroborating aspects of Neptune’s clinical research and substantiating NKO® safety and effectiveness on certain prevalent chronic diseases.

    I’ll post a reply from Neptune re: the Consumer Lab findings shortly.

    Be well!


  377. JP Says:

    I just got word from my contacts at Neptune. They point out a few issues which ought to be considered:

    1) The Source Naturals krill oil product (that passed the CL testing) contains some fish oil in addition to krill oil. I’ve mentioned this before but it’s worth repeating.

    2) The sources I spoke to take issue with the testing methodology employed by Consumer Lab. The problem, it seems, is that the analytical methods used to determine fish oil quality aren’t directly applicable to krill oil. This is largely due to the chemically distinct properties of each respective omega-3 source:

    Fish Oil = omega-3 fatty acids in the triglyceride form

    Krill Oil = omega-3 fatty acids bound to phospholipids

    According to these sources, utilizing the same testing type will result in an underestimation of how much DHA and EPA are actually present in the end product.

    3) There’s a difference between testing krill oil in the raw material state – supplied by Neptune – and a product manufactured using said raw material. In other words, if ConsumerLab had testing bulk krill oil provided by Neptune T & B, it may have yielded better results. One example given is that the p-anisidine value of krill oil in soft gels is sometimes much higher than that of the source material.

    4). My Neptune contacts claim that their krill oil has been recently tested and certified to meet all label and quality control specs. Furthermore, I’m told that Neptune plans to contact ConsumerLab to review their concerns and to provide their own information in the hope that CL will retest and retract this current report.

    I’ve followed up with a few additional questions that I’m hoping to have answered (by my Neptune sources).

    I sent Now Foods any inquiry but they haven’t been in touch yet. I’ll report back on any response they provide.

    Be well!


  378. Adam Says:

    You are doing an awesome job keeping us informed, JP! Thanks again.

  379. JP Says:

    Thanks, Adam!

    I’m doing my best! :)

    Be well!


  380. Bill H Says:


    When you refer to the “p-anisidine value”, is that how spoilage is measured? And if p-anisidine is lower in raw (bulk) NKO compared with NKO in geltabs, isn’t that just a valid statement that there’s a lot more spoilage in the finished product?

    I mean, as consumers, we don’t have the luxury of consuming bulk NKO; we have to consume it in geltab form. And since Azantis krill oil didn’t have this problem, doesn’t that suggest a quality-control problem at NOW (or possibly at NKO)?

    At any rate, one of the properties of astaxanthin (and in particular, of the esterified astaxanthin that Neptune is so pround of) is – supposedly – that it protects krill oil from oxidation. Hence the much longer claimed shelf life of NKO as compared with (say) Superba krill oil. But if NOW NKO fails the spoilage test, either NOW is keeping their NKO in the factory for a VERY long time, of Neptune is greatly overstating the shelf life of NKO. Or both.

  381. JP Says:


    The p-anisidine value is an oxidation marker.

    Yes. If accurate, a higher value in the end product would indicate oxidative damage/spoilage during the encapsulation and/or storage stage.

    Your points are well taken. That’s why I’ve followed up with Neptune to inquire about how we, as consumers, can be assured that the NKO products we buy aren’t degraded. I hope to get an answer to that question soon. Why didn’t the same occur in Azantis/Enzymotec product? I can’t say for certain. Maybe because it’s a blend of krill and fish oil. Perhaps because they use a different source of astaxanthin – NKO uses krill-derived astaxanthin … Azantis/Enzymotec uses the algae-sourced variety. It could have something to do with how Now Foods and Source Naturals manufacturer their lipid-filled soft gels. Lots of possibilities.

    Be well!


  382. James Says:

    From the beginning, Neptune has been the only company that failed to provide an assay/testing method that can be validated by 3rd parties.
    What does this mean? NKO has its own internal specs which means nothing in terms of reliability as anyone can come up with a formula and say ” hey my product has this much Omega 3 EPA/DHA + Astaxanthin etc”

    if you noticed – most of Neptune customers have reduced their Astaxanthin label claims in their label in the past 6 months..
    is it because NKO introduced a new Grade?

    No.. They basically were forced & pushed by market to do so as they have been consistenly failing Quality Testings both 3rd parties and customer’s facilities.

    Today, Consumer Lab exposed Neptune which has been doing this thing since they were started to provide Krill to market.

    I think – they thought people would not really understand the difference and quality as there was no competition at that time. Today they have strong opponents in the market.. guess what? Neptune is approximately 1 / 3 of Global Krill Market.

    the rest is divided between Enzymotec/Azantis – Aker..

    Going back to roots of Clinical Studies of Neptune, does anyone know the dosage of Krill Oil? was there a fish oil in the formula so product contained higher Epa/Dha than actual product they are selling today?


    we need some more time as others to come out regarding this ongoing problem about NKO products.

    This is not because of Now Foods in my opinion.. although they have all the responsibility to make sure product they sell meets their label claims Part of GMP regulations.

    Aker Superba products Swanson Krill / Jarrow Krill/ Swanson Krill were not part of the Consumer Labs report…

    1. potentially not meeting label claims as they have a right to choose not to be part of the Consumer Labs report.
    2. their label claims too low to begin with both astaxanthin and EPA/DHA so companies do not want their low potency products to be compared to NKO & Azantis/Enzymotec higher potency products.

  383. Michele Says:

    I wrote to Swanson about the Krill Oil I’m currently taking. It is their 100% Superba Krill. I asked about the lower epa, dha and astaxanthin. I’ve decided to stick with this one and have another lipid profile done to compare with the previous two using Azantis and NKO. Another option is to supplement with an algae based astaxanthin. Just don’t feel comfortable taking the Source Naturals at this point since it is supplemented with medium chain triglycerides when I can supplement that myself with Nordic Naturals (which I think is a superior product as far as fish oil goes). Also, the Swanson is under $12.00 for 60 softgels. This was Swansons reply:


    First of all, the first question is for Consumerlab to answer. To my knowledge, we have never been asked to “participate” (by definition not the right word in a true objective product review) in this review.

    I do not really want to speculate about our competitors, but are not surprised by the results in the review. As you probably know there are “krill products” on the market that is pure krill oil (like ours) and others that are blended with fish oil, lecithin and/or algae based astaxanthin. So if you make an effort comparing the different suppliers make sure you are comparing apple with apple.
    It is also a fact there is no established monograph for krill including test methods, so you can easily have a significant variation due to this – whether this is intentionally or not.

    When we compare our own product with other pure krill oil (analysed at the same lab), we see that we are inferior to no one on PL and omega 3. For astaxanthin we are lower (although the difference is much smaller than the labeling should indicate), but the amount all pure krill oils have is sufficient to protect the product from oxidation, while not being sufficient for clinical effects (based on available literature).

    I hope this helped.


  384. Michele Says:

    I’m sorry that was Aker BioMarine’s response, not Swanson. I had emailed both.

  385. James Says:


    Aker’s/Egil’s response looks to me so commercial and not reflecting truth.

    so basically, Aker Superba’s new cover is Hey Azantis is selling Fish Oil combined with Krill.

    My suggestion is contacting Azantis/Enzymotec to ask about their Pure Krill Oil rather than taking Aker’s B.S :) from what i learnt Azantis / Enzymotec has two types of krill Oil

    1. Pure
    2. Blend

    Even Egil from Aker accepts in the message you put above the fact that Superba Krill is inferior in Astaxanthin levels vs Azantis in the label claims… although he states in actual product it may be similar he states.

    what does this mean – do you know??

    DECOMPOSITION OF THE PRODUCT INSIDE SOFTGEL and losing its potency and Astaxanthin levels.. No Stability means No Freshness for SUPERBA KRILL and this is why they probably may not be part of the Consumer Lab Report.. !

    you may choose to use Swanson – Superba Krill as for me it is a waste of money/health to buy a knock of inferior quality krill oil with very low astaxanthin.. if there is so low astaxanthin in Superba Krill their product may as well be sold in fish oil section since there is really not much value built into their product other than the story they are telling about Eco Friendly Krill B.S where environmentalists are bashing them 24/7 for the B.S where you pay the money and get the certificate as if their Krill Comes from Venus where others get it from Antarctic :)

  386. JP Says:

    Ladies and Gents,

    I left word for Dr. Tod Copperman, the president of ConsumerLab, asking if they have an opt-out policy and why they chose not to include a Superba krill oil product in their analysis – such as the best-selling product Mega Red.

    I’ll report back with any information he provides.

    Be well!


  387. Tod Says:

    Hi John Paul,

    I received your message asking why a specific product was not listed in our new Product Review of Fish Oil Supplements (Including Krill and Algal Oil Supplements). We report test results for every product which we select to be tested. Unfortunately, that product was not selected for testing in this review. As we note on our website, there are over 1,000 brands of supplements sold in the U.S. We can only test a limited number of products in each report and we try to get a diversity of brands. We’ll try to cover that product next time.

    You had also asked if a company can pay to have a product tested. Our mission since we started in 1999 has been to help consumers and health professionals identify the best quality products. Therefore, we offer a Voluntary Certification Program that helps us identify additional high quality products. A testing fee is paid and we purchase the requesting company’s product on the market and test it (with its identity blinded) just as we test products that we select for testing. If the product passing testing, it gets certified and is listed on our site with a footnote indicating that it was voluntarily tested. If we find a problem with the product, the requesting company is informed of the problem with the hope that they will use the information to improve the product.

    I should also note that any company (whether or not they had a product voluntarily tested) is welcome to receive a free report from us of their product’s test results. They are also welcome to discuss the findings with our scientific staff and to challenge our findings. We will send, at no cost, a reserve sample of the tested product to a mutually acceptable third party laboratory for analysis so long as the company is willing to publish the findings on its website. We will also publish the findings on our website.

    I hope that this answers your questions. This information is also found on our website on the About Us and Contact Us pages.

  388. JP Says:

    I just had an enlightening conversation with Dr. Cooperman, the president of ConsumerLab. I’ll post a detailed account of our discussion in upcoming column. He’s agreed to participate in an interview which should yield more information than I can possibly share here … secondhand.

    I can tell you that there is no “opt out” option available via CL’s standard testing program. In other words, a company can’t buy their way out of testing. All the products that CL selects for testing are reported on – pass or fail. On the other hand any company can choose to contract (pay) CL to test their products as well. In that case, the voluntary test results are owned by the companies in question. The results can be published but it’s not a requirement. Dr. Cooperman’s message (above) explains the process in more detail.

    Another interesting and relevant fact that came to light is that the Azantis/Enzymotec certification from a months back was based on their raw material – not a finished product such as commercially available softgels.

    Finally, for those who believe that the testing process is cost-prohibitive, please note that it generally runs about $3,000 – $4,000 in lab costs and fees.

    Be well!


  389. JP Says:

    Thank you, Dr. Cooperman. It seems I was typing my last message as your comment arrived. :)

    Your contribution to this topic is much appreciated!

    Be well!


  390. james Says:


    i am not sure if you have an interest in this Krill Oil as well.

    You said ” Another interesting and relevant fact that came to light is that the Azantis/Enzymotec certification from a months back was based on their raw material – not a finished product such as commercially available softgels. ”

    this is the second time I see that your comments are not correct.

    Source Naturals Krill Oil that was tested was in softgel form and belongs to Azantis/Enzymotec.

    Therefore your comment above is absolutely not correct.

    Providing wrong information to public is illegal which may influence them in a negative way as we all know.

    Therefore, before you put out information about any company – I suggest to consult with them.

  391. JP Says:


    It’s my understanding that the Source Naturals Arctic Krill Oil product, which contains Azantis/Enzymotec krill oil, was tested for the current Omega-3 review. However, it was not tested during the previous certification process – which I linked to in my prior message. I’ll post the link again here:

    Again, based on my understanding of the situation, which is informed by my earlier conversation with Dr. Cooperman, the prior testing and certification was conducted on Azantis/Enzymotec krill oil that was not contained in soft gels. The raw material was tested.

    If you believe I’m misinformed or that I misunderstood the context of the initial testing, please let me know. Also, if that’s the case, kindly reveal the source of your information so I can verify it. You already know the source of my information – Dr. Tod Copperman, the president of ConsumerLab.

    Be well!


  392. james Says:


    your comment on raw material testing is not the one i commented.

    my comment is stating Azantis-Enzymotec material was not tested in softgel form is not correct as their material was the one in Source Natural Softgels that passed the testing and unfortunately the only one! I was hoping to see Schiff Mega Red on the report to be honest.

    So quoting a test happened previously and stating hey it was not tested in sofgels would confuse people.

    Source of my information is just like you Consumer Labs. ( The report itself is clear)

    take care

  393. Adam Says:

    I read all the posts up to this point and JP was actually not confusing at all so I think you out of line trying to say he is doing something “illegal”, James. He stated some facts and gave links. In fact, with everyone else chiming in as well with questions and comments, this page is the best source of information on Krill Oil possibly on the internet so let’s keep things civil :)

  394. bosgig Says:

    Following up on my posting from a couple of weeks ago (#342), I took a look at another NOW softgel as well as a Nature’s Way efa gold softgel under the microscope. It appears the Nature’s Way also has the spots that look like cracked glass. They seemed less frequent than in the NOW brand, but nonetheless were there. Unfortunately I don’t know whether this is a sign of oxidizing, an impurity in the KO, or foreign contamination from my methods (less face it, I’m not in sterile, sealed conditions!). It is interesting, given the p-anisidine issue you cited above, because to my untrained eye it looks more like an oxidation dynamic than a foreign particle. If anyone else has a better microscope than my 40x please take a look! It does leave me wondering, though, at what point does NKO cease being NKO and begin being the branded product? In other words, at what point does the end manufacturer (Now, Nature’s Way, etc.) take control of the raw material and thus how much opportunity is there for a different product outcome between brands? Thanks

  395. JP Says:


    This isn’t meant to be argumentative or defensive in nature. But clarity is important to me. This was my exact quote:

    “Another interesting and relevant fact that came to light is that the Azantis/Enzymotec certification from a months back was based on their raw material – not a finished product such as commercially available softgels.

    Note the “a few months back” and the accompanying link. I didn’t say “a few day back”. The latter would have been in reference to the new omega-3 review.

    To be clear: both grades of Azantis/Enzymotec krill oil passed (voluntary) raw material testing conducted by ConsumerLab (linked above) a few months ago. Only one grade passed the current CL omega-3 review in a soft gel form – the Source Naturals Arctic Krill Oil product which contains the 4225F grade Azantis/Enzymotec krill oil. Their pure krill oil (4014F) was not tested in the current CL omega-3 review. Hence, the 4014F has yet to be tested by CL in a commercially available form – a Caplique or soft gel product, etc.

    Those appear to be the facts.

    Be well!


  396. james Says:


    Correct Azantis / Enzymotec passed the test for 2 different grades as raw material + 1 grade in softgel form.

    Hope all other products some day will pass NKO/Aker Superba – Schiff Mega Red and get up to par with Azantis/Enzyotec material in therms of 3rd party quality approval.

  397. JP Says:

    Thank you, Adam. I appreciate your support. :)

    I’m trying to keep things as accurate as possible. The krill oil journey continues …

    Be well!


  398. JP Says:


    Thank you for adding those additional observations. They’re much appreciated.

    I’d like to know the answers to your questions as well. I’ve actually posed a similar question to my sources at Neptune. No answer yet.

    Neptune krill oil *may* be an excellent krill oil source. However, there’s no public, third-party evidence to support this. In essence, they want the public to trust them and their good reputation. But how can one determine if the NKO products “we” buy maintain their potency? This is what truly matters to consumers. After all, we’re not getting our krill oil direct from Neptune.

    I feel as though this needs to be addressed. I’ve expressed this, in good faith, to high-ranking players at Neptune. But I can’t tell you how my suggestions have been received.

    Be well!


  399. JP Says:


    I hope so too.

    Be well!


  400. Comeback Geezer Says:

    When I 1st read Consumer Lab reports years ago I was suspicious that Puritan’s Pride, the king ofhe capo supplements, consistently outscored the more expensive supplements.

    It seems that Puritan’s Pride goes even further that paying for testing…..they pay membership dues. Sorry, but this sounds like the protection racket.

  401. Comeback Geezer Says:

    Please excuse the typo, I meant Puritan’s Pride, king of the cheapo supplements.

    I’m not prejudice against Puritan’s Pride. I use their krill oil

  402. JP Says:

    Comeback Geezer,

    That’s not accurate according to Dr. Cooperman’s reply to Mr. Ullman. From the comments section of the link you provided.

    “ has no corporate or business members. Our members are the 40,000+ individuals and libraries whose subscription fees fund our independent tests, the results of which are available to them in our Product Reviews. Any manufacturer or distributor is welcome to have a product evaluated under the same independent tests and scientific standards through our certification program, for which there is a reasonable charge.”

    Be well!


  403. james Says:

    if neptune was so reliable why Schiff last year switched the mega red supply from NKO?
    it may be worth checking with your contacts at Neptune whether they have validated 3rd party testing methods to measure EPA/DHA/Phospholipids/Astaxanthin? if so which lab and which methods?
    Their label claims for Astaxanthin went down from 1.5 to 1.2 for not being able to meet their specifications.
    On top of that, Consumer Labs came up on their report showing that their finished product is not fresh. High Totox Values which is not something anyone would like to add to their daily diet!

    NKO’s experience with lipids is limited to Krill whereas Aker / Enzymotec have other lipid based products and scientists on board.

    my 2 cents.

  404. JP Says:


    Schiff and Neptune had a dispute in ’09 that undoubtedly affected their relationship.

    Based on my previous interactions with Neptune, I think it’s unlikely that they’ll provide me or others with that information. I could be wrong. But, again, this is just my experience/impression about the way they operate.

    Be well!


  405. Michele Says:

    A reply from Mickey at Azantis.


    Thanks for the inquiry on the Azantis 4014 Pure Krill Oil. I have been traveling and will have some samples sent out to you as soon as I return next week. I will also send a product work sheet showing what is in the 4014 KO. I have been watching the Healthy Fellows blog for a long time and understand people’s concern on what they are really getting in the krill oil. I have been working with krill oil from the beginning (working for Neptune at that time). I know what companies do to making their KO and can tell you that Azantis/Enzymotec’s krill oil’s will not degrade, it all has to do w/the processing methods and after the KO has been processed it goes into nitrogen containers to the softgel manufactures. If the KO is not processed right the minute air gets to it in the softgeling process it will start to degrade. So any company that says they have this or that great way of processing if it does not protect the oil their will be degrading (that is what will cause the fishy smell in the bottle).

    Just to clarify one thing. Azantis/Enzymotec’s 4225 that uses fish oil (Medium-Chain-Triglycerides) in the product the reason for this is to make the krill oil liquid enough to get into a softgel. This is the most safe/effective way to do it. We do not have to use these in the 4014 because the Astaxanthin levels are lower so it is easier to make the product liquid.


    Mickey Schuett
    Director of Sales
    Azantis, Inc.

  406. Michele Says:

    Jarrow and Swanson stopped using NKO due to unreliable delivery of the product. I know this from personal experience as Jarrow didn’t have any Krill oil for months. I heard from both companies explaining this as the reason. They decided to switch to Superba due to problems obtaining the oil from NKO. Perhaps, it was the same reason for Schiff. I’m kind of leaning toward Azantis at this point. I had the best results so far, with the lipid blend in the original Jarrow product. I would however, like to use the Azantis pure Krill Oil. Will continue to do the studies on myself with lipid profiles and post the results.

  407. Comeback Geezer Says:

    More on CL Payola:

    “What does charge to participate in its ‘voluntary certification program’? One of the comments posted after my first letter noted that the fee charged for testing products containing Glucosamine, Chondroitin and MSM was $4,650.00 for the tests completed in the early summer 2009. Is this the standard fee that charges companies that wish to ensure that your test ‘results are proprietary to the manufacturer?’”

    ― Marc Ullman

    “ has done an incredible job selling itself as an unbiased, authoritative testing service that provides good information to consumers. As my two columns that Sarah notes in her story try to point out, before buying into the Consumerlab story consumers should understand three things:

    1. Consumerlab is not a lab at all. It hires contract labs to conduct its testing, and there are significant questions as to how often (if ever) those labs are audited by this organization that likes to claim consumers need to rely on its audits of industry.

    2. Companies that pay to participate in Consumerlab’s “voluntary” testing programs “own” the test results. This means that under this program a company can direct Consumerlab to withhold a negative test result. Thus, consumers may never get the full story.

    3. The “quality” standards used by Consumerlab are frequently based on California’s Proposition 65, a law unique to that state which establishes tolerance levels for certain heavy metals and pesticides well below legal levels set by the FDA or the 49 other states. Thus, a headline announcing that “Half the Products Tested Fail” may simply mean that these products meet quality standards by the Federal Government and 49 States but do not satisfy the draconian standards set under one California law.

    Consumers who turn to Consumerlab for information should consider these facts before making any judgments.” – Marc Ullman

  408. JP Says:

    Thank you, Michelle. I appreciate the additional information you’re adding to the conversation.

    Be well!


  409. Michele Says:

    Your welcome JP. I thank you again, for all of your research and and knowledge.

  410. JP Says:

    Comeback Geezer,

    It’s my understanding that the testing cost is based largely on how much the labs charge to conduct the appropriate tests – sometimes multiple tests to assess various measures of potency and purity.

    CL is up-front about what they provide: full disclosure on items they include in their reviews. And, private results for companies that can *choose* to pay for it – much like they can choose to have testing performed by others. Since the companies pay for the latter testing, the results belong to them. I’m not sure why this is controversial. If a company paid another third-party source to test their product(s) … it would be their prerogative whether to publicize the results or not. Why should it be any different with CL?

    CL is very explicit about what they test for and the standards they use. However, please keep in mind that the testing that is mentioned above (fish oil) still yielded about a 50% pass rate. The testing may have been too stringent. That should be debated. But don’t forget that around 50% of the products tested still managed to provide greater purity than the others. Some people may consider that important information to know.

    I’m all for CL providing documentation about how often “their” testing labs are audited. But how many supplement companies, who conduct their own internal testing or contract it out, do the same? Shouldn’t this standard be requested across the board?

    Do you know what virtually every company tells me when their products don’t pass a CL test? “We have issues with their testing methodology.” Fair enough. Do you know how many lawsuits have been brought against CL for inaccurate test results? None. I think that’s rather telling.

    This is the only legal action that I’m aware of re: CL. It summarizes the common complaints and CL responses but has nothing to do with unreliable test results.

    Be well!


  411. Comeback Geezer Says:

    Yes, but does voluntary testing convey proprietary ownership
    of the report? If so, that’s buying protection, Chicago style.

  412. JP Says:

    Comeback Geezer,

    I believe the company that buys the CL report can do whatever they wish with it. They can publicize the results or not. They can choose to have Consumer Lab make an announcement or do it via an alternate route. Again, this is the same thing that companies already do and/or claim to do on their own. It’s just that they typically don’t make the results public. A notable exception is Nordic Naturals. I’ve suggested their model of quality-assurance to more than one of the krill oil giants.

    Be well!


  413. JP Says:

    An interesting find – a recent NKO certificate of analysis:

    Be well!


  414. MG Says:

    I am throughly confused by all of this. What is the current bottom line? Whose Krill should we be taking, what is the brand name and where can you get it? What is the dose?

  415. JP Says:


    Your confusion is understandable. There are many details to consider. However …

    *If* one solely goes by the results of the latest ConsumerLab test(s), then the obvious choice would be Source Naturals Arctic Krill Oil. It’s widely available (in the US) in many health food stores and online.

    The dose? It depends on why you’re using it. Most people take 1,000 mg daily.

    Be well!


  416. Adam Says:

    Probably the best deal you are going to find on the Source Naturals Arctic Krill Oil is using’s subscribe and save deal. I just signed up. I have no affiliation with amazon nor Source Naturals nor any krill oil manufacturer.

  417. Bill H Says:

    If, like me, you’re guessing that the problem with the CL results for NOW NKO rests with NOW and not with NKO, then you might be interested in a good deal on Source Naturals NKO:

    $14.88 for 60 softgels (and if you purchase two or more, you get free shipping)

  418. Adam Says:

    Hi Bill, that’s actually how I bought my current supply which is going to run out soon. The price can fluctuate some from that seller so you can get an even better deal sometimes. I got mine for $11/bottle! I’ll go back to NKO once I see a 3rd party tester show some positive results. Until then, paying a few bucks more a bottle is worth it to know I’m getting good stuff.

  419. Michele Says:

    I just ordered the Azantis brand 4014 pure krill oil. It normally is priced at $29.95 per 60 gelcap bottle. By ordering it from Prime Metabolics it costs $17.95 per bottle if you purchase 5 bottles at a time. From what I can gather, this seems to be the highest quality pure krill oil without added medium chain triglycerides direct from the manufacturer. Source Naturals has the added medium chain triglycerides at a lower price but by buying 5 bottles of the pure oil it comes out cheaper than the Source Naturals. Source Naturals uses the 42/25 grade. Hope I made the right decision as I just ordered 5 bottles.

  420. Elizabeth Says:

    My how things change when you stop reading your emails for a while. Okay, so my next large krill order will be from Azantis. I guess I should have just stuck with Mickey to begin with. As it stands, I have been quite depressed now for months. I don’t know if the brand of krill would have mattered, or not, but I have been taking the NOW NKO for several months. I have also been off Prozac for several months now. Whatever happend, it is very bad–very hard to live like this. I have started taking the OmegaBrite fish oil (3 capsules a day). I am ordering the Azantis krill, and I am going to talk to my doctor this week to see about SSRI meds.

  421. Michele Says:

    Please let us know how you’re doing Elizabeth. Wishing you all the best and hope you start feeling better soon.

  422. JP Says:

    Sorry for my temporary absence. My brother-in-law and his wife just had twins and we’ve been celebrating that joyous occasion.

    Elizabeth – I’m sorry to hear about the renewed depression. I’ve struggled with depression in my life as well. I know how hard it can be. Are you currently taking any additional steps to manage it? Feel free to e-mail me if that’s too private a question to answer here.

    I received word from my source at Neptune. Two things came to light during that exchange:

    1) There’s really no practical way to assure the quality of individual products that contain Neptune Krill Oil. That is, unless the distributors and/or manufacturers (Nature’s Way, Now Foods, etc.) test their own products and make the results public. Or, if consumers took the extraordinary step of doing it themselves.

    2) I was also told that TOLOX testing, a measure of rancidity, may be affected by some of the natural flavors used to mask the natural odor of krill oil. Lemon oil is a common additive used for this purpose.

    Be well!


  423. JP Says:

    A brand new technical paper about the phospholipid make up of krill oil:

    Be well!


  424. Elizabeth Says:

    Michele and JP–Thank you for your kindness. I was not sure if I wanted to post that last one, or not, but I wanted people to know the facts. After all, it is for our mutual krill cause and we are all here to help and learn; think of me as one of your “case studies.”

  425. JP Says:


    I’m glad that you did. Sometimes feeling free to share what’s bothering us helps a bit. Also, there are many people out there that may know of resources that could potentially help.

    I know we’re all pulling for you. Hang in there. :)

    Be well!


  426. bosgig Says:

    Can you summarize where you/the data stand on Mercola’s KO? I’m still entertaining the notion that the caplique packaging/process is superior to softgels. Thanks!

  427. MG Says:

    I am wondering the same as bosgig. Besides the caplique issue, I really want to know if you guys think Mercola is legit??? Is the Krill just not as potent so you need more of it?

  428. JP Says:

    Bogsgig and MG,

    Dr. Mercola’s krill oil is more expensive than comparable products – which aren’t housed in Capliques.

    The levels of omega-3s and phospholipids in Dr. Mercola’s product is just fine, IMO. No problem to be found there. However, the astaxanthin content is somewhere in between that contained in Superba krill oil (Mega Red, etc.) and Azantis/Enzymotec (Source Naturals’ Arctic Krill Oil, etc.) and Neptune krill oil (Now Foods, etc.). Dr. M’s krill oil has more astaxanthin than Superba krill oil but only as about half of what Neptune claims and less-than-half of the label claim stated by Azantis/Enzymotec products.

    Astaxantin in an antioxidant carotenoid (pigment) that is believed to be partially responsible for the health benefits of krill oil.

    I hope I explained the situation clearly. If not, please let me know.

    Be well!


  429. MG Says:

    Sorry bosgig, I asked to many questions taking emphasis away from your caplique question. JP, Can you address the caplique issue as being far superior, as Dr. M claims, to bovine or other modes of packaging the krill?

  430. JP Says:


    I haven’t found any scientific evidence to back up the claims made regarding Capliques. That’s not to say that it doesn’t exist. It’s just odd that a Google search turns up next to nothing of substance about this product/technology.

    Be well!


  431. bosgig Says:

    Thanks for the clarification, JP, and the follow-up, MG. Do you know what source Mercola uses for his KO? What I should probably do is look at the KO in a Source Naturals Arctic Krill softgel under the microscope too (this is getting expensive!). If it shows signficantly less of the apparent oxidation, then that would suggest the issue may be more about the NKO spoilage rate (#349 above) than the softgel packaging. The perpetual caveat, of course, is that I can’t really identify what I’m seeing in the microscope, just that I’m comparing brands to each other and judging what appears more pure.

  432. JP Says:


    I’m trying to find an answer to your question re: Mercola’s krill oil source. It’s recently changed.

    According to one krill oil insider, one of the ways of “guesstimating” the freshness of krill oil products is their scent. When phospholipids break down, they take on a more robust aroma. Simply put, the fishier a krill oil product smells … the more degradation/oxidation has likely occurred.

    This is purely anecdotal but I can tell you that the Source Natural’s Arctic Krill Oil has a much milder smell than Now Foods’ Neptune Krill Oil. I haven’t used Nature’s Way NKO product in a very long time. In your experience, does it smell any different than the Now Foods product?

    Be well!


  433. Michele Says:

    I have found that the products mixed with medium chain triglycerides, (the old Jarrow blend and Arctic Pure) don’t have much of a smell. Could be the other fish oils added. Also, to test Arctic Pure against the others under a microscope might be misleading as it’s not pure Krill Oil. I’m curious to see what the Azantis pure oil smells like when I receive it. The Swanson Superba smell is milder than NOW, but still fishy. I thought the higher amount of astaxanthin kept it from degrading as fast, but some manufacturers use added algae based astaxanthin. Very confusing.

  434. Adam Says:

    I have both the Source Naturals NKO and Source Naturals Arctic Pure Krill Oil sitting in front of me. The NKO has a fairly fishy odor (though not and the Arctic Pure has literally no odor that I can detect. The Arctic Pure is actually the first oil product of any kind that I’ve had with no odor (and I’ve tried many fish oils over the years). I’m sticking with Arctic Pure for now! I’d love to hear how any microscope test does on it compared to the others you have tested, bosgig.

  435. Adam Says:

    ick, was editing and didn’t mean to submit that last one yet. I was meaning to add “(though not overly powerful, still there) and the…”

  436. Bill H Says:

    I just received some Arctic Pure NKO today, with a labeled expiration date of April/2014. So – in theory – this should be pretty fresh NKO. But to me, it smells pretty much as semi-stinky as a freshly opened NOW NKO bottle.

    I also have a half-used NOW NKO bottle that was first opened about two months ago. When I sniffed the contents a few hours ago, it had almost no odor at all. So my totally unscientific, three-data-point test indicates to me that freshly opened NKO has a much more substantial odor than what in theory should be MORE spoiled NKO.

    I don’t know what any of this means.

  437. Bill H Says:

    Oh, in reference to that caplique issue:

    I’ve gone to websites of gel-tab manufacturers, and seen claims made that the bovine-based gel comes from countries where BSE isn’t endemic. Considering how rare BSE is in the first place, I’ll bet the theoretical lifetime risk of contracting BSE from bovine geltabs as compared with fish-based geltabs is remote in the extreme.

    As I wrote a few months ago, I believe Mercola is a master of marketing, and that capliques are just a marketing ploy.

  438. JP Says:

    Thank you for the input, Michele.

    According to one of my krill oil sources, the solvents used in extracting the Azantis/Enzymotec may have something to do with the relative lack of odor and/or freshness.

    Be well!


  439. JP Says:

    Thank you for adding your sensory experience to the mix, Adam. Together, we’ll all somehow get to the bottom of this krill oil mystery. :)

    Be well!


  440. JP Says:


    An interesting observation.

    I just mentioned (in a reply to Michele) that the Arctic Krill Oil (Source Naturals) may have less of a scent because of the solvents used to extract it. The person who offered this explanation also stated that said solvents are virtually non-existent in the end product.

    Another interesting smell test would be:

    Olympian Labs Azantis/Enzymotec (Pure) Krill Oil


    Brands of (Pure) Neptune Krill Oil

    By “pure” I mean krill oil without added fish oil.

    Be well!


  441. Michele Says:

    Will be getting the Azantis Pure 40/14 any day now. Will post results of the “smell test” as soon as I get it.

  442. JP Says:

    Great. Thank you, Michele. :)

    I’ll order the Olympian Labs (Azantis/Enzymotec) krill oil later this month and test it out. I first have to exhaust my current supply of another krill oil product. The science experiment continues …

    Be well!


  443. Michele Says:

    I just looked at the Olympian Labs Krill Oil. If it’s Azantis oil, then there doesn’t seem to be any difference between Olympian and Azantis brand 14/40. What kind of a reputation does Olympian Labs have? This would certainly be an easier (and a bit cheaper) brand to get if it’s the same exact thing. What do you think?

  444. harrowinghayride Says:

    seems to me that james is a shill for a certain company. i miss when this ‘discussion’ was with just a handful of friendly folks back when the comment thread count was under 25.

  445. harrowinghayride(the other adam) Says:

    so interesting to watch the conversation progress though. when at first it seemed NOW NKO was the clear choice. now..

    where do you see the subscribe and save? is it like an auto ship thing?

    lowest ive found Source Naturals Arctic Krill Oil is $40 with free shipping for 120 500mg capsules:

  446. harrowinghayride(the other adam) Says:


    in the interim you might try st john’s wort if you havent already. when i couldnt afford a dr visit for a renewal of my paxil prescription i did some store-brand st john’s wort for about a month and a half and it actually really worked. i just took the recommended dosage.

  447. harrowinghayride(the other adam) Says:


    im a little confused. we seem to be talking about how fishy smelling bottles = degredation whereas way earlier in this comment thread you had spoken with an experienced krill oil exec and he said krill oil is the fishiest smelling supplement and you shouldnt judge a bottle smell.

  448. Elizabeth Says:

    Thank you to “the other Adam” for your suggestion about the St. John’s Wort. It very well may work as well as an Rx, but, for now, I am not taking any chances. I am back on the Prozac(and still taking krill oil and fish oil and vitamin d3 and a multi).

    Also, while I find it interesting to investigate krill oil, it seems like the more we learn, the less we know, and that the main thing we learn is–there is A LOT of stuff we never knew that we never knew. Such is life! ;-)

    Oh, and why wouldn’t krill smell a little fishy when it comes from the sea? I do not see a little fish smell as a deal breaker when it comes to my krill oil. Should I?

  449. JP Says:


    I don’t have a strong sense about Olympian Labs quality. I’ve visited their web site. But, as you’d imagine, that only tells one-side of the story.

    I can tell you that they appear to have passed 3 of 4 tests conducted by Consumer Lab. The test they failed featured an herbal extract. One of the recent tests they passed evaluated a fish oil product. I can’t say more than that due to CL’s disclosure rules.

    What we do know about the Azantis/Enzymotec 40/14 krill oil (and their 42/25 krill oil) is that it/they passed the recent Consumer Lab testing – in it’s/their raw material state. This fact was made public. What I wish we had was a finished product test result using the 40/14 krill oil – like we do with the Source Naturals Arctic Krill Oil (Azantis/Enzymotec 42/25).

    Be well!


  450. JP Says:

    The Other Adam,

    I prefer to rely on laboratory results that quantify oxidation/spoilage. But that information is in limited supply.

    I’ve been told different stories about the relevance of “the fishy odor. Please see my following reply to Elizabeth for one thought I have about this matter.

    The reason the smell issue is currently being discussed is because a few readers have mentioned it (and I have too) just as an observation we can readily make at home. We’re essentially trying to discover any clues and connections possible.

    Be well!


  451. JP Says:


    In terms of the krill oil odor issue. For the longest time, fish oil experts have been stating that a strong odor re: fish oil supplements is an indication of rancidity. I’m assuming the same would be true with krill oil. Also, think about fresh fish. What do fishmongers always say about really fresh fish? “It shouldn’t have a strong fishy smell”. When it does, it is suggestive of fish that’s been sitting around for awhile.

    Be well!


  452. Michele Says:

    Just noticed this.

  453. JP Says:

    Thank you, Michele. Good to know.

    Be well!


  454. Adam Says:

    LOL my anti spam word was fish oil to post this…

    I was wondering if anyone knows if Krill Oil can help raise progesterone levels?

  455. JP Says:


    I haven’t seen any evidence to support a link between krill oil and progesterone. In 2003, a study was published evaluating krill oil in women with dysmenorrhea and PMS. But the researchers didn’t test for hormonal changes – just symptom severity.

    Be well!


  456. JP Says:

    Breaking News … Superba Krill Oil Improves ADHD Symptoms in Children:

    Be well!


  457. Senior Sam Says:

    Adam & JP – RE prog. levels. I take krill oil for cardio reasons (hbp, cholesterol) and also for general good health. We put my girlfriend on the same dosage I take (1g per day) because she has seriously painful periods and none of the drugs have worked (aside from Vicodin and who wants to be doped up for 5 days straight (though some might argue that question ;) ). Anyway it didn’t do a thing for her unfortunately. :( So we’re both still taking it but I wanted to share that “result” as it was kind of a “test” based actually on the thorne paper you cited.

  458. JP Says:

    Thank you for sharing your experience with us, Sam. Would you mind letting us know which product you’re using?

    Be well!


  459. JP Says:

    Not to re-open a can of worms but something was just brought to my attention that I don’t think I’ve mentioned in the past.

    I previously reported that the CL verificiation of the Azantis/Enzymotec krill oil was based on their raw material. In prior comments, I made this point to differentiate between the raw material testing and the finished products that are available to us, as consumers, in health food stores.

    What I didn’t point out is that there is one additional difference between testing the raw material and store bought products. The raw material is supplied directly by the company paying for the test. The commercial product testing was selected by a third-party (ConsumerLab) from health food stores. It wasn’t supplied by the manufacturer. This is yet another detail worth considering. It doesn’t mean that the CL certification is any less valid. It’s simply another factor that I felt should be clarified.

    Be well!


  460. Bill H Says:


    It’s certainly valid for CL to get their products from health food companies, since that’s how the rest of us get them. But CL should probably obtain samples of a given product from several sources and test all samples, to determine what’s typical. It would also be useful for CL to make note of the “use by” date printed on each sample, just in case they obtain a sample that’s been sitting on the shelf for two years.


  461. Jason Says:

    Phew, what a long read! From what I can determine so far, I think the best bet for a quality krill oil supplement can be found on post 419. Thank you Michelle, and to the rest of you.

    What do you all think? Would you say the Azantis brand krill oil is a quality supplement? It seems this is the pure oil as opposed to the 30% medium chain trigliceride mix. How was the smell on the supplement, does anyone know (recognizing that fresh fish don’t actually smell fishy)?

    What are the other high quality brands, if any, in the same price range, and which have the less fishy odor?

  462. Michele Says:

    I’ll tell you what I ended up doing with the Krill Oil. Azantis ran out of the pure 4014 and won’t have it for a few months. Then I realized the Jarrow that I had ordered was pure krill oil. Only it was the Superba brand. Honestly, I had the best results originally about 2 years ago with the triglyceride blend, Azantis brand. I’ve had my lipid profile done quite a few times and that particular blend produced amazing results. So, after talking to Mickey from Azantis at length, I ended up going with Source Naturals Arctic Pure (which is Azantis). With the pure krill oil you would have to supplement astaxanthin because there is a very low natural amount. Also, I believe not enough dha or epa. I think it seems to be fine to mix with medium chain triglycerides as it boosts the dha and epa. I also take Nordic Naturals Ultimate Omega (just one) in the evening. Source Naturals also supplements theirs with more astaxanthin. I’m having blood work done again next month to see if it’s working the way I would like. NOW produced terrible results and I’m not surprised. Also, the Source Naturals Arctic Pure has no smell at all. Adding the extra astaxanthin makes the product more stable, I’m assuming.

  463. Iggy Dalrymple Says:

    How would mixing MCT oil boost DHA & EPA?

  464. JP Says:


    At the moment, I can only comment on the smell of Source Naturals’ Arctic Krill oil which contains Azantis/Enzymotec 42/25 krill oil (w/ fish oil and MCTs) and Now Foods’ Neptune Krill Oil. Of the two, the Source Naturals’ product has a much milder scent.

    Next month I plan to order the 40/14 krill oil extract from Azantis/Enzymotec which is contained in a product made by Olympian Labs. I’ll report back on the odor once I start using it.

    Be well!


  465. JP Says:

    Iggy and Michelle,

    I believe the MCTs are used primarily as a natural “flowing agent” to help with the encapsulating process. The added fish oil in the 42/25 formulation is what increases the DHA and EPA content.

    A quick note about both Azantis/Enzymotec products: they both have added astaxantin from an algae source. Neptune also adds astaxanthin to its krill oil (from a krill source).

    Be well!


  466. Michele Says:

    Yes, Jp Arctic Pure is from an algae source. Since there are a limited amount of human studies on krill, my own personal choice is to incorporate both. I take the krill in the morning, (and based on my blood work might add another 500 mg of pure krill oil to the 2 Arctic Pure I’m already taking) and I take Nordic Naturals Omega 3 in the evening. Only thing I worry about sometimes is the blood thinning effect since I’m on daily aspirin therapy as well.

  467. JP Says:


    Your doctor may be willing to test your clotting ability. This variety of blood test is often used to determine the efficacy of anti-coagulant medication.

    More subjective measures of excessive blood thinning are broken capillaries in the eyes and unusually pronounced bruising. Other signs can be found here:

    Be well!


  468. Jason Says:

    Now I’m wondering if there’s any known difference between plant based and animal (krill) based astaxanthin. I take a plant algae based form, plus the type I get from krill supplements. I have reserves of a krill supplement and the Swanson brand, non-NKO krill.

    For extra Omegas I eat eggs from chickens fed flax, and canned and fresh Alaskan Salmon on a regular basis (which also contains some naturally occurring astaxanthin I believe).

    I have tons of supplements, I’m weeding out the ones that do not work best for me or that I can get from natural sources. Krill oil still seems like a definite winner though.

    Michelle, I was wondering what you take the aspirin for?

  469. Jason Says:

    PS. JP, I look forward to your report on the Olympian Labs product.

  470. Michele Says:

    I take the aspirin because I’m a 50 year old type two diabetic with a poor familial lipid profile. I also have been taking the Swanson Pure Superba Krill Oil for the last month before I got the Source Naturals. I was also supplementing with algae based astaxanthin. Don’t really know how it’s working as I now switched to Source Naturals Arctic Pure before I had another lipid profile done. Would love to know anyone else’s experience with the Superba Pure Krill Oil. Just tired of trying different Krill Oils and having to wait to see which ones work to lower my lipids. I also take Lipitor.

  471. Jason Says:


    Trying to figure out the puzzle to personal health can be frustrating. I’ve definitely made a lot of mistakes in my own journey, but have discovered lots of beneficial things along the way too. Unfortunately I’m still no expert.

    I know we’re getting a little off topic here, but have you ever heard of nattokinase? I wonder if it might help?

    Here’s another company that makes formulations that I like. I actually called and spoke to one of the doctors once. I’ve been getting their newsletters for some time now.

  472. JP Says:


    It’s a good question. Unfortunately, I’m unaware of any studies that have evaluated the relative bioavailability of algae vs. krill-derived astaxanthin.

    This much we do know, it appears to be wise to take any form of astaxathin after meals – rather than pre-meal or on an empty stomach.

    Be well!


  473. Jason Says:

    Good to know, JP, thanks!

  474. bosgig Says:

    I’ve now looked at NOW, Nature’s Way EfaGold, and Source Naturals Arctic Pure KO’s side-by-side under the microscope. I regret to report that, other than the Arctic Pure being slightly darker in color, I couldn’t tell any difference. Two unrelated comments on the Arctic Pure, though: 1) it has a different softgel–it is darker in color and much harder to puncture–almost closer to Mercola’s caplique than the other brands’ softgels. I don’t know if this packaging has different oxygen permeability, but I suspect it may because the fishy smell is completely absent from the bottle (even though the oil itself is only slightly milder in smell than the others). 2) The product contains soy. Immediately I wonder if it is non-GMO. GMO soy would be a showstopper for me in using this product.

    Finally, for Jason–from what I have read you want to stay away from nattokinase, but natto or K-2 supplements as MK-7 (from natto extract) appear potentially very beneficial. Natto itself is truly disgusting–occassionally I’ll order a Natto roll at my sushi restaurant and can get through 4 pieces before realizing the next one will push my stomach over the edge. I take Jarrow’s MK-7 supplement, which is from non-GMO soy (a very important consideration!). Mercola also makes one from non-GMO soy but it’s wicked expensive. Hope that helps.

  475. Jason Says:

    Hey bosgig,

    Interesting info regarding the your microscope experiment. And too bad about the soy in Arctic Pure..that’s a bummer! Provided the soy is non-GMO, however it may still be a great product.

    I was wondering about your claim to stay away from nattokinase, as many doctors I respect sell the supplement.

    Also, natto’s not really that bad! Hey the texture and slimyness of it is just plain wrong, but, put it in some soup and you’re all good! There’s enough K2 in one serving of natto to equal 7-10 Jarrow MK-7 pills (I did the math a while back), so it’s much less expensive, plus it provides beneficial bacteria and macronutrients, and other beneficial compounds you won’t find in a K2 pill.

  476. Michele Says:

    Just spoke with a researcher at Source Naturals. All their soy is non GMO. I’m glad because I didn’t want to have to throw another brand of Krill Oil in the trash. I’m running out of brands.

  477. Jason Says:


    The link you provided on post #419 is for Azantis. What is the best price anyone has found for the Source Naturals Krill oil with the MCT’s in it that you like? Also, does Source Naturals make a good krill oil product without MCT’s? And if so where would be the best place to get it? Forgive me if this question has already been answered in previous posts.

  478. Michele Says:

    Hi Jason,
    I buy Source Naturals Arctic Pure from The price is $20 and change for 60 softgels. No, they don’t make a pure Krill Oil. If you’re looking for a pure oil, Jarrow and Swanson use Superba from Aker and these products don’t contain MCT’s. I was taking one of them and didn’t stay on it long enough to see how it affected my lipid profile. Might do that in the near future, depending on how it looks after being on the Arctic Pure for a few months. I was taking 2 Swanson Krill with an additional 4mg of algae derived astaxanthin and Nordic Naturals Ultimate Omega. I plan on going back to that and testing it if I’m not happy with my blood test results. Like I’ve said before, I’ve had great results with the Azantis Krill blend with MCT’s, that’s why I went back to them. Can’t wait until I find the right brand with great results so I can finally be comfortable with my choice.

  479. bosgig Says:

    Michele, thanks for the confirmation on the non-GMO soy. That’s good news. Jason, my comment on nattokinase was based on some reading I’d done a while back. I’ll dig around and see if I can find it again. If not, please disregard my comment since your knowledge base is probably better than mine. And thanks for the tip on putting the natto in soup. . .I’ll have to try that. Now if only I could find somewhere convenient to get the natto!

  480. Bill Says:

    Wow! Great thread! After reading it all in one sitting, though, I have to laugh at the evolution from serious detective work to sniffing bottles.

    I take NOW 1000 mg KO enteric because it’s the only fish/krill oil product that doesn’t upset my stomach. After the CL article came out, I spoke with a nutritionist at NOW. He stated that NOW sends drums of NKO to an encapsulation company for processing into product. Sounds good, but it doesn’t guarantee that the finished product hasn’t degraded.

    I’m interested in seeing the comparison sheet which Neptune promised to supply. Was it ever received? published here? I’m also keen to learn the outcome of Neptune’s discussions with CL.

    Astaxanthin info
    The isomer of astaxanthin in krill oil differs from that in the algae used to manufacture supplements. I would like to know more about the astaxanthin in NOW products.

    When discussing the amount of astaxanthin in a product, it’s important to say whether it’s esterified or not. NOW 1000 mg KO enteric states “1.25 mg Esterified Astaxanthin.” NOW tech support could not tell me how much actual astaxanthin is in the product, as Neptune does not provide that information.

    The NOW Astaxanthin 4 mg states “BioAstin® Natural Astaxanthin (from Haematococcus pluvialis Extract) 4 mg.” NOW tech support said this is the amount of actual astaxanthin, which is in the esterified form. You can’t directly compare the 1.25 mg to the 4 mg.

    Swanson Krill Oil says “Astaxanthin (from krill oil) 25 mcg.” Krill oil astaxanthin is naturally esterified, so is it 25 mcg. of actual or esterified astaxanthin?

  481. bosgig Says:

    Here’s one guy’s opinion. I believe it captures the essence of what I had read before.
    I don’t really have any entrenched opinion on this, but I totally agree with you that if you can find a way to stomach natto itself, that’s the best way around any controversy (as long as it’s non-GMO!). Thanks!

  482. JP Says:

    Thank you to all who have contributed lately. Excellent material.

    I’ve been laying low because you’ve all been keeping the ball rolling quite well. But I thought I’d jump in to address a few related questions contained in Bill’s recent comment.

    To the best on my knowledge, neither Neptune or Now Foods have publicly addressed the ConsumerLab (krill oil) test results. Why? Your guess is as good as mine.

    As I recall, one of my sources at Neptune originally planned to provide a comparison chart. That plan was later scrapped – on their part. Not my choice.

    Be well!


  483. Kendra Says:

    Does anyone know of the quality of the Meridian Naturals brand?
    They sell a KriaXanthin Krill Oil found here and I just wonder about the authenticity of the product. (The price seems unbelievable, which is why I ask.) Too good to be “true?”

  484. JP Says:


    According to my sources, Kriaxanthin is an inferior form of krill oil. It’s lower in omega-3 fatty acids and contains virtually no phospholipids. Not a good combination.

    Be well!


  485. Bill Says:

    Dr Mercola krill oil redux

    Current Supplement Facts for Dr M’s krill oil from
    2 capliques provide
    - 1000 mg pure krill oil
    - 400 mg phospholipids
    - 90 mg EPA
    - 50 mg DHA
    - 600 mcg astaxanthin (as astaxanthin esters)

    From the Azantis website, description and specs for 40/14 Pure Krill Oil (40% phospholipids, 14% EPA+DHA)
    2 softgels provide
    - 1000 mg Azantis krill oil
    - 400 mg phospholipids
    - 90 mg EPA
    - 50 mg DHA
    - 200 mcg astaxanthin esterified
    Same as Mercola except for lower astaxanthin esters. Note that 90 mg + 50 mg = 140 mg = 14%.

    From the Azantis description I found this interesting:
    “The 40/14 krill oil quality contains at least 200 parts per million (ppm) esterified astaxanthin; a powerful antioxidant. The esterified astaxanthin is naturally occurring in krill and the concentration can vary over the harvesting season from 200 ppm as a minimum to 600 ppm as a maximum. As a premier krill oil supplier, Azantis guarantees resellers that our krill oil exceeds specifications over the full two year shelf life.” (200-600 ppm = 200-600 mcg per g of KO.)

    And this even more interesting:
    “On the other hand, products which contain more than 20% EPA and DHA combined, must either be a blend with high quality fish oils, such as our 42/25 grade, or contain large amounts of free fatty acids, which most likely result from inefficient extraction processes or degraded biomass.” Aaaack!

    Who makes KO that claims > 20% EPA+DHA (> 200 mg EPA+DHA per g of KO)? Let’s see, this NKO product from NOW has 24% EPA+DHA (240 mg EPA+DHA per g of KO).

    Schiff MegaRed comes in at 24.7% EPA+DHA (247 mg EPA+DHA per g of KO). Similar to NKO, but info from a previous post states it’s Superba KO. The Superba products I looked at (below) are 18%. Confusion. Label from Schiff’s site:
    What does the label say on a recent bottle of MegaRed?

    Source Naturals NKO 24% EPA+DHA.
    (Source Naturals ArcticPure contains fish oil.)

    An Olympian Labs KO label from the Vitacost site lists 24% EPA+DHA. Numbers match Source Naturals NKO.|pcrid|4428886241&refcd=GO000000111083594s_Olympian_Labs_Krill_Oil&tsacr=GO4428886241#IngredientFacts

    Superba products from Jarrow, Swanson and Twinlab have identical specs: 18% EPA+DHA (180 mg EPA+DHA per g of KO).
    Sidebar: All three have what appears to be a small amount of astaxanthin at just 50 mcg. BUT, that could be actual astaxanthin since it does not say “esterified” on the label, even though the astaxanthin is almost certainly esterified and the amount measured as esterified would be much higher.

    I couldn’t find an Azantis-based product using their Pure Krill Oil (except Dr M’s). We’ve seen that several companies switched from Azantis to Superba, possibly because Superba is 18% while Azantis (pure) is 14%. Which brings up this:
    “Enzymotec increases omega-3 levels in its krill oil” 16-Jun-2010
    “The Israel-based company said its pure krill oil 4014F grade now contains 19 percent omega-3, up from around 15-17 percent.”

    Before I get completely lost, I need to summarize. It appears to me that 24% products are NKO, 18% products are Superba, and 14% products, including Dr Mercola’s, are Azantis/Enzymotec. Therefore, according to Azantis, NKO must “contain large amounts of free fatty acids, which most likely result from inefficient extraction processes or degraded biomass.” Mickey from Azantis worked for Neptune and probably knows the whole story. Picture of Mickey

    Back to Dr Mercola…
    Why did Dr M choose Azantis/Enzymotec, and why does he say he has the best KO? Until now I thought he was BSing, but try on this logic. First, Mercola dislikes NKO. He says it’s the worst (?) and extracted with hexane (wrong). He dropped Superba. Why? My guess: Superba has low astazanthin and doesn’t add it. So, for Mercola that leaves Azantis/Enzymotec with lower EPA/DPA but satisfactory astazanthin. Maybe it is the best KO (but not the best price).

  486. bosgig Says:

    A minor question, but does anyone know why the manufacturers recommend taking KO with breakfast? Does it really matter what meal you take it with? Thanks

  487. JP Says:


    Thank you for putting together all that information. I’ll address a few points that may add to the picture:

    Dr. Mercola isn’t using Azantis/Enzymotec krill oil in his current product. One possibility is that Mercola is using an enhanced Superba blend. The following links should expose my reasoning for this hunch:

    Olympian Labs is one of the few health food store brands that contains the Azantis/Enzymotec pure 40/14 krill oil.

    Be well!


  488. JP Says:


    The “take in the morning” recommendation appears to be based on the dosing used in some of the positive (krill oil) trials.

    Be well!


  489. Bill Says:


    I spoke with Anthony at Olympian and you are correct: Olympian switched to Azantis about six months ago after Mickey paid them a visit (made an offer they couldn\’t refuse?). Anthony emailed me an Azantis PowerPoint slide show on krill harvesting and a Supplement Facts label. From the label:
    2 softgels provide
    - 1000 mg krill oil
    - 400 mg phospholipids
    - 150 mg EPA
    - 90 mg DHA
    - 1.5 mg astaxanthin
    These are the specs for the Azantis 42/25 blend.
    I called Azantis and learned that Olympian\’s product is, indeed, the blend, not the pure KO.

    Olympian is not the only reseller of Azantis 42/25 whose label doesn\’t state the inclusion of fish oil. This is a deceptive practice. There\’s nothing wrong with the product, but it shouldn\’t be misrepresented as pure KO. IMO, you can read the specs for a product and thereby identify the source.

    Which brings me back to Mercola. Other than higher astazanthin, his product specs match Azantis 40/14, not Superba. How do you know Mercola is not using Azantis or another Enzymotec source? I know Mercola has a connection with Valensa and Rudi Moerck, but why do you think Mercola is using Superba? The specs don\’t match. (Mercola interviewed Moerck recently, which I\’d like to discuss in a future post. In the interview Mercola didn\’t disclose his business relationship with Valensa.)

    For a moment assume Mercola is using Azantis 40/14, or Enzymotec 4014 from another source. How can he state that the astazanthin is 600 mcg when Azantis spec\’s say 200 mcg? Possibilities:
    (1) He\’s stretching the truth based on the possible range of 200-600 stated in the 40/14 description.
    (2) He\’s buying a higher grade of 40/14 harvested at max astazanthin.
    (3) He\’s adding astazanthin.
    (4) ?

    BTW, Azantis may have switched to Enzymotec 4014F 19% DHA/EPA KO and not updated their Pure Krill Oil web page. Someone who talks to Mickey might like to find out if they have or plan to.

    And who sells Azantis/Enzymotec 40/14 to consumers (other than possibly Mercola)?

  490. Michele Says:

    I spoke to Mickey last week, and they don’t have any 4014 in stock. Don’t know when they are expecting to get it in. They have the 4225. He takes that one himself. Not quite sure what the difference is between the 4014 and Aker Superba pure krill oil which is sold under Jarrow and Swanson now. Seems exactly the same to me. I did order the 4225 from Prime Metabolics and it had an expiration date which was 1.5 years. Arctic Pure had an expiration date of 2014. Same product. Sent the Azantis back to Prime Metabolics. The soft gels were different and I think that might be what made the difference in the odor. Arctic Pure has none.

  491. Michele Says:

    I checked the Azantis website and they have updated it from last time I looked, describing both the 4014 and 4225 in detail on separate pages. Makes it all a lot clearer.

  492. JP Says:


    Thank you for clarifying the Olympian Labs issue. That’s definitely a shady practice, IMO. Clearly out of bounds.

    There are two reasons why I think Dr. Mercola isn’t using Azantis/Enzymotec krill oil: 1) his established link to Valensa (which has partnered with Aker/Superba); 2) I have a reliable contact at Azantis who (I believe) would have revealed the Mercola link when I broached the topic recently.

    Mercola could very easily be using Superba and adding astaxanthin to the mix. Virtually all krill oil manufacturers with higher levels of astaxanthin spike their krill oil with it. How much they add is up to them.

    Be well!


  493. MG Says:

    It’s so surprise I am confused again. Are you now saying Mercola’s might be the best, it’s just more expensive?

  494. JP Says:


    That’s not the message I’m getting. Here’s a review of what I’ve taken from recent comments:

    re: Dr. Mercola’s krill oil

    I don’t think it’s the Azantis/Enzymotec krill oil. But even if I’m wrong, it would still mean that it contains the A/E krill oil with a lesser amount of added astaxanthin for a higher price. Not a good bargain, IMO.

    The only other proposed advantage is the Caplique vs. standard soft gels. I’ve yet to see any documentation on the superiority of the Caplique technology. If it exists, it’s hard to find on the ‘net.

    Be well!


  495. Elizabeth Says:

    There is a time to do detective work and a time to be still and just take your krill. I think it is time for this thread to die a dignified death (this is only my opinion). That being said, I have chosen Azantis as my favored brand of krill.



  496. Jason Says:

    I keep getting confused. Seems like the info is always changing, but I’m glad there are people around who are keeping up with it. I still haven’t been able to decide on a brand. Mercola’s is expensive, there’s something wrong with NOW’s and the Swanson brand, apparently, and the list goes on.

    I think what would really be awesome is some sort of spread sheet comparing the pro’s and cons of each brand, with info and properties about each, including types of additives and processing methods, as much as we know, plus people’s personal experience from this thread (smell of brand, lipid panels, feeling from taking it after x length of time + vs other brands, etc..) it’s ambitious, and I have absolutely no design skills, but it would be a great thing to see.

    There could even be a separate section on Consumer Labs (that’s what it’s called I hope) that ties into it.

    As for myself, I definitely don’t want to put anything in my body that would do it harm, and depending on processing methods, krill oil may or may not contain toxic compounds. I still want to find the best brand for the price, or at least a series of “goods” amongst the “bads”.

    Again I appreciate and admire the contributions that the true researchers have made on this thread, which I’ve only found recently, but in the current form that it’s in the useful information on krill is spread out and convoluted. Still, I’m glad it’s there in some form.

  497. Iggy Dalrymple Says:

    Less krill, more plankton

  498. Bill Says:

    I’m looking for the best brand of KO, too, which is why I joined this discussion. I still have questions that need answers, such as how to compare the astaxanthin in a Superba-based product, which may be listed as the actual, not esterified, amount of astaxanthin, to other non-Superba products which list the esterified amount. Or whose KO is Schiff or Mercola using? But for most of us, these are minor points.

    My thought for now is (1) buy from a reputable supplier that (2) lists the brand name of the KO (NKO, Superba, Azantis) on the package. A reputable supplier will not allow the KO to degrade during the encapsulation process and is proud of their KO source.

    If you want pure krill oil, and like the NKO specs, and aren’t concerned about NKO based on the ConsumerLab test of NOW NKO, there are any number of suppliers of NKO. Otherwise, choose a Superba product. Or, if you don’t mind the price, buy Mercola’s. I think Superba KO is a safe bet for pure KO.

    If you like the specs on Azantis’ krill/fish oil blend, then try to buy it from a supplier that lists the ingredient as “Azantis Krill Oil Blend” and states that fish oil is an ingredient.

    I’m doing this to become informed and have some fun. Nobody needs to worry about their choice of KO. Buy one you like and relax!


  499. Bill Says:

    The Mystery of MegaRed

    Schiff MegaRed is made with Superba KO that is encapsulated by Schiff. I confirmed this today with Virgin Antarctic LLC, the company that supplies Superba KO to Schiff. I also spoke to a Schiff CS rep today who said that Schiff encapsulates Superba KO bought in bulk. Swanson, Jarrow and Twinlab do the same for their Superba KO products, or they are simply selling softgels made by Virgin Antarctic. All of these companies are using the same Superba oil.

    Here is a table listing the amounts in mg of EPA and DHA in 1000 mg of the Superba KO products of a number of companies. The information comes from the companies’ bottles or websites, or in the case of Aker and Virgin Antarctic, from spec sheets emailed to me. The first number is EPA, the second, DHA, and the third is the percent of total oil from EPA+DHA.

    140 65 20.5% Superba KO spec sheet from Aker Biomarine
    160 75 23.5% Superba KO spec sheet from Aker Biomarine (max. value)
    120 55 17.5% Superba KO spec sheet from Aker Biomarine (min. value)
    120 55 17.5% Virgin Antarctic softgels
    115 65 18.0% Superba Krill Oil (Norway)
    120 70 19.0% ActivKrill (Poland)
    115 65 18.0% Swanson
    115 65 18.0% Jarrow
    115 65 18.0% Twinlab
    167 80 24.7% Schiff MegaRed

    How can it be that MegaRed contains more DHA and EPA than the Superba spec sheet stated maximum values? I asked that question to the Schiff phone rep. Let’s see what I hear back.

    (At one time Schiff was selling Neptune KO, which typically has these numbers:
    150 90 24.0% NOW NKO 1000 mg enteric)

  500. Bill Says:

    The Astaxanthin Answer!

    I received a very interesting reply from Aker Biomarine, maker of Superba KO, answering all of my questions about astaxanthin and then some. Here it is. (100 ppm is the same as 100 mcg astaxanthin in 1000 mg of KO.)

    “At the time of release the astaxanthin is about 100 – 200 ppm, and at end of shelf life we guarantee 50ppm. This is free astaxanthin and an esterified will about double the weight, but is not a relevant way to declare the content. Astaxanthin at this level has a function of protecting the product , which it does extremely well. However, for any clinical effect, publicly available information says you need to get up to about 2000ppm per day. So if you are looking for clinical effect, you may want to buy an algae based astaxanthin in addition.”

    My interpretation:
    1) At the beginning of the two year shelf life of Superba KO, actual astaxanthin is 100-200 ppm. That would be 50-100 mcg in a typical 500 mg Superba KO softgel.

    2) At the end of the two year shelf life, Aker guarantees there will be at least 50 ppm actual astaxanthin left. Superba labels always specify the end-of-life number, which explains why it seems so low.

    3) The purpose of the astaxanthin is to protect the KO. It is gradually used up as the KO ages, but some always remains.

    4) If you want to convert the amount of actual astaxanthin to the amount of esterified astaxanthin found in the product, just double the amount of actual astaxanthin. Most KO suppliers list the amount of esterified astaxanthin. A typical 500 mg Superba KO softgel will contain 100-200 mcg of esterified astaxanthin just after production.

    5) There isn’t enough astaxanthin in the product to have a clinical effect. Buy an algae-derived astaxanthin supplement (about 2 mg. per day) for that.


  501. MG Says:

    So, are we still in favor of the Source Naturals NKO or the Mercola if you want to spend the extra money for the caplique?

  502. JP Says:

    Thank you for the valuable contributions, Bill. Your information generally matches what I’ve come across as well.

    MG – I can’t comment on Source Natural’s NKO. SN’s Arctic Krill Oil would be a better choice than Mercola’s krill oil, IMO. Why? It has the support of third party testing to back its label claim; it contains more astaxanthin than Dr. Mercola’s product and it costs less.

    Be well!


  503. MG Says:

    JP, thanks for clarifying. I wasn’t paying attention to detail and purchased the NKO. This time I will get the SN’s Arctic Krill thru Amazon. Of all the choices, is that the one you still think is the best overall?
    Thanks again for fielding so many questions from those of us (me) that are confused.

  504. JP Says:


    I wish I could tell you for certain. Here’s why I can’t:

    Source Naturals’ Arctic Krill Oil seems like a good product based on the label information and the third party testing by ConsumerLab.

    But …

    There haven’t been any peer-reviewed, published trials evaluating the effects of Azantis/Enzymotec krill oil (yet). Azantis/Enzymotec supplies the krill oil (raw material) for the SN Arctic Krill Oil product. I’ve been told that studies on the A/E krill oil are set for publication very soon. However, at the moment, only NKO oil and Superba krill oil actually have clinical proof of their efficacy – in the form of published studies in medical journals. Of the two brands of krill oil, NKO has demonstrated more impressive results thus far.

    I’m sorry I can’t offer you a yes or no style answer. For the time being, we all have to make educated guesses and keep our eyes open for further developments. Feel free to ask any follow up questions, if any of this isn’t clear.

    Be well!


  505. Daniel Says:


    I have recently tumbled upon krill vs fish oil. I was looking at stuff from Mercola and I really wanted to believe that finally there is a place from where I can buy the best and forget the rest.

    But from you forum I see that this will not do. The last post suggests the usage of Source Naturals ArcticPure Krill Oil ( I understand that it does not have a big test-reputation but still is in favor here.

    The funny thing is that Source Naturals also has an NKO product ( This is positive to me, since they let you choose, but it’s also unusual :-)

    Now my questions:
    1. Is what I write above relevant?

    2. Mercola’s stuff seemd so nice, because they create krill oil products for women and kids seperately. This would make my vote for them (until reading this forum).
    I must say that Source Naturals has a child product also:
    So how important do you find Mercola’s krill oil for woman? It has evening primprose in it, which can be taken in other forms I guess if I stick to Source Naturals products.

    3. Finding the best supplements for me to think that I do the best for my family and me is very hard. I would love to find a place which I can trust and believe in. That’s why Mercola seemd nice, but googling around changed my mine. Do you guys have any comments on this? Do you know perhaps a manufacturer that seems to try giving really the best to people in every area?

    BTW I live in Europe, shipping cost is sometimes the same as the product (at least at Mercola stuff), but I wouldn’t care if I would know that that’s really the best for me. But for instance I have found Source Naturals products on ebay that ship real cheap to Europe. Interesting, any comments on this?

    What I would like to see is a place telling me what to take for sure, which I can trust 100%. There were many prolems in my family from cancer to alzheimer to parkinson to heart problems and I can go on. I would really like to give the best to my family. Mercola also seemed nice because of the food products they offer, they are really trying to give a picture about a complete solution for wealth (of course I will not order food products to Europe).

    We all know and hear from many sources that drug manufacturers are not for people. they are for profit. But these wealth-stuff are starting to smell fishy (or krilly) too :-) But I think we have to believe in something. Any comments would be appreciated!


  506. Michele Says:

    Great new information! I do have a question. Would it be too much to take 2 Arctic Pure (Azantis) and 2 Aker Superba Pure (Swanson or Jarrow)? I also take one Nordic Natural in the evening. I know in studies they have used up to 3 grams of krill oil, and I know 3 grams is generally safe but I’m wondering about Krill since it’s absorbed differently.

  507. MG Says:

    Hi Daniel
    I too have questions about Mercola’s veracity. However, I just tried the cocoa cassava energy bars and, as he stated, they are delicious. Tastes like a “Mounds” candy bar. So he was right about that! I purchased the Source Naturals NKO by mistake, meant to get the Arctic Pure. 3 of us have been taking them for about 2 weeks. They do have a slight fishy smell when you open them but there is no aftertaste and no taste at all thru the day. I only bought a 1 month supply so I will order the Arctic Pure this time, based on the consumer lab tests. I will await JP’s info on the AE Krill studies set for publication soon.
    As a side note, my husband is taking Mercola’s Probiotics. It’s only been about 2 wees so I will let you know in a few if it’s making a difference.

  508. Daniel Says:

    Dear MG!

    Thanks very much for the info!
    Mercola offers krill oil with evening primrose for women, but I have found that suppliment separately by Source Naturals.
    The question is wether other Mercola products are the best for healh, or there is a better (and possibly cheaper) 100% alternative of all of his products? I really would like to order stuff from 1 place (ok, krill oil doesn’t matter, if people say Source Naturals is better), and trust that place! :-)

    Awaiting any further update, thanks!


  509. eMusicMan Says:


    Best price ATM on Source Naturals Krill oil (with and without MCT): $17.86 for 60 500mg

    The price actually changes daily and you have to add it to your cart to see the current price (you can then remove it if you want). It’s done that way because of something about pricing being lower than they’re able to legally advertise(?).

  510. Bill Says:

    The Mystery of MegaRed: Resolved

    Vincent L. Rocco, VP Technical Affairs at Schiff Nutrition Group kindly wrote me a detailed reply to my questions about MegaRed. In short, there’s really a lot more krill oil in the pills than stated on the label! That’s the only explanation I’d buy, but it’s still a surprise to hear it directly from a Schiff bigwig.

    Here’s the entire reply:

    Dear [Bill],

    In response to your e mail that came to me through our Consumer Services group, the following explanation should allay your concerns about MegaRed label claims.

    When we first launched this product the krill oil being produced at the time would indeed have met the label claims on our packaging at a 300mg fill. Even so we used a manufacturing overage in order to ensure that each capsule had at least 300mg in it. The krill oil we are using is specified at the numbers you referenced in your e mail. As you demonstrated we cannot meet our label claims with a 300mg fill at the numbers you cited, but neither we nor our supplier, can control the content of the oil with precision since it will vary with the annual harvest of krill. This is the case with most naturally occurring ingredients such as herbs, as well as other fish oil products. For example, 3-5 years ago most fish oil sold in the US was labeled as being 18/12 for the % of EPA/DHA the oil contained. With time fish oil producers realized that the ratio in fact changed from season to season with the catch. Most fish oil is now sold as 30% fatty acids to allow for the variability in the individual components.

    For your information there are only two producers of PURE krill oil in the world, one of which is Aker Biomarine, our supplier of Superba pure krill oil. A third firm does produce pure krill oil but actually sells very little of it. In addition, Virgin Antarctic Krill oil is not our supplier. Most other consumer products labeled as krill actually contain either enhanced krill oil to boost the astaxanthin content, krill oil mixed with fish oil to boost the fatty acid content or are produced with other by products of the krill oil process and used alone or mixed with fish oil. Pure krill oil provides an advantage over these products in that the fatty acids are bound to phospholipids. This fact enhances the body’s ability to utilize the fatty acids.

    So, to walk you through how our manufacturing overages work: If the oil we receive comes in with values for DHA, EPA and Total Omega 3 oil of, for example, 5.5, 12.0 and 21.5 respectively, we would take the lowest number and calculate what amount of oil would supply the label claim. In this case the DHA would require a fill of 436mg to deliver our claimed amount of 24mg. This would mean that we would be delivering MORE than the labeled amounts of EPA and total omega 3s. In other words, we put more oil in the capsules to ensure they meet the claims, we do not manipulate the oil itself.

    The specifications you cited are minimums and maximums that the supplier commits to. Very few batches of oil are at either extreme and the fatty acid content is normally somewhere within that range. Further, the NLEA regulations recognize that naturally occurring ingredients will vary in potency and allow that if the actual amounts in the product are within +/- 20% of the claimed amount the product is compliant. We do not under fill to take advantage of this and Schiff fills each and every batch as close to label claim as manufacturing technology for softgels allows.

    I hope that this information will be sufficient to answer your questions.

    Best regards,

    Vincent L. Rocco
    VP Technical Affairs
    Schiff Nutrition Group

  511. Daniel Says:

    Hi Bill!

    Thanks for the info, seems very interesting.

    Can you tell me which krill product you prefer after this? What do you intend to take in the future and what do you take now?

    And what is your opinion about the Mercola krill oil?


  512. JP Says:


    I don’t think that’s too much. As you pointed out, up to 3 grams/daily have been used in clinical studies with relative safety.

    I use 1 gram a day. I might use more if I could afford it. Supplement costs add up. :)

    Be well!


  513. JP Says:


    I’ve generally found that combination products (such as Dr. Mercola’s Krill Oil for Women) offer less than optimal dosages of the respective ingredients. I’d much prefer buying the evening primrose oil and krill oil separately and taking therapeutic dosing of each. This approach tends to be more economical as well.

    Be well!


  514. Bill Says:


    My understanding:

    The reported special benefits of krill oil omega-3s have been linked to the high levels of phospholipid-bound omega-3s found in KO. Fish oil omega-3s are in free or triglyceride form. A pure KO product will have the most phospholipid-bound omega-3s.

    Who makes pure KO? As Mr Rocco from Schiff pointed out, there are two big players (Neptune, maker of NKO, and Aker, maker of Superba) and a minor player (Enzymotec, I assume). NKO and Superba products are readily available, but I haven’t found a product made with Enzymotec 4014F pure KO. It comes down to a choice between NKO and Superba for pure KO. How are they different? Is one better?

    We all might wish that KO was made like the best extra virgin olive oil. Imagine fresh krill being gently squeezed to produce drops of pure KO that are filtered and immediately stored in cooled, airtight containers. The reality is more like this. Frozen krill (NKO) or cooked krill (Superba) are minced and subjected to solvent extraction and heat to produce pure KO. Do these processes degrade the KO?

    Astaxanthin is an antioxidant found naturally in KO. Based on information I received from Aker customer support, modest levels of astaxanthin in KO at the time of production will protect the KO from spoiling throughout its shelf life. Astaxanthin may have health benefits, but according to Aker customer support, not at the level found in Superba. (However the Aker website states “The phospholipids and astaxanthin found in krill promote physical and mental health.” Go figure.)


    On the positive side, NKO products list more omega-3s per gram than Superba products, typically 24% of the product as compared to 18% for Superba. According to Neptune’s patent for KO, there are two extraction steps, first with acetone and second with another solvent, such as ethanol.
    My guess (really, just a guess) is that the two step extraction is why NKO has higher concentrations of omega-3s than Superba.

    On the negative side, Azantis, a reseller of Enzymotec 4225 krill/fish oil blend, states on its website “On the other hand, products which contain more than 20% EPA and DHA combined, must either be a blend with high quality fish oils, such as our 42/25 grade, or contain large amounts of free fatty acids, which most likely result from inefficient extraction processes or degraded biomass.” I believe this comment is aimed at NKO, but is it true or just BS? If you give this criticism of NKO any credence, then you would be concerned that some of the omega-3s in NKO are not phospholipid-bound. Also, after recently testing an NKO product from NOW, ConsumerLab reported below label amounts of omega-3s (about 78%) and unacceptable spoilage levels. Neptune and NOW say that ConsumerLab used a testing method that is not appropriate for NKO. Who to believe? I’m suspending judgment until more solid data is available.

    NKO has enhanced levels of krill astaxanthin on the order of 1250 mcg per gram of KO, but I can’t say if this amount is large enough to produce a health benefit.


    In post #30 JP reported that he was told by Aker that Superba is extracted using ethanol. Other than lower concentrations of omega-3’s and astaxanthin than NKO, I can find no drawbacks to Superba as unenhanced, pure KO.

    NKO or Superba for pure KO?

    Here I get into the realm of advice, a tricky business that should be taken with a grain of salt.

    If you are using an NKO product and like it, I see no reason to stop using it. The higher levels of astaxanthin might be beneficial. Also, NKO is available in an enteric-coated softgel from NOW, designed to dissolve in the small intestine, not the stomach. However, there are some unanswered questions about NKO.

    If you are using a Superba product and like it, I see no reason to stop using it. Superba doesn’t have any of the issues raised about NKO. If you want the same amount of omega-3s as NKO, take more Superba.

    Choose a company that displays the NKO or Superba logo on the product and is a company you believe will do a good job of maintaining product freshness during encapsulation. Dr Mercola’s KO, last I looked, did not state the source.

    Good luck,


  515. JP Says:

    Just a quick update. I had the chance to review some internal data about krill oil quality this morning.

    It appears that part of the reason for the fishy smell of some krill oils has to do with a breakdown product of choline (a phospholipid) known as TMA or trimethylamine. According to one inside source, there are two likely reasons for higher TMA levels found in select products: 1) incomplete extraction or purification (of TMA) during the processing of the krill oil; 2) the naturally occurring choline is breaking down at some stage of storage – in the raw material or final product stage.

    This may be a relevant question to ask of krill oil suppliers: Do you test for TMA levels in your end product? If so, how much is considered acceptable for your company? I’ve just reviewed an analysis of two major krill oils that discovered as little as 1mgN/100g of TMA and as much as 451 mgN/100g.

    Be well!


  516. Jason Says:

    Great info guys!

  517. Daniel Says:

    Hi guys!

    Thank you very much for the information!!!
    Bill: This was a very good compilation, thanks for taking the time! Made me much smarter and I think many readers will find it very interesting too.
    JP: I will do as you say about the combinations, thanks very much!


  518. Bill Says:


    Internal data! Now you’re talking!

    I don’t understand mgN/100g values except that they are a way to express a test result for volatile nitrogen compounds such as TMA. 1 mgN/100g sounds nice and low, while 451 mgN/100g sounds super stinky. Is it really 451, or is there a missing decimal point?

    I hope you will be able to provide more insight on these numbers and some guidance to us based on your review.

    And speaking of numbers, I took another look at the Superba spec sheet and there is no mention of TMA, but I did notice this interesting section on lipid composition:
    Total phospholipids 43 +/- 3 g/100g
    Omega-3 phospholipids >70% of total phospholipids
    Triglycerides <50 g/100g
    I read this to mean that the fatty component of the oil is about 43% phospholipids and 50% or less unspecified triglycerides. Within the phospholipid total 70% or more is omega-3 phospholipids, the stuff we buy krill oil for, and 30% or less unspecified phospholipids. One of the tests I would like to see performed on krill oil caps by a company like ConsumerLab is a test for omega-3 phospholipids.

    Also from the Superba spec sheet:
    Peroxide value <2 mEq peroxide/kg (measures stability)
    Ethanol <3.0% (w/w)
    As much as 3% of Superba is ethanol (ethyl alcohol, the kind in beer, wine, etc.). The ethanol must be left over from extraction. This is fine with me as ethanol is safe for human consumption. I suppose you could get a buzz from too much MegaRed.

    Also from the Superba spec sheet:
    “Should be stored dark at temperature 2-8°C [35-46°F].”
    That’s the temperature inside a refrigerator. If drums of KO should be stored cold, why not put KO caps in the fridge (as long as they are protected from moisture)? The 2008 spec sheet located by WH said the oil should be stored at <25°C, so Aker likes it kept colder now.

    And finally from the Superba spec sheet, the shelf life:
    “2 years when stored in unopened and sealed drums at recommended storage conditions.”

    Good luck,


  519. MG Says:

    So every time I go to reorder there is new info here. The Mega Red is easily available at Costco. After reading post 510 and 514, is the Mega Red a good choice? Bill and JP, what you taking at the moment?

  520. Bill Says:



    I will continue to take NOW 1000 mg enteric NKO because it’s the only fish or krill supplement I’ve ever taken that doesn’t upset my stomach.

    I’m planning to buy a bottle of MegaRed at Costco (with a $5 off coupon) for my wife. Some other time I’ll price shop for a Superba product among two or three companies I like.

    As new information comes along (JP?), I might change my mind.

    Good luck,


  521. JP Says:


    I just checked to be sure. It is, in fact, listed as 451mgN/100g (TMA).

    Be well!


  522. JP Says:

    Ladies and Gents,

    Just a brief to let you how much I appreciate all your thoughtful comments, research and suggestions. This comment thread has turned out to be a really cool community experience. I’m grateful to you.

    Something came across my desk today that I think may be of benefit and interest to some of you:

    I found a temporary source of pure krill oil (Azantis 4014) from Azantis/Enymotec. By “temporary”, I mean that limited supplies are available. The really good news is that we’ve been extended a free trial offer to test out the A/E krill oil – again, on a limited/temporary basis. I can’t join in on the experiment myself because I feel as though that wouldn’t be appropriate. But some of you would be most welcome to do so.

    Please contact me for details if you’d be interested in trying it out and reporting back about your experience.

    A couple of quick disclaimers: I don’t have any control over how much of the 4014 A/E krill oil is available. It’s available on a first-come, first-served basis. I also want to make it clear that I’m offering this opportunity only in an attempt to further our knowledge base – for you, me and anybody who reads this thread in the future. I’m not benefiting from this financially.

    Be well!


  523. JP Says:


    At the moment, I’m experimenting with the Source Naturals Arctic Krill Oil product.

    Be well!


  524. Jason Says:

    I may be interested depending on price. I’m not sure if I contacted you privately or not but I sent a message to somebody. :)

  525. JP Says:


    As far as I know, it’s completely free. I didn’t inquire about any possible shipping cost. This all came about rather quickly.

    I did receive your e-mail and will reply just after posting this.

    If anyone wishes to get in touch with me, you can always reach via the contact page on this site:

    Be well!


  526. Daniel Says:

    Hi guys!

    JP: Yup, your forum is by far the best and honest, so whoever offers to experiment probably is looking for an honest group.

    Would it be too daring to ask for the active forumers here to tell us what they use (or what they plan to use) and why? We know Bill and JP and a bit MG (but might make up mind). MG is testing Mercola Probiotics also.

    Also I would be very interested in other suppliment products you guys take and why. Although I know this is krill forum, but what the heck :-) You guys seem to know very much and don’t buy anything you see. I would be very interested and probably others too. If this is against forum laws, then sorry :-)
    Maybe there is a voting module somewhere?

    I am in the way of trying to decide what to take in the future, and I don’t just mean Krill Oil. I mean for instance Vitamin C, Vitamin D etcetc with specific product names.

    THanks in advance!


    p.s.: Besides Krill Oil, I am looking at Mercola daily products (example MultiVitamin) etc, but like Krill Oil, that might not be the best.

  527. Bill Says:


    Thanks for the 4014 offer.

    This forum IS special. Great info and no idiots. Thanks, JP!


    I too would love to discuss many subjects here, but I think the value of the forum lies in the focus on one subject.

    Good luck,


  528. JP Says:

    Ladies and Gents,

    The latest krill oil study appearing in a peer-reviewed medical journal:

    Your thoughts? My P.O.V. :

    The results of the trial indicate that both the fish oil and krill oil elevated DHA and EPA levels in the test subjects to a comparable extent. This is a noteworthy finding because the krill oil contained only 62.8% of omega-3s found in the fish oil. In practical terms, this means that the phospholipid-bound omega-3s in the krill oil were, in fact, better absorbed. Having said that, neither of the test groups demonstrated a meaningful decline in measures of inflammation, oxidative stress or serum lipids. This is clearly a disappointment from my perspective. One must also take into consideration that the enhanced absorption of krill oil isn’t very cost effective based on the findings presented in this current study.

    That’s a copy-and-paste from today’s “best of” column. I’m trying to establish the source of the krill oil used in this study. I think I know which one it is but am awaiting verification.


    As I suspected, the trial used Aker’s Superba krill oil.

    Be well!


  529. Bill Says:


    I hope we’ll be able to read the full report.

    The KO used is 18% EPA+DHA (543/3000) which suggests Superba.

    3 grams of KO per day. Whew!

    I wonder how the doses of KO and FO were selected? The study did not determine the minimum amount of KO needed to reach the plasma levels found in the study. We can’t predict the relationship between ingested amount and plasma level based on one data point.

    This is the statement that disappointed you:
    “No statistically significant differences in changes in any of the serum lipids or the markers of oxidative stress and inflammation between the study groups were observed.”

    I interpret this statement to mean that KO and FO both produced changes in “serum lipids or the markers of oxidative stress and inflammation,” but the changes produced by KO and FO were similar and not statistically different. The implication is that it doesn’t matter where you get your omega-3s from, what matters is the serum level obtained.


  530. Bill Says:

    I recently said, “I will continue to take NOW 1000 mg enteric NKO because it’s the only fish or krill supplement I’ve ever taken that doesn’t upset my stomach.”

    I bought a bottle of MegaRed for my wife and have taken one each morning for two days. No fishy burps, no upset tummy. Hooray!


  531. Suzanne Says:

    JP thanks for posting that study. I too am a little disappointed in the findings. I’d love to see a well-thought-out comparison study done on the mood aspect with krill vs. fish. Cost is a consideration for so many of us.

    I appreciate all the work you are doing to keep us in up to the minute information.

  532. JP Says:


    Thank you for your comments. I did confirm that Superba was used in the study. I’m trying to get (free) access to the full text of the study. If I succeed, I’ll report back with some of the details.


    I’d like to see that as well. More studies are set for release. Hopefully some of them will help answer our questions. I’ll post links here as soon as any new research becomes available.

    Be well!


  533. Daniel Says:

    Does this mean that you might switch to Megared?
    Have you ever tried Source Naturals also?


  534. Coverupper Says:

    “I recently said, “I will continue to take NOW 1000 mg enteric NKO because it’s the only fish or krill supplement I’ve ever taken that doesn’t
    upset my stomach.”

    I bought a bottle of MegaRed for my wife and have taken one each morning for two days. No fishy burps, no upset tummy. Hooray!


    It’s because of the vanilla they add.

  535. Bill Says:


    Prior to taking the NOW enteric KO, and more recently, MegaRed, the only omega-3 product I tolerated well was algal DHA (which I will continue to take).

    I haven’t made a decision between NOW and MegaRed. Also, thanks to JP, I received a sample bottle of Azantis pure KO which I tried this morning, and, so far, all is well. So, assuming there’s a retail source of Azantis pure KO, that’s a third option for me.

    The first KO I tried was NOW NKO 500 mg (not enteric), and that disagreed with me. Interesting, no?

    Most likely I will pick a product based on price.


  536. Bill Says:


    You asked about Source Naturals, and by that I think you mean Source Naturals ArcticPure Krill Oil, one of several retail products based on Enzymotec 4225 fish/krill oil blend with added algal astaxanthin.

    Here’s the key blurb from the Azantis page:
    “All krill oils currently on the market contain besides 40-42% phospholipid approximately 50-55% triglycerides. The fatty acid profile of these krill oil triglycerides closely resembles fish oil triglycerides with relatively low omega-3 levels, such as salmon oil. Replacing the krill oil triglycerides with high concentrate fish triglycerides increases total omega-3 levels from 19% to at least 30%. The objective of the 42/25 blend is to combine the key differentiator in krill, the omega-3 phospholipids, with high omega-3 triglyceride concentrates while also achieving therapeutic astaxanthin levels. Our signature 42/25 grade contains everything that a pure krill oil has, plus more astaxanthin, plus more omega-3.”

    The numbers on this product look great: lots of omegas and lots of astaxanthin. I would like to know more about the fish oil component.

    Because I expect the fish oil to disagree with me, I won’t try it for now (unless JP arranges for more free samples).

    Good luck,


  537. Bill Says:


    The vanilla! Who’da thunk?

    I’ve wondered if the cause of fishy burps/upset tummy is oxidation and/or spoilage byproducts. I’ve noticed that salmon and tuna sushi don’t bother me, but most meal-sized servings of cooked fish do. Could it be that I react to substances found in fish, such as oils, that are oxidized by cooking? Or that most retail fish contain at least some spoilage compounds? What about fish or krill oil pills that aren’t fresh and contain oxidized and other unpleasant components?

    Good luck,



  538. Daniel Says:

    Hi Bill!

    Thanks for the info!


  539. JP Says:


    Like you, I sometimes experience digestive issues with *some* cooked seafood. Not always, but occasionally. Sushi is fine by my system as well.

    I’ve been told (by an Azantis source) that there’s yet to be any customer complaints about the Azantis krill/fish oil blend product. Obviously, I can’t verify that. But I can tell you that I’ve yet to have any repetition issues with the Source Naturals Arctic krill oil product. I’ve been using it for the past few months – on my own dime. No financial arrangement or sponsorship involved. Just my own (current) choice.

    FYI, something I learned awhile back but that may not be clear to everyone: the added lemon oil or vanilla flavor added to some krill oil soft gels is placed on the outside of the gelatin soft gels. It’s not mixed with the krill oil itself. Just thought I’d mention it in case it was of interest. :-)

    Be well!


  540. JP Says:

    An interesting study about the potential of astaxanthin in patients with dry mouth due to the autoimmune condition Sjögren’s syndrome.

    Be well!


  541. Bill Says:


    Thanks for the new astaxanthin info. I like the idea of expanding the discussion here to include astaxanthin.

    Do you think added astaxanthin in KO pills enhances the effects of the KO, for example, in lowering LDL? What about astaxanthin as a standalone supplement?

    Good luck,


    Astaxanthin article in Wikipedia. (References 21-24 are relevant.)

    “Haematococcus astaxanthin: applications for human health and nutrition” May 2003 summary of several studies (ref. 24 above).

    Info from Mera Pharmaceuticals, maker of AstaFactor

    This page on the AstaFactor site list two recent studies.

  542. JP Says:


    I believe that astaxanthin plays a pivotal role in the lipid modifying effects (and beyond) of krill oil. Here’s a column I wrote about this topic awhile back:

    I’d love to see a head-to-head comparison of astaxanthin + fish oil vs. astaxanthin-enriched krill oil. This would clarify what role the phospholipid component of krill oil plays in its therapeutic activity.

    Be well!


  543. John Pike Says:

    I got the sample from Azantis. Thanks to Mickey and to JP! Is there any plan to offer this at retail? Or..?

  544. Daniel Says:


    I would be very interested in your opinion about the following article:

    And further more, what do you guys think about Xtend Life (


  545. JP Says:

    Ladies and Gents,

    Here’s the full-text of the new Aker/Superba krill oil study:

    I’ll add some commentary soon.

    Be well!


  546. JP Says:

    Thanks for letting us know, John. :)

    I’ll find out about the availability issue.

    Be well!


  547. JP Says:


    I think there are good points and inaccurate/incomplete points made in the comparison you linked to. One example that illustrates this is the most recent krill oil study in publication:

    The study itself isn’t a shining example of krill oil being more effective than fish oil. However, it does highlight that the phospholipids in krill oil appear to enhance omega-3 bioavailability.

    Be well!


  548. JP Says:


    I’m told that the 4014 Azantis/Enzymotec krill oil will be available soon via “a large company”. Which one? We’ll find out once the deal is 100%.

    Until then, it’s only available commercially via an online vendor:

    Be well!


  549. Jason Says:

    Personal opinion, I just opened up my first bottle of Swanson, non-Neptune krill oil, which is the first non-Neptune I have tried aside from the Mercola krill capliques.

    I was really disappointed in the smell and the almost black color of it, as opposed to Swanson/Neptune’s orange/red appearance and more appealing smell (which Swanson no longer carries). The new Swanson version of Antarctic krill oil smelled acrid to me and different than the Neptune version. I was body tested for it and my body didn’t like it, according to the therapist. She tested me for another brand at her office and my body did not want that one either. When she tested me for the Neptune krill about a month ago my body responded well to it, but I didn’t have the Neptune version for her to test on me this time.

    I know it’s probably not as valuable as a study but it’s my personal experience and I wanted to share it. It doesn’t really prove anything conclusive except that for me, I will not use the Swanson non-Neptune brand any longer.

    Still waiting on the Azantis but looking forward to testing it should it arrive.

  550. Bill Says:


    Is this the Swanson KO you tried? It’s Superba KO.
    What’s the expiration date? My MegaRed (Superba-based) gel caps have a mild odor, partly vanillin, partly fishy.

    Comparing the appearance of two gel caps, MegaRed and Azantis pure KO, the Azantis cap is darker. Is the color from the contents or the gel cap? The Azantis cap is bigger. Higher astazanthin content would make the contents redder/darker.

    Good luck,


  551. Bill Says:

    Notes on the new KO study.

    Three study groups of about 43 people each with normal or slightly elevated total blood cholesterol and/or triglyceride levels: fish oil (FO), krill oil (KO), control (nothing).

    Total daily consumption for 7 weeks:
    FO 1.8 g oil, 450 mg EPA, 414 mg DHA
    KO 3.0 g oil, 348 mg EPA, 195 mg DHA
    My comment: The EPA doses are similar, but the KO group got less than half the DHA.

    Average of % change in plasma levels from start to finish:
    EPA – FO group +145%
    EPA – KO group +146%
    DHA – FO group +50%
    DHA – KO group +43%
    My comment: Even though the daily dose of DHA in the KO group was less than half that in the FO group, KO was almost as effective as FO in raising DHA levels.

    “Although the interventions did not significantly change TG levels, a reduction was seen in those subjects in the krill oil group having the highest baseline values”
    My comment: The two charts in Fig. 2 show a noticeable reduction in triglycerides for the two KO subjects with the highest initial readings, but not for the FO group. In the FO group, two subjects with similar high starting TG levels had noticeable increases in TG levels.

    My comment: This study shows that Superba KO is equivalent to FO as a source of EPA+DHA at the relatively high levels administered if 67% more KO is taken. Also, KO may have a triglyceride lowering benefit not seen in FO. No attempt was made to sort out the effect of the astaxanthin in the KO.

    For me, because of its limited scope, the study raises more questions than it answers.

    Good luck,


  552. Jason Says:

    The Swanson brand I have does not expire until March 2011, and the gel caps are clear, but I may have jumped the gun on my assessment. Though the color differences remain, the strong odor I noticed when opening the bottle of Swanson brand for the first time is no longer present. There is still odor, but it is far more mild. The health expert smelled them yesterday and said they smelled like krill.

    I keep wondering as I see studies come out comparing fish and krill oil about 1. the quality of the fish oil tested and 2. Whether or not esterfied fish oil would make more of a difference, since it’s supposed to be better absorbed in that form.

  553. JP Says:

    Fellow Krill Oil Aficionados,

    I’ll get right down to it: the problem with this latest krill oil study (IMO) is that the results are significantly different than what one would expect … based on the initial Neptune data pertaining to krill oil and lipids. Please review the data in the link presented below for details:

    The question then becomes: Why? Is the original Neptune data inaccurate? Could the difference in astaxanthin content and/or extraction method be at play? What other reason(s) might apply? That’s part of the reason why the forthcoming Azantis/Enzymotec studies will be so revealing.

    Be well!


  554. Bill Says:


    The expiration date on the bottle of MegaRed that I bought recently at Costco is July 2012, which suggests that the expiration clock started running in July 2010, making my product about 3 months old at time of purchase.

    I’m starting to pay attention to the expiration dates on mail order supplements, esp. for those more likely to degrade.

    Good luck,


  555. JP Says:

    The Latest Krill Oil News: Aker Joins GOED:

    Now all of the major krill oil players are on board.

    Be well!


  556. Brad Says:

    I have just read through this entire thread (!) and did not find any mention of my specific issue, so I’ll bring it up if nobody minds. I had been taking MegaRed softgels for a couple of months. I have also been noticing some odd body odor over the past few weeks, though nobody else has mentioned it, including my wife. Not necessarily fishy, but spicy and almost constant, especially when I’m sitting down. It has been getting worse in the past few days. I didn’t connect the two until I read a comment somewhere else and then cut open one of the softgels to compare the odor to what I was smelling. It was a definite match. Not unpleasant, but distinctive. I have been taking one every morning with breakfast, and will stop tomorrow and see what happens. I hope this is the solution, because it has been driving me crazy. I’m sure it’s a fine product otherwise, but I may just be one of those people for whom KO causes an odor problem. Any comments or suggestions?

  557. Bill Says:


    I read your post and could only think of funny replies (think cats).

    What is the expiration date on your MegaRed? Do you have any problems digesting fats? And a more personal question…Do your stools have a KO odor?

    Good luck,


  558. Bill Says:

    I’m still taking Azantis 4014 from the free trial bottle and have nothing negative to report, so that’s a positive. I’m not sure I could tell if something good is happening. How would I know?


  559. Brad Says:

    Bill, thanks for keeping the jokes to yourself, although I do have a sense of humor. In answer to your questions, 05/2012, not at all, and ewww, no! I have noticed in the past that when I eat more than a small amount of garlic, I can smell it vaguely on my skin, and that feels like what’s happening here. But I have never had a body odor problem, keep my clothes clean, and shower every day or two!

  560. Bill Says:


    I have a friend who used to eat raw garlic when she got sick. After a day or two, she had a noticeable eau de garlic aroma!

    I’m out of ideas.

    Good luck,


  561. JP Says:


    As luck would have it, I recently wrote a column about natural ways of limiting garlic breath. However, I haven’t posted it yet.

    Here’s the (potentially) relevant part for you: Drinking green tea or whole milk at the same time as garlic can help manage the breath and smell issue. Obviously garlic and krill oil aren’t identical. Still, it may be worth a shot.

    You might also try switching to a different brand of krill oil to see if this unwanted effect persists. Some krill oil products seem to have a strong aroma than others.

    Be well!


  562. Elizabeth Says:

    Good Morning All!
    I am sorry for anything I may have said a while back that appeared negative. I was “walking through the valley of the shadow of death” at the time. However, I am now back to my cheerful self, thank you, Lord!

    I am taking the Arctic Krill now and I am taking OmegaBrite fish oil, as well. Along with daily cardio and my other supplements, I am feeling tip-top! I have to brag a bit. I am 49, but I feel 30, and girls half my age want to raid my closet.

    In the past few months, I have gone from feeling fat, ugly, and in the depths of despair, to becoming lean (5’4″ and 116 pounds), with glowing skin and an uber positive mood. I am so happy all I want to do all day is help other people feel happy. This is awesome.

    Anyhow, I was laughing about these garlic posts. I was taking garlic a few years back and feeling pretty great about it until the day my husband informed me that our entire bedroom reeked of strong garlic, and I am a very clean lady. I shower every day. As you may imagine, I did stop taking the garlic, but I think a tiny bit in a supplement is okay. I think there is a small amount in my supplement and no complaints from the hubby.



  563. Bill Says:


    Congratulations on your success! The tidbits you shared about your lifestyle changes are tantalizing, but I’m guessing there’s more to the story.

    You are taking Source Naturals ArcticPure Krill Oil ,
    which is based on Azantis 42/25 KO blend .
    The product is high in krill and fish omega-3s and has a good amount of added astazanthin. JP believes that astazanthin is an important beneficial factor in the KO supplement story. I’m willing to go along with that, even though the evidence to date is slim. Whereas previously I was just looking for the best quality pure KO, now I will be adding astazanthin supplements to my omega-3 intake. Astazanthin on its own appears to have important benefits and likely little downside.

    I read about OmegaBrite on the OmegaBrite website .
    The emphasis there is on EPA, not DHA, with EPA being touted for its anti-inflammatory (and mood-elevating) effects. This is very interesting to me and I will do more reading on the subject. Thank you for mentioning it.

    What amounts of ArcticPure and OmegaBrite are you taking?

    Good luck,


  564. Bill Says:

    Astaxanthin research summaries


  565. Elizabeth Says:

    Hi Bill!
    Well–thank you, and, you are right, there is probably a book in the story–maybe even several books, but, then,I think many people think their own life is THAT fascinating, lol, so, maybe my books would only be interesting to me ;-) .

    To answer your question, I am taking 3-OmegaBrite gelcaps a day and 2 of the Arctic Pure krill softgels from Source Naturals. I also am taking: 5,000 IU’s of NSI brand D3 softgels, a multi from NSI that is called Synergy Once Daily Version 3 (this multi includes 2000 more IU’s of D3, but in the powder form, and, finally, 5mg a day of NSI brand (nutraceutical grade) Lithium. This, with the 1/2-1 hour a day of cardio and light weight resistance training, combined with stretching, is keeping me feeling awesome. I do have to remeber to slow down on occassion and mellow out so I do not burn out or overstimulate others with my enthusiasm :) .



  566. JP Says:


    I received an e-mail from a krill oil insider who saw your comments. In his estimation, the problem may you’re having may be due to a breakdown product found in some supplements called TMA. TMA appears to be the primary cause of the stronger fishy odor associated with some KO products. Just thought you might like to know.

    Be well!


  567. Brad Says:

    Thanks, JP. I appreciate the suggestion. I want to emphasize that this occurred over a period of weeks and not immediately after taking the supplements. It could be due to a build-up over time, or to the fact that I ate other fish products during the same time I was taking the KO. Since I have stopped, I have not noticed the problem. What I am curious to know is whether or not anybody else has noticed the same thing personally. It’s fairly subtle (my wife didn’t notice it) and might take somebody with a sensitive sniffer to even notice it!

  568. Patrick Says:

    Can Krill raise the liver enzyme ALT level just like fish oil does in many cases? I have been taking Krill and had my blood tested and had a slight increase in my ALT level. Is there any info on this?

  569. JP Says:


    I haven’t seen evidence of this in the medical literature re: krill oil. A few animal studies have investigated the effects of KO on liver function and health. The results, in these experimental models, have been positive – demonstrating protective effects.

    Be well!


  570. Ted Hutchinson Says:

    Could very well be the choline content of krill that is having that effect.
    Elucidation of Phosphatidylcholine Composition in Krill Oil Extracted from Euphausia superba.
    Choline and Fatty Liver Stephan has put links to Chris Masterjohn’s articles on choline. I think it’s possible choline deficient diets are very common.

  571. Ted Hutchinson Says:

    I should have made it clear I was replying to JP not Patrick
    this paper Metabolic pathways promoting intrahepatic fatty acid accumulation in methionine and choline deficiency; implications for the pathogenesis of steatohepatitis. reports a methionine and choline deficient diet may lead to raised Alanine aminotransferase (ALT)in mice.

  572. Patrick Says:

    Thanks JP for the quick feedback and info. Have a good holiday.

  573. JP Says:


    I think you’re likely on to something. The other phospholipids present in krill oil probably assist as well. In addition, astaxanthin has also exhibited hepatoprotective activity.

    Be well!


  574. bosgig Says:

    Any update on when the Azantis 40/14 that you referenced in one of your November 10th posts (#548) will be available? Thanks

  575. Cindy in Texas Says:

    It’s taken me days to read all this, but I did, very interesting. It doesn’t seem there are any resolutions though. I would like to share some of my insights.

    Omega 3 fatty acids are PUFA’s (polyunsaturated fatty acids) & extremely fragile & starting going rancid as soon as exposed to air. PUFA’s are fine from *whole food sources* but when separated from the food, begin oxidizing immediately & cause free radical damage to the body. I highly recommend making an effort to get as much fish oil from whole food sources. I recommend eating sardines several times per week. Mackerel, salmon & tuna are also good options.

    Taking FO/KO is a convenient way to get EPA/DHA consistently but I’m still concerned about the degradation. Krill oil has naturally occurring antioxidants which make them somewhat safer but I still recommend whole food sources.

    Another problem with ingesting “just” the oil, is that you are missing all the nutrition from the whole food source. The only oil I can see recommending is cod liver oil (mixed with butter or coconut oil/MCT to maximize bioavailability) & only because whole cod livers are not readily available. I do this & then add canned mackerel &/or sardines, chia seed gel, mayo, miso, water chestnuts, bamboo shoots, whole baby corn & sometimes soaked raw sunflower seeds.

    I recommend skipping the krill oil & if you really are sold on krill, buy freeze dried krill (aka fish food) – otherwise invest in canned oysters, sardines, herring, mackerel & eat these daily.

    I started eating 1 oz. canned oysters every morning for the naturally occurring zinc (170% DV) & found it also had 90% DV of B12 as well as getting an extra 3g a week in EPA/DHA.

    Pacific herring 3oz – 1.06g of EPA and 0.75g of DHA. 1.5oz = 1g of EPA/DHA.

    Sardines 3oz – 0.45g EPA & 0.74g DHA. 2.5oz provide 1g of EPA/DHA.

    Pacific oysters 3oz – 0.75g of EPA. & 0.43g DHA. 2.5oz = 1g of EPA/DHA.

    Chinook Salmon 3oz – 0.96g EPA & 0.62g DHA. 2oz = 1g of EPA/DHA.
    Atlantic Salmon 3oz – 0.28g EPA & 0.95g DHA. 2.5oz = 1g of EPA/DHA.
    Sockeye salmon 3oz – 0.45g EPA and 0.6g DHA. 3oz = 1g of EPA/DHA.

    Atlantic mackerel 3.5oz – 0.9% EPA,& 1.6% DHA. 3.5oz = 1g of EPA/DHA.

    rainbow trout 3oz – 0.4g of EPA & 0.44g DHA. 3.5oz. = 1g of EPA/DHA.

    Light tuna, canned in water, 6 oz – 0.08g EPA & 0.38g DHA – 6 oz = 0.46g EPA/DHA. Tuna varies drastically this is the cheap common tuna found.

    Whenever taking cod liver oil, remember the findings of Dr. Price. He noted that he did not get good results from cod liver oil unless he gave it concurrently with high-vitamin butter. Just why this is so is a matter of speculation, but we do know that the very unsaturated fatty acids found in cod liver oil cannot be effectively assimilated and stored in the tissues without the presence of adequate saturated fatty acids, the kind that would be provided by butter. This means that even regular butter would help support cod liver oil therapy; but Price found that the combination of cod liver oil with high-vitamin butter, from cows eating rapidly growing green grass, was nothing short of miraculous, reversing tooth decay and bringing patients back from the brink of death.

    For lowering triglycerides & increasing HDL, I highly recommend a low carb way of eating & supplementing the diet with lots of healthy saturated fats like butter & virgin coconut oil.

  576. Cindy in Texas Says:

    I apologize for not cleaning up my previous post before submitting. I plugged in the fish into a spreadsheet & equalized the amounts to 3 ounces for an easier comparison. It seems mackerel has the highest total levels, although herring has the highest level of EPA.

    Ounces Fish EPA DHA grams

    3 Mackerel 0.77 1.37 2.14
    3 Herring_ 1.06 0.75 1.81
    3 Sardines 0.45 0.74 1.19
    3 Oysters_ 0.75 0.43 1.18
    3 Salmon__ 0.45 0.60 1.05
    3 Trout___ 0.40 0.44 0.84
    3 Tuna____ 0.04 0.19 0.23

    Adding butter or virgin coconut oil will help make the Omega 3′s more bioavailable.

  577. Iggy Dalrymple Says:

    Canned mackerel is the cheapest fish and it’s low in mercury. Some fresh varieties are high in mercury.

  578. JP Says:


    Sorry for the delay. I’m away on a business trip and that’s thrown off my routine considerably.

    I just sent an e-mail to my contact at Azantis. As soon as I hear back, I’ll let you know by posting it here.

    Be well!


  579. JP Says:


    Thank you so much for your detailed and thoughtful post. It’s much appreciated!

    Be well!


  580. JP Says:

    Thank you, Iggy. Here’s a current listing of the mercury content of commonly consumed fish:

    BTW, they support your positive view about mackerel. :)

    Be well!


  581. JP Says:


    Here’s a link to a new distributor of the 4014 Azantis/Enzymotec krill oil:

    Be well!


  582. Bill Says:

    Really, why do we take omega-3 supplements?

    (While eating sardines a few days ago, I thought of writing this post. Now, with Cindy’s comments, I can get away with an abbreviated version.)

    Do we take omega-3s for heart health? Sure. How about inflammation? Okay. But isn’t the real reason because we’re concerned that our diets don’t provide enough of these essential fatty acids?

    Since I agree with Cindy’s whole foods approach, let’s get our EFAs from food. But which foods? Let’s make the goal to consume omega-6s and omega-3s in a ratio between 1:1 and 2:1, so that we don’t counteract the benefits of omega-3s with too many omega-6s.

    Cindy’s canned fish are a good start, unless you don’t like canned fish. I think we’re going to have to throw out products from animals fed corn and soybeans because of the prevalence of omega-6s in the fat. (Yes, you have to eat the fat to get the EFAs.) I think that crosses off most store-bought beef, chicken, eggs, whole fat cow’s milk products, and even farm-raised tilapia.

    About now you’re thinking, I’ll just keep taking the pills.

    So, what’s on your list of whole foods that are high in omega-3s, but not omega-6s?

    Good luck,


  583. Jason Says:

    Chia seeds,
    Eggs from hens fed flax,
    Grass fed beef (gfb)and lamb, gfb butter and milk..I think.
    The fish that were mentioned, (though I would stay away from all farm raised varieties if possible)
    Flax seed but I prefer chia.

    I’m excited about the mackerel, I’ll have to add that to my diet. I love fresh frozen Alaskan Salmon from Trader Joes, and I eat a lot of Chicken of the sea canned wild salmon. I’ve had a hard time stomaching the herring. I just ordered some Azantis krill from JP’s recent weblink.

  584. Jason Says:

    Oh Bill, I just remembered there’s a great book about this subject and inflammation. It’s called Win The War Within by Floyd H. Chilton, Ph.D.

  585. Cindy in Texas Says:

    The omega 3 list is fairly short when you don’t include fish, only ground flaxseeds & chia seeds have more Omega 3 fatty acids than Omega 6 but they do not provide EPA or DHA (which are only found in cold water fish).

  586. Cindy in Texas Says:

    The info I posted above on the EPA/DHA of various fish was from the article posted. My main interest is in canned mackerel which I just got at Walmart 15oz net weight for $1.24 which has got to be the cheapest source of Omega 3′s EPA/DHA but for 3 ounces, I’m only finding 1.18g of Omega 3 fatty acids & the EPA/DHA would have to be less than this. I still think this is a good affordable source of whole food Omega 3 but is not the same as the mackerel from the article.

    They now claim that the naturally occurring high levels of selenium neutralize mercury found in tissues – except in a few (uncommonly eaten) low selenium fish (pilot whales, shark, swordfish, tilefish & king mackerel (which is not canned mackerel)

    I really have little concern of the mercury found in fish. I am *much* more concerned with the mercury found in flu shots, vaccines & the silver amalgam (which is actually half mercury) used for fillings in my teeth. I highly recommend all research iodine supplementation & at the very least, include kelp in the daily diet.

  587. Bill Says:


    Thanks for the book suggestion; I ordered it from the library. I’m very interested in the subject of inflammation.

    Each response to my question “what’s on your list of whole foods that are high in omega-3s, but not omega-6s?” brought questions to my mind. Let’s all dig deeper. And while we’re at it, what’s on your list of high omega-6 foods that you might wish to avoid or minimize in your diet?

    Here’s a tidbit.
    “Fatty acid metabolism and deposition in subcutaneous adipose tissue of pasture- and feedlot-finished cattle”
    J. Anim Sci. 2009. 87:3259-3277. doi:10.2527/jas.2008-1277
    This quote is taken from the abstract at the link above. Comments in brackets are mine:
    “The feedlot diet contained an average of 57% of total fatty acids as linoleic acid [LA, omega-6, n-6] and 2% as linolenic acid [ALA, omega-3, n-3]. The pasture forages contained 9% of total fatty acids as linoleic acid [n-6] and 66% as linolenic acid [n-3]. Concentrations (% of total fatty acids) of linolenic acid [n-3] were greater (P < 0.05) in ruminal fluid, serum, and adipose tissue of the pasture-finished steers, compared with the feedlot-finished steers. Concentrations (% of total fatty acids) of cis-9, trans-11 CLA [conjugated linoleic acid] were greater (P < 0.05) in adipose tissue of the pasture-finished steers than feedlot-finished steers. … It appears that only a short time is needed to alter the n-3 and CLA composition of adipose tissue in cattle finished on pasture."

    To summarize, the diet of feedlot cattle (GM corn, GM soybeans) is high in n-6 LA and low in n-3 ALA. The opposite is true for pasture-finished cattle. The pasture-finished cattle had more ALA and CLA in their subcutaneous fat than the feedlot cattle. The omega-6 to omega-3 ratio (n-6:n-3) in the fat of feedlot cattle started at 1.28:1 and ended at 5.16:1 after 140 days. For the pasture-finished cattle the ratio went from 1.20:1 to 0.87:1 (data from the full article).

    Final thought: From the study it appears that the natural n-6:n-3 ratio in the subcutaneous fat of cattle is about 1:1. The n-6:n-3 ratio in the fat of cattle can change dramatically in just a few months with a change in diet. Wouldn't the same be true for us? If you adopt a balanced n-6:n-3 diet, you can, in short order, give yourself a body fat makeover.

    Good luck,


  588. Jason Says:

    According to Dr. M. at, cows fed exclusively on pasture and grass contain Omega 3 to Omega 6 at from 1:1 to 4:1. And this is DHA/EPA not the parent ALA. This principle must also hold true for other animals like lamb and bison which are exclusively pasture fed I assume. Grass fed is expensive here in the states though. Still if one can afford it it’s worth the extra $$.

    In Chilton’s book, conventionally raised poultry and farm raised salmon were much higher in the inflammatory Omega 6 to Omega 3 percentage wise than was even conventionally raised beef, and pork too I think.

  589. Iggy Dalrymple Says:

    To overcome the stinkiness and fishy taste of canned mackerel, I sprinkle ascorbic acid powder on it, then chop up the fish and add it to salad.

  590. Linda Nieva Says:

    I was given Dec. 12, 2010 1 bottle of Schiff Mega Red Omega-3 Krill Oil, 1000 mg. but the expiration date indicated is January 2011. Is it true that this Krill Oil is still safe and effective even 2 months after its expiration date?

  591. Bill Says:


    If the expiration date is next month, your KO is already 2, or even 3, years old. Schiff’s current krill oil is Aker Superba, but if your bottle is old enough, it could be Neptune Krill Oil (NKO).

    To my knowledge, MegaRed has always been 300 mg. I’m a bit confused by your description.

    For myself, I wouldn’t take krill oil that was about to expire.

    Good luck,


  592. pedro Says:

    Hello to all,
    I have started taking Jarrow Formulas krill oil (the Azantis variety) 4 weeks ago. I feel quite good and energetic at the moment, but I am not sure put it is down to the oil. And I don’t check my cholesterol more than once a year.
    I did notice one thing however: for the past (5?) years, anytime I had as little as a glass of wine for dinner, I would invariably wake up at 4 a.m. with heartburn. Recently I had two ‘Christmas’ dinners with a variety of wines, and I felt no heartburn. This was startling enough to make me think. Could there be a link? In such a short time?

  593. Linda Nieva Says:

    You are right Bill. Guess I took my friend’s word that MegaRed is 1000 mg. I returned the soon to expire krill oil and was given a good replacement. Thanks a lot!

  594. Bill Says:

    I ate a 4.25 oz tin of Albo (not Alpo!) mackerel fillets for lunch. I expected oily fish like sardines, but it was dry, firm, mild and tuna-like in taste and texture. Woof! Er, I mean good!

    Albo is a Spanish company. I was looking for certain brands of Portuguese (Atlantic chub) mackerel fillets, but found only the Albo my first time out.

    I emailed this to Roland:
    Subject: Mackerel fillets
    Item Number: 2331
    Please tell me where the mackerel is caught and the type of mackerel. Also, where is the mackerel processed and canned.

    I got this reply:
    Roland Mackerel is wild caught and a product of Thailand. The specific type of mackerel is Japanese Mackerel (scientific name: Scomber Japonicus).

    Although I’m writing about mackerel on a krill oil thread, I’m making my comments in the spirit of exploring whole food alternatives to KO.

    Good hunting,


  595. Jason Says:

    I ordered some Azantis krill from the Healthium website JP recommended in an earlier post. I like the dark color, the darkest I’ve yet seen in a krill oil product, and the lack of strong fishy/krilly odor. The (kosher?) gelatin capsules come bubble wrapped which I like as well.

    It was funny because today in Gmail I saw an add on the side for Healthium krill which said something like, “Avoid smelly krill oil”, lol!

    Good times.

  596. Jason Says:

    Bill, keep us posted. I’ll be looking for canned salmon alternatives as well. Sometimes I do sardines but so far I tend to enjoy the salmon moreso. Saw a type of mackerel at Big Lots but it didn’t say wild caught so I’m gonna keep looking.

  597. Scott Says:

    Very Intersting comments, I started taking KO because I hated the size of my FO softgels. I had been taking FO for more then a year and wondered why, except my wife insisted. During this time I had severe inflammation in my left wrist which caused an Carpal Tunnel effect on my left wrist, my doctor who had xrayed my wrist and it had shown arthritis which was causing my carpal tunnel and it worked beyond my wildest expectations. I have taken both NKO and Superba Krill and have not seen any distinction in affect. I do wonder about the Asataxanthin difference NKO shows 1.5 mg Superba shows .25 mcg a huge difference. But the price is SO much better for the Superba, I buy it on the Swanson site for about .25 a capsule the best price I can find is it critical about the difference in Asataxanthin? I haven’t seen any difference but would like to hear other opions

  598. Jason Says:

    Sorry to get off topic folks but Scott, as I was reading your post I got a clear feeling that aloe vera taken internally would help your carpel tunnel, and when you mentioned arthritis I recalled a story of an old guy who came into my chiropractors office. Someone was trying to sell some MLM concentrated fruit drink and the old man told the individual that he didn’t need it because he used aloe vera to cure his arthritis, which had been severe. The old man’s wife attested to the old man’s story. It took him two months of taking it daily for the arthritis symptoms to reverse.

    You may wish to do some research on aloe vera on your own at this point. And I’m glad the krill oil has been working for you as well. I just read about a study on Dr. Mercola’s website in which krill oil was shown to reverse some of the effects of people with ADHD. Krill is one of my favorite supplements, and I think one of the best out there.

    Good luck, be well.


  599. Iggy Dalrymple Says:

    My late 90+ year old uncle drank WalMart aloe vera for his arthritic hands. For carpel tunnel also try vit B6, benfotiamine, and magesium citrate/malate.

  600. JP Says:

    Ladies and Gents,

    A few links that may help inform your future canned fish purchases:

    Who says shopping is easy?!

    Be well!


  601. Brad Says:

    Does anybody here have any comments about Dr. Brian Peskin? Somebody recommended that I check out his site, and he’s saying mostly the opposite of what’s being discussed here. Here’s his site, in case you’re not familiar with it:

    Not promoting anything, mind you, just looking for pros/cons.

  602. Bill Says:

    Another tin of tasty mackerel I ate today. This time it was Angelo Parodi Mackerel Fillets in olive oil 4.4 oz. (Portugal). I think I prefer mackerel to sardines.

    Good luck,


  603. Jason Says:

    JP, good info. There’s also some great info on mercury contamination in various fish types and types of canned fish in the book I recommneded before: “WIN THE WAR WITHIN” by Chilton, PhD. As I recall, canned wild salmon was one of the lower mercury contaminated foods. Size of the fish also is a determining factor in mercury accumulation (larger fish eat smaller fish and get their mercury). Whale, dolphin and shark meat are extremely high in mercury, good thing most westerners tend to stay away from these meats. What I find interesting is that the kosher philosphy seems to apply to the cleanliness of the fish here. Fish with scales, for instance, have far less mercury, on average, then fish without scales.

  604. Daniel Says:

    Hi guys!

    First of all Merry Christmas!

    I’d have a few questions, probably you guys know the answer:

    1. If a bottle of fish oil has a very strong fish smell, then it is rancid/rotten for sure (providing that no capsules are leaking)?

    2. If a fish oil causes repeatings then that means it is rancid/rotten?

    3. All questions above goes for krill oil too please.

    4. Do you guys think that if I order fish oil to Europe from New Zealand for instance, then it is normal that it can become rancid/rotten in 3 weeks shipping?

    5. How’bout krill oil? Does it have chance to become rancid/rotten in several weeks of shipment in who knows what kind of temperature?

    6. Very important question is do you guys think that vitamin suplements (in enteric coating, vitamin c, vitamin d etc etc…) can have any problem in 3 weeks shipment in who knows what kind of temperature? Is it safe to order vitamin suplements?

    Thanks very much for the answers, I hope it is not so much differing from the krill subject.


  605. Theo Says:

    I am sooooo confused having read much of this thread. Who’s got the best krill oil? Thank you.

  606. j. Says:

    605 comments deep we are! Phew!


    As one who’s been here since the beginning of the thread, I can understand your confusion. :)

    “Best” is definitely a relative term, and everyone has their favorite, and has chosen that favorite for their own number of reasons.

    I currently use NKO Krill Oil from NOW because it shows the most longevity and publishing of studies, transparency in ingredients, the most potency, and the most reasonable value. Someone earlier in the thread actually provided a link to an Amazon merchant who has a good supply so that’s who I’ve been using for the last 3 months or more – I’ll post a link below.

    NOTE: The Azantis brand that has been mentioned toward the end of this thread is also sparking my interest and I may give that a shot once it’s available through more than the one supplier.

    Here’s that link:

  607. Theo Says:

    Yes indeed, a that’s quite a huge pile of opinions to sort through. Thank you for answering my question, J. I appreciate it. And I will check out the krill you suggested.

  608. JP Says:

    Here’s my attempt at a catch up comment post:

    Brad: A cursory review suggests (to me) that Brian Peskin is cherry picking evidence to support his views.

    Daniel: Strong smelling fish or krill oil supplements appear to be largely due to an breakdown product of choline (a phopholipid in krill oil) known as TMA or trimethylamine. This is considered to be undesirable for several reasons: 1) the most obvious: the aroma; 2) it could indicate incomplete extraction or purification as TMA can be removed during the manufacturing process; 3) the odor may also reveal that the naturally occurring choline is degrading during storage.

    Theo: There’s a lot of debate about which krill oil product is best. Presently, Neptune Krill Oil has the most research to back its product. Aker is in second place in terms of published research. However some of their clinical results haven’t been particularly impressive. Azantis/Enzymotec is looking the best of late re: quality due to positive findings published by ConsumerLab. I’m keeping a close eye out for the latest information that may help us all make the best possible buying decisions.

    Be well!


  609. Daniel Says:

    Thanks JP!

    That covers the aroma part, thank you.

    But are the repeatings from the very same reason also?

    And is it possible that a 3 week postal shipping makes a fish oil or krill oil become degraded with choline? Or any other effect during postal world-wide shipment? Can postal shipping be in temperatures not good for supplements?

    Do you think that vitamin supplements can be effected by 3 week world-wide shipment also?

    These questions are because I am from Central Europe, and I have to order krill and quality vitamins from other continents, but the fish oil I have ordered got me very disappointed and I don’t know if I should order anymore, or just use the ones I can get in my country (or try with krill, ordered from USA or UK).


  610. JP Says:


    re: “repeating”

    I can’t say for certain but I think it’s possible. Higher end fish oil and (some) krill oil generally do not have this effect in my experience.

    In terms of postal shipping – again, it’s possible that the supplements are exposed to inappropriate conditions along the way. Many factors may be at play here: product stability, how the products are packaged, weather conditions, etc.

    What brand of fish oil did you purchase?

    Be well!


  611. Jason Says:

    Not to rag on one of my favorite docs, but I ordered a chocolate bar product in a addition to some supplements from his site, and the chocolate bars arrived partially melted. Being that the supplements clearly state to store them in a cool, dry place away from light, I was not too surprised when the krill oil supplement that arrived with the same shipment had me burping up krill odors.

    I believe the product was initially sound, but due to heat during transit, was damaged along the way. Now I always take the weather into consideration whenever I have any foods or supplements shipped to me.

    I ordered the same krill product from the same site on another occasion where the weather was cooler, and had no problems and no burpy krill burps either.

  612. JP Says:

    Thanks for sharing that experience with us, Jason. I try to do the same re: shipping.

    Be well!


  613. Bill Says:


    Aker is a European company. It should be possible to order Superba KO within Europe.

    Superba is pure KO without additions. An astaxanthin supplement can be taken with it, if desired, to mimic KO products that have added astaxanthin, such as NKO or Azantis Premium Krill Oil Blend.

    Good luck,


  614. Bill Says:

    Not All Omega-3s Equal When It Comes to Antidepressant Effects
    (To read the article, click on the top link on this Google search result page.)

    Meta-analysis claims that EPA is what matters when it comes to mood elevation

    Good luck,


  615. Daniel Says:

    JP, Jason, Bill!

    Thanks for the replies.
    The fish oil I have ordered is this one:
    (and the QH version also)

    What Jason writes is very disappointing. These places should know how to ship. If the products are sensitive, then they should have special care and if needed, ask more money for shipment. But right now I don’t even have an option to ask for special care on shipment.

    And one more thing. We are in winter at the moment, in Europe it is freezing cold and the stuff I ordered was just now. It appears that there is now such thing as optimal weather for shipping if I ship from other continents :-) Any comments?

    Bill: Ok, that sounds reasonable, I probably will try to order krill from Europe next time, but who knows how they have got their stock also :-) We will see.

    While I will solve the krill oil, fish oil problem, I would like to ask still 2 questions:

    1. Putting krill oil or fish oil in the fridge does not do any harm to it, it only helps to keep it fresh? Or can it do any harm too?

    2. Do you guys think that ordering vitamin supplements from the same distance is safe (from other continents)? Or can weather conditions do anything with it also? I should stick to Europe with this also?
    I am asking because I was told that enteric coated multivitamin is not affected by weather conditions.


  616. Daniel Says:

    One more thing. The manufacturer sent me free bottles because of my complaint (it is a very good company), they are on the way (I hope this time they will be ok). And another is that they give refunds if repeatings occur, so they also have a guarantee. The problem must be due to shipping, but that doesn’t make me any more calm at the moment.


  617. JP Says:


    I don’t have the specifics on hand but I recall speaking with a krill oil expert who advised against refrigerating krill oil. My recollection is that it adversely affects the naturally occurring phospholipids contained therein.

    Exposing almost any supplement to high heat or humidity will mostly likely have a negative effect re: stability. I wouldn’t count on enteric coating to prevent this effect.

    BTW, I agree with you completely: reputable supplement providers should package their deliveries with stability in mind. That’s a completely reasonable expectation, IMO.

    Be well!


  618. bosgig Says:

    I started refrigerating my KO after observing what seemed to be an alarming rate oxidation of the NOW brand KO I had at the time. I’m wondering if you have other contacts that could help you flesh out this issue more exhaustively? It seems like a very important debate. Thanks!

  619. Bill Says:


    The Superba spec sheet for bulk KO states,
    “Should be stored dark at temperature 2-8°C [35-46°F].”

    It seems to me that KO sealed from exposure to oxygen and moisture will stay fresher if kept at refrigerator temperature. However, once in a capsule, other issues may come into play, and that’s where we need an expert opinion to understand the issues. For example, is moisture more likely to penetrate a chilled capsule?

    Good luck,


  620. JP Says:

    Bosgig and Bill,

    If memory serves, the problem has to do with an unwelcome interaction between the moisture in the refrigerator and the krill phospholipids. I have a call scheduled with a krill oil specialist on Thursday. If we touch base, I’ll ask about this issue and post the details here.

    Be well!


  621. JP Says:

    The latest news on krill oil quality:

    Be well!


  622. James Says:

    looks like Krill Market will get intense one more time.. as far as I understand, Aker Superba Ethanol only process yields high levels of TMA during production.. This is believed to be the major cause for the strong odor.. for instance: twin lab & swanson.. (aker superba products)
    It is good to see consumers are getting more and more data and this should improve the quality of products in the market.

    happy new years

  623. bosgig Says:

    I’m bringing up an old topic here but as I recall no one figured out conclusively what KO Mercola uses, or even if he uses a single source. He put out another post a couple of days ago touting the CL testing that has been discussed here. I believe this points to him using A/E as his source?? Here’s the text from his site:

    “The analysis clearly indicated that our manufacturer’s krill oil contains the highest levels of EPA, DHA as well as total omega-3, compared to the other two. . .They concluded that one product was very unstable, one was moderately so, and the third – our manufacturer – was the clear winner for stability. . .When they tested freshness indicators, trimethylamine oxide (TMAO), trimethyl amine (TMA), and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVN), they found that krill oil manufactured by our manufacturer had the lowest (in most cases, undetectable) limits. . .I am pleased to say that our manufacturer passed these tests at the top of the heap.”

  624. JP Says:


    It does seem like Dr. M. is back to sourcing from Azantis/Enzymotec. It’s like a ping pong match over there. We have to constantly follow the ball! :)

    re: refrigeration issue

    According to my source, the problem with refrigerating krill oil is that the phospholipids tend to “bind to the weakest part of the softgel, in cold settings they will clump and cause a leakage in the seam of the softgel. The phospholipids & astaxanthin protect the oil so it does not need to be put into a cold storage to last a long time”.

    Be well!


  625. Shasta Says:

    Hello JP, Elizabeth and the whole gang,

    It has been fascinating to read the discussion going on, and even feel that I’m getting to know you all a bit in the process. As a research hound, it’s been fun.

    I ran across the site while looking into krill oil (not surprisingly!) after reading about it on Dr. Mercola’s website. It seems that most concur that NOW’s NKO is probably the best buy out there in terms of quality and price.

    My question relates to the EPA/DHA amounts in krill oil compared to Carlson’s fish oil (or something similar) in a prenatal and nursing situation. I’ve been quite happy with the Carlson oil, but if the NKO is better, I’ll switch. (Carlson’s amounts are 800 EPA/500 DHA per teaspoon.)

    I realize that the EPA and DHA in krill oil is more bioavailable, but will it really make up for that big of a difference (150 EPA/90 DHA)? Some recommend expectant or nursing mothers take 200mgs EPA and 500 mgs DHA daily.

    I’d appreciate any wisdom you might have!

    Thanks, and blessings all!


  626. Bill Says:

    Test (I haven’t been able to post on this thread for 2 days)

  627. JP Says:


    I’ll try to streamline the information you’re asking about:

    1) Now Foods NKO isn’t necessarily the best source of krill oil. I’ve used it in the past but a recent report by called the quality of the product into question.

    2) There’s some evidence that shows that the omega-3s in krill are more bioavailable. But it doesn’t appear that krill is the most economical source of DHA & EPA – even taking the enhanced absorption into account. Fish oil and particularly liquid fish oil is typically cheaper.

    3) It probably seems odd but the primary reasons to take krill oil may have more to do with other elements in krill besides the omega-3s: namely, astaxanthin and phospholipids. The omega-3s are valuable to be sure. But the other components are what set krill oil apart.

    4) To the best of knowledge, krill oil has yet to be tested for safety in nursing and pregnant women. There’s no reason to believe that it would cause harm to the infants or mothers. But evidence to back that up is lacking. There’s quite a lot of safety data on fish oil.

    Be well!


  628. JP Says:


    I’m not sure why your comments haven’t been showing up. Can you please tell me what exactly happened? Was it a technical issue that didn’t allow you to post? Or, did you finalize the comment and it just didn’t appear?

    I’ll check with my webmaster to see if he knows anything about this as well.

    Be well!


  629. JP Says:

    Note: I’m posting this on Bill’s behalf. For some reason there was some technical issue that prevented it from being posted earlier.


    Azantis(Enzymotec) pure KO label: 0.2 mg astaxanthin per 1000 mg KO.

    Mercola label: 0.6 mg astaxanthin per 1000 mg KO.

    All other items on Mercola’s label match Azantis/Enzymotec, but do not match Aker’s Superba.

    My guess is that Mercola’s KO is from Enzymotec. If Mercola’s source is Enzymotec, where does the “extra” astaxanthin come from?

    Statement from Azantis pure KO web page (link above):
    “The 40/14 krill oil quality contains at least 200 parts per million (ppm) esterified astaxanthin; a powerful antioxidant. The esterified astaxanthin is naturally occurring in krill and the concentration can vary over the harvesting season from 200 ppm as a minimum to 600 ppm as a maximum. As a premier krill oil supplier, Azantis guarantees resellers that our krill oil exceeds specifications over the full two year shelf life.”

    Possibilities for Mercola’s “extra” astaxanthin:

    1) Mercola is listing the 600 ppm maximum, rather than the more conservative 200 ppm minimum. (600 ppm = 0.6 mg per 1000 mg KO.) If Mercola’s KO is the same as Azantis pure KO, then Mercola’s product may not always contain the stated level of astaxanthin.

    2) Mercola is buying an Enzymotec product with higher astaxanthin levels guaranteed and his label is justified.

    3) Mercola is adding astaxanthin, but if so, why bring the level up to just 0.6 mg? A competitive level would be 1.5 mg.

    The weird part is that Mercola won’t name his source. We know it’s not Neptune, leaving only Aker and Enzymotec. It seems he doesn’t want his KO compared head-to-head with other products from the same source.

    Good luck,


  630. Shasta Says:

    Hi JP,

    Thanks so much for your insight re: fish oil vs. krill oil in a prenatal and nursing situation. I really appreciate your thoughtful and detailed answer. It sounds like I’ve been doing OK with the Carlson’s, so will keep on track there!



  631. JP Says:

    You’re very welcome, Shasta. Stop by any time as my advice sometimes changes based on the latest findings! :)

    Be well!


  632. Elizabeth Jesse Says:

    JP–Do you have Facebook? If you do, would you friend me?


    Elizabeth Jesse

  633. JP Says:


    I’m not really getting involved with FB at the moment. Instead, I’m mostly focusing on Twitter. But if anything changes and I do get active on FB, I’d be happy to friend you. :)

    Be well!


  634. cheryl Says:

    can anyone tell me which brand of krill is the best?? i did find this
    Supplements watchdog,, finds some krill oil and fish oil brands lacking

    Concentrations of DHA & EPA in krill oil and fish oil, and quality vary widely, a testing laboratory and watchdog on the dietary supplements industry, recently conducted a review of krill oil, fish oil and algal oil supplements for humans and pets. This is, perhaps, one of the only krill oil reviews out there.

    The lab reviewed, 39 products in all, 24 chosen randomly and 15 that were tested on the request of their manufacturers or distributors. Conspicuously missing from the published test results was the largest selling krill-oil brand Superba, or Mega Red krill oil, produced by Aker Biomarine in Norway. Of those tested, however, found some brands lacking:

    * Three of the branded products tested lower in the omega-s DHA and EPA than was stated on the label.

    * Three products contained spoilage.

    * A pet supplement had more PCBs (contaminants) than allowed (though the lab noted that the amount was less than is found in the typical serving of salmon).

    * Some products were mislabeled with the phrases “pharmaceutical grade” or “tested in FDA approved laboratories.” The FDA does not approve laboratories.

    * The relative concentration of EPA+DHA, one of the main value points upon which manufacturers sell their product and consumers buy it, varied widely in the results – from 8-90 percent. However, krill oil is phospholipid-based, which likely has a positive impact on how much omega-3 the body is able to absorb.

    * The cost to obtain 100mg of EPA and/DHA ranged all the way from around a penny to 15 cents for fish oil, and to 30 cents for krill oil. The lab said that paying higher prices didn’t mean that you got higher quality.

    “The good news,” said Tod Cooperman, CEO of, “is that these are very safe products. None of these had any detectable mercury. You’re going to get more contamination by eating fish.” Though varying levels of PCBs were found in the tested products, he said, none of them (except the one pet product) exceeded the stringent standards set by the Global Organization for EPA/DHA Omega-3s (GOED).

    Specific numbers and details on the specific brands and outcomes are available only to members of the laboratory. However, reached several representatives of one of the companies that supply krill oil to the manufacturers of tested krill oil supplements brands.

    Mickey Schuett, sales director at Azantis, Inc., which supplies krill oil for Source Natural’s Arctic Pure Krill Oil (one of the tested products), said “We are very pleased with the results. We’ve always maintained a high standard of quality control with our krill oil. We encourage all sellers of krill oil to do independent third-party testing on their krill oil, no matter who the manufacturer is.”

    One brand of krill oil – supplied by Neptune Bioressources (the pioneer of the whole krill-oil business) – didn’t fare well in the review. reached Dr. Tina Sampalis, Neptune’s chief science officer, who said that she was quite disappointed by the choice of analytical methods used in the review.

    “Over the years it has been established that analytical methods applicable to fish oils (omega-3 triglycerides) cannot be applied to krill oils (omega-3 phospholipids),” Dr. Sampalis said. “Applying the same method underestimates underestimates the real quantity of EPA and DHA … in Neptune Krill Oil.”

    Dr. Sampalis said that Neptune recently validated its methodologies of analysis at an independent accredited lab and certified its certificate of analysis (an industry standard for evaluating the contents of any supplement) as valid. She said Neptune would offer ConsumerLab its testing methodologies, and hoped that the lab would consider issuing a new report using Neptune’s testing methods.

    In response, ConsumerLab’s Cooperman said that his company uses the official method approved by the AOAC (Association of Analytical Chemists), an international methods validation organization. It is also the method used by other providers of krill oil,and by Australia’s Therapeutic Goods Administration.

    Nevertheless, he said, his company is happy to receive information about other validated testing methodologies, and will consider them. As well, ConsumerLab keeps unopened reserve samples that it will send to a different third-party lab, as long as the company whose test results are in question will agree to publish the new results. also pointed out that the softgels that contained the Neptune krill oil also failed for spoilage, with a TOTOX value of 57.4 (a value above 26 indicates rancidity). The findings of spoilage and the lower than claimed omega-3 levels were confirmed in a second independent laboratory blinded to the identity of the product.

    Brands of krill oil, fish oil and algae oil supplements tested, in alphabetical order, include Advocare, CardioStat (Amerifit), Carlson, CVS, Dr. Sears, Finest Natural (Walgreen), Garden of Life, Kirkland (Costco), Life Extension, Liquid Solutions, Master Omega, Natrol, Natural Factors, Nature Made, New Chapter, Nordic Naturals, NOW, NSI (Vitacost), Olympian Labs, OmegaBrite, Origin (Target), PregnancyPlus, Puritan’s Pride, Quest Longevity (Canadian), Res-Q, Solgar, Source Naturals, Spring Valley (Walmart), Swanson, Trader Joe’s, The Simpsons, Vital Nutrients, VitalOils (VitalRemedyMD), Vitamin Shoppe, Vitamin World, Weil, Wellements, and 1-800-PetMeds.

  635. JP Says:


    It’s hard to say for certain. Based on the Consumerlab results, the Azantis/Enzymotec variety of krill oil seems like a good choice. The above mentioned, Source Naturals Arctic Krill Oil is an example. However it’s important to point out that the only published studies (currently) available have used Neptune and Superba krill oil.

    Be well!


  636. James Says:

    Hi JP,
    you are correct, Neptune & Superba/Aker has clinical studies. However, Aker study did not perform too well and available in public domain. In my opinion it was not designed well compare to industry standards.
    Cheryl: Schiff Mega red not being tested of course creates a big “if” in everyone’s minds especially after seeing Neptune Krill Oil fail the quality test.

  637. Elizabeth Jesse Says:

    Hi! Just wanted to pop in and say I hope everyone is feeling wonderful. Keep taking your krill oil and have a GREAT DAY!



  638. Dr Stephen Gibson ND Says:

    Am I correct with my belief that NKO is trademarked by the follwing company and others using that TM are licsensed by

    Neptune Technologies and Bioressources Inc.

    Neptune Technologies and Bioressources Inc. (NTB – TSX. … health products from marine biomasses and currently provides the only krill oil accepted as …

  639. JP Says:


    Yes, that’s correct. Any product claiming to contain NKO is getting it from Neptune Technologies and Bioressources.

    Be well!


  640. CC Says:

    I’m new to this blog. Thanks to everyone for this valuable research.
    Please help me clarify something.
    After reading the entire blog I came to this conclusion (don’t know if it’s right but if wrong please correct me):

    In order to have the high EPA/DHA concentrations and high astaxanthin amount, you have to take a Krill Oil Blend (Krill and Fish with added astaxanthin) For example “Azantis’ Krill Oil Blend 42/25″.

    A pure krill oil supplement has much less EPA/DHA and a lot less (although naturally occurring) astaxanthin.
    So if you really want to take pure krill instead of fish oil, you have no choice but to get the lower EPA DHA and astaxanthin.

    OR … are there any pure krill oil supplements that have higher naturally occurring EPA/DHA and phospholipids.

    I’m kind of confused because Azantis states that their “Pure Krill Oil 40/14 is designed to compete on both price and quality.”
    What do they mean by “designed”? It seems to me that their Krill Oil Blend 42/25 is the one that is “designed” as it contains the additional ingredients to bring it up to this higher standard.

    Could this be why Mercola’s krill is a lower concentration, because it’s “pure”?
    Is that his selling point?

    I guess I can always take astaxanthin separately and get the pure krill oil from Azantis but would I be missing something else. Have I simplified this too much and missed something important?

    Thanks very much.

  641. JP Says:


    I’ll try to address each of your questions:

    Question #1 - In order to have the high EPA/DHA concentrations and high astaxanthin amount, you have to take a Krill Oil Blend (Krill and Fish with added astaxanthin) For example “Azantis’ Krill Oil Blend 42/25″.

    Answer #1 - This is basically accurate. The addition of fish oil allows for higher DHA & EPA concentrations.

    Question #2 - So if you really want to take pure krill instead of fish oil, you have no choice but to get the lower EPA DHA and astaxanthin.

    Answer #2 - Yes. This is especially true of (naturally occurring) astaxanthin. The difference in phospholipids is usually pretty insignificant in pure krill and the krill/fish oil blends.

    Question #3 - I’m kind of confused because Azantis states that their “Pure Krill Oil 40/14 is designed to compete on both price and quality.”

    What do they mean by “designed”? It seems to me that their Krill Oil Blend 42/25 is the one that is “designed” as it contains the additional ingredients to bring it up to this higher standard.

    Answer #3 - First let me say that I don’t represent the company. My guess is that the word ‘designed’ = ‘intended’ in this case. They probably didn’t use it in the way that it came across to you.

    Question #4 - Could this be why Mercola’s krill is a lower concentration, because it’s “pure”? Is that his selling point?

    Answer #4 - Dr. Mercola’s krill oil product is prone to periodic changes. He’s used more than one supplier over the years. At the moment, the answer to your question appears to be ‘yes’.

    Question #5 - I guess I can always take astaxanthin separately and get the pure krill oil from Azantis but would I be missing something else. Have I simplified this too much and missed something important?

    Answer #5 - Yes, you could do that. The proportions of astaxanthin, omega-3s and phospholipids wouldn’t match the levels used in many of the (early) studies using Neptune Krill Oil. But that’s not to say that you wouldn’t find positive results with this homemade blend.

    The (current) bottom line re: krill oil is that there’s a considerable amount of uncertainty about which products ‘work’ and/or how well they perform in a real world setting. I have my own ideas about how some of these reasonable concerns can be settled and how a better/more effective version of krill oil can be produced … but that’s another story.

    Be well!


  642. Jason Says:

    Hey CC, congratulations on reading the entire blog. Bet you learned a lot and got pretty confused at times as well reading all of that.

    Personally I take a pure krill oil (Azantis) and it seems to have lightened my mood and energy. I also buy quality fish oil by the bottle and take that from time to time, and I eat Alaskan salmon and land animals fed pasture so that their Omega-3 content is high and Omega-6 is much lower than grain fed land animals. I take a lot of krill to both make up for the lack of Omega’s in the small capsules and because of the other beneficial compounds it contains that fish oil does not.

    Alaskan salmon is my prime source of astaxanthin now, plus what comes in the 40/14 Azantis krill. I was taking additional astaxanthin but my body didn’t seem to react favorably to it, and there are other fantastic antioxidents out there that I take instead, such as Seanol, Alginol, and Resveratrol, and let’s not forget good old Vitamin C, D, and the others.

    Nature City’s TrueAloe aloe vera capsules are also a fantastic supplement.

    I juice vegetables and lightly cook the remaining fiber as soup and then add some sprouted lentils. Etc..

    I try not to get caught up on one supplement. There are a lot of great ones and I love learning about them, but no one supplement can ever come close to the beneficial effects a true balanced and healthy diet consisting of real food!

    Apple cider vinegar, is another great supplement. Etc.. All great supplements have their place.

  643. Bill Says:


    How did your body react to the astaxanthin supplement? Have you considered trying a different brand?

    Why do you take aloe and why is the supplement “fantastic”?

    Good luck,


  644. Jason Says:


    The side effect that was most prominent for me taking the astaxanthin supplement was very dry eyes that stung. I was taking high doses, however, and I believe it was Kal brand, which was a 10mg dose per pill. I was taking between 10-30 mg per day because I wanted to see if it would turn my skin the same color as Alaskan salmon, hahaha!

    Well it didn’t.

    I didn’t take the supplement for all that long, maybe a month to two months. It might be interesting to take it again to see if the dry, stinging eye symptoms return.

    Regarding aloe, I was in my chiropractor’s office one day when a man came in trying to sell us on the idea of Monavie, a concentrated multi-fruit juice beverage propagated by multi-level marketing.

    There was an elderly couple sitting next to me and the male who looked to be in his 80′s explained that he didn’t need it because aloe vera taken internally cured his arthritis pain and debility within 2 months.

    I began researching aloe and discovered that it has been a healing remedy both internally and externally for thousands of years. It contains polysacharides which regulate cell metabolism and over 300 nutrients in it, along with many enzymes.

    I won’t go into too much detail, I’ve only been taking aloe consistently for a very short time now myself so I can’t yet give a true personal testimony, but I’m hoping it will help me with inflammation, vertebral pain and joint stiffness. It is also said to help with IBS and my digestion frequently has been an issue for me. I’ve learned recently though that it’s mainly due to consuming foods that I’m sensitive to such as gluten and dairy–I didn’t want to believe I had these sensitivities, but time and time again my body reacts poorly when when I consume these foods and quite positively after I’ve stopped.

    The pamphlet I got in the mail about TrueAloe really sold me on the product. Too bad the same information is not on the actual website that sells the product as well. I’ll provide the web address and that will allow you to call the company to request a pamphlet for TrueAloe if you wish it.

    Or just search

    The company was recommended to me by an organization I trust. and

    I’m actually about to order TrueAloe but I haven’t done so yet. I’ve been taking Lily of the Desert Organic Whole leaf aloe vera which I bought at my local health food store. But the best of all might be fresh home grown aloe leaves. In that case I do not believe the outer leaf should be consumed as it contains some strong laxitives in it which some companies that sell aloe supplements filter out with a carbon filter.

    Hope that was helpful. Sorry I can’t give a more personal testimony about it. I’m not sure this is the right forum for that sort of thing anyway, but I always try and look at everything hollistically. We want to learn about krill because we want to be healthier. Health is the real goal here.

    That said, JP and some of you other researchers have done an amazing job in looking down the best krill and research about it, and I’m really grateful. That’s the reason why thus far I’ve settled on the Azantis brand and not mercola’s krill or other brands (thus far).

    Alginol can be read about on

  645. Bill Says:


    Thanks. My guess is that you won’t have a problem with astaxanthin in the 2-4 mg/day range. Dry eyes is a noteworthy side effect that people will want to be aware of.

    I’m interested in aloe for arthritis. I think JP won’t object if you report back here on TrueAloe after you’ve taken it for a while. You might be interested in the curcumin supplement Meriva, which is sold in capsules by various companies, as an anti-inflammatory. My subjective impression is that it works. The manufacturer (Indena) supported studies are showing good results.

    Good luck,


  646. JP Says:

    The latest news on krill oil – it effectively lowers an endocannabinoid (2-arachidonoylglycerol or 2-AG) which is associated with metabolic syndrome and overweight. A 2 gram/day dosage of (Aker) krill oil significantly lowered 2-AG levels whereas fish oil and olive oil did not.

    Great news? Not so fast: To cite the full text of the trial: “in the present study no significant differences in lipid metabolism, body weight or metabolic syndrome parameters were detected among the 3 groups of dietary treatments [9]. Therefore, the hypothesis that KO-induced reduction of plasma 2-AG levels may result in an amelioration of the metabolic dysfunctions associated with overweight and obesity will require further investigation.

    Even though the results of this study are promising, at best, it’s important to give “props” to Aker for financing the research and allowing open access to the full text of the study. Very helpful and informative indeed.

    Be well!


  647. Bill Says:


    I read Floyd Chilton’s “Win the War Within,” which proposes fighting inflammation through a combination of diet and supplementation. The relevance to this thread is the part played by EPA in Chilton’s approach. Chilton is a respected research scientist specializing in fatty acids. “Win the War Within” (Jan 2006, out of print) and the possibly identical “Inflammation Nation” (Dec 2005, still available) were published almost simultaneously in the U.S. I haven’t sorted out that oddity.

    Chilton seeks to fight overactive immune/inflammatory responses by interfering with the production of inflammatory messengers made from arachidonic acid (AA), an essential omega-6 fatty acid, primarily by limiting dietary sources of AA, such as farmed salmon and egg yolks. Supplementation with another omega-6 fatty acid gamma linolenic acid (GLA, from borage seed oil) as part of a diet high in EPA is the second part of the plan.

    Chilton doesn’t discuss the underlying causes of inflammation, but writes as if inflammation itself is the disease. And for certain conditions, such as asthma, allergies and rheumatoid arthritis that may be, for practical purposes, true. If the inflammation goes away, so does the problem. But for many other conditions he associates with inflammation such as obesity and atherosclerosis, I believe that dealing with the cause is more important. In the case of obesity, Chilton admits that moderating insulin levels by eliminating easily digested carbs is the first line of attack. Chilton also notes that moderate to vigorous exercise is anti-inflammatory.

    Chilton’s theory is controversial. Read the Wikipedia article on AA to get some positive spin on AA.

    My take away from the book is this: Sufferers of inflammatory diseases would be wise to reduce AA consumption. EPA is anti-inflammatory. If you don’t eat plenty of high-EPA seafood, take fish or krill oil. Exercise.

    Good luck,


  648. Gwen Says:

    Hello I have read many of the comments but still do not know where to send for the Azantis 42/25 I live in BC Canada but live close to Seattle. Am I right in supposing this is the best brand so far.

  649. JP Says:

    Thanks for posting that, Bill. Keeping inflammation under control is vital for anyone hoping to feel well and stay well over the long term. I don’t specifically try to avoid AA – by limiting foods such as eggs – but I get a much higher proportion of omega-3s in my diet than most and supplement with a variety of natural anti-inflammatory substances.

    Gwen – The free krill oil trial took place some time ago. If I learn of any similar offers in the future, I’ll certainly announce them here.

    Be well!


  650. Bill Says:


    I am dealing with the aftermath of a cold, and with my new awareness of inflammation, it seems like every symptom I have is connected to inflammation run amok (runny nose, achy joints). While I wait for nature to take its course, I think about my father-in-law who suffers from polymyalgia rheumatica, an autoimmune disease with major inflammatory symptoms that can last for years. We really don’t know enough about inflammation and its causes.

    Chilton’s focus on EPA reminded me that Elizabeth takes OmegaBrite, a high EPA supplement, for mood improvement. What if the mood-elevating benefits of EPA are simply because it’s anti-inflammatory? Like taking an Advil for achy joints…less pain = more happy.

    Good luck,


  651. JP Says:


    I don’t think inflammation is the entire picture but it’s likely part of it:

    This may be one of the reasons why curcumin is showing potential as an anti-depressant in animal models of depression:

    Be well!


  652. CC Says:

    First of all thank you JB and Jason for the thorough responses to my questions.
    I didn’t realize I had received the answers and saw them last night.

    I just ordered the Jarrow EPA/DHA Balance for my finger joint inflammation. It’s 400/200 mg (2/1) ratio of in favor of EPA. I am going to try this with pure Krill from Azantis (if I can order directly from them) and add 4 mg BioAstin astaxanthin and see how that goes.
    I hope to have my bases covered this way and also be able to control how much of each I am getting.
    I don’t want to overdue the astaxanthin because I tend to have dry eyes.
    I think I will be conservative in my dose of each. I do better that way.

    Has anyone else used this combo?
    Is BioAstin a good brand?

    Thanks again,

  653. Iggy Dalrymple Says:

    My late uncle swore by WalMart aloe vera juice for his arthritic hands.

  654. JP Says:


    That seems like a reasonable approach to me. Please let us know how it works out for you. Would be interested to know.

    I think BioAstin is a fine source of astaxanthin.

    Be well!


  655. JP Says:


    Interesting. Researchers are looking into the viability of aloe in osteoarthritis patients:;article=BJCN_15_6_280_282

    Be well!


  656. Jim Says:

    Hi Everyone,

    some great info on Krill Topic can also be found at I thought I would share this with all


  657. JP Says:

    Krill Oil News – Enzymotec Introduces New Quality/Stability Test

  658. Jason Says:

    Neat stuff guys. I knew I came to the right place when I started posting here. :)

    Bill, great synopsis of the “Win the War Within” book. I also personally found the info about fish toxicity (PCB & Mercury) and Omega 3 content quite helpful. I don’t remember much about what I read, just that albacore tuna preserved in water (and seemingly any fish preserved in water) was less toxic than when preserved in any other substance, particularly oil. I wonder if this is due to heavy metal contamination from the oils themselves (canola, cottonseed, soy, sometimes olive I believe).. but I don’t know.

    Other than my decision to include more EPA in the diet and restrict AA and AA containing foods, I decided on a clean canned wild salmon due to low mercury and high omega 3 levels, and I eat less chicken because it’s a much higher source of AA than beef due to diet and the way the animal converts fats from diet into AA. Same with farm raised salmon.

    As I understand, EPA and DHA exist in very high levels in the human brain. They are major components of the cell membranes of nerve cells and brain cells, enabling efficient cell signal communication to take place.

    There was a brand of Turmeric I was taking for awhile that I bought from Dr. Mercola’s website called Organic India. This turned out to be another supplement I didn’t react well to, I started getting some severe heart palpitation issues while taking it which ceased when I stopped taking the formula. This was over a year ago. But curry and turmeric spices themselves have never bothered me and I love putting them in my food. It’s a shame the supplement didn’t work out for me because I had a feeling that turmeric is a pretty healthy thing to have. I still have that feeling and am not sure why the supplement didn’t do me well. It’s possible that it interacted with the many other supplements that I also take. I take many..and they’re not studied enough to have known contraindications to one another yet.

    As far as the AA controversy, this sure is an oddity to me. The Wikilinks info you provided said they studied it at 1500mg a day with only positive results…according to Chilton, the author of aforementioned book, this is an extremely high amount. There are only 75mg of AA in one egg yolk according to

    Maybe there’s another factor that creates inflammation other than AA content, and this X-factor is much higher in animals fed a diet that also increases their AA way out of proportion from what the same animal would have were it eating it’s native diet. So much that we still don’t know. I know I feel better with the Omega’s, however, and high performance athletes take them in very high amounts for the same reason. They are shown to reduce inflammation and they boost performance/recovery.

  659. Padmesh Says:

    I have ordered Mercola krill oil and I live in SAUDI ARABIA.I received the krill oil bottle in India from USA by USPS.I have asked one of my friend to pick it up from India to KSA. I hope the long duration of transit will not create any quality issues.

  660. Dosvader Says:

    Tried Now krill oil for two months with cholesterol medication and Tricor for Triglycerides. Just had my labs done. I had dissolutely no change in LDL of 239, HDL of 46 or Triglycerides 179. A bit disappointing after reading the testimonials.

  661. Bill Says:


    First point of attack for triglycerides (and cholesterol) is diet. So is the second and third. The simplest and most obvious move is to eliminate all refined sweeteners from your diet (also high fructose fruit and fruit juice).

    Are you overweight? Diabetic or pre-diabetic? Do you exercise?

    If you are taking a statin, do you take CoQ10 and l-carnitine?

    Good luck,


  662. Ben Says:

    Saudi Arabia! Wow. The one oil you don’t have eh? :-) jk

  663. JP Says:


    I just got word from one of my krill oil sources. This person mentioned that it may be helpful to take the krill oil at least 2-hours apart from the stated medications.

    I thought I’d pass this along in case you decide to continue forward with the krill oil. Or perhaps someone else will read this and take it under consideration.

    Be well!


  664. John in Sylvania Says:

    Absolutely the best discussion I have encountered regarding FO, KO, EPA/DHA! I’m 67 years old and have been a competitive runner since high school/college. About 10 years ago I discovered that taking FO made a significant difference in how I felt. Before/without the FO I had an all-over achy feeling, which virtually disappeared when taking the FO. Occasionally, over the years, I would say to myself, well, I still have some aches and pains, how much can this FO be doing for me, and I would go off it for awhile. Within about 2 weeks I would find out what aches and pains REALLY feel like and start taking it again.

    I’m going to switch from FO to KO (which is what brought me to this blog to begin with) because of KO’s reported beneficial effects on high blood sugar. I’ll report back if anyone is interested.

    God Bless,


  665. JP Says:


    Thank you for relaying your experience.

    I’d be very interested in hearing about your observations re: krill oil. I’m sure others would like to read what you have to say also. Please keep us posted.

    Be well!


  666. Lee Says:

    I started taking one Mega Red Krill Oil a day. After about a week and got an odd sensation of buzzing like a cell phone was vibrating near my heart. I guess this is a heart palpitation but have never had one so am really not sure. I backed off and went back to one pill every other day and symptom disappeared. Do you think it is still safe for me to take one every other day? Has anyone else experienced this symptom? Also when using Mega Red what do you recommend as an Astaxanthin supplement since the level is so low in this product. Thanks for any help you can offer.

  667. JP Says:


    I can’t speak to the safety of krill oil in your specific situation. It appears that your reaction to krill oil is rather unique. I’m not sure why this apparent adverse reaction in happening. Are you, by chance, sensitive to shell fish of any kind?

    Perhaps others will chime in if they’ve experienced anything similar. I have not.

    re: astaxanthin

    I would look for the best priced astaxanthin (soft gel) supplement you can find that contains either AstaREAL or BioAstin astaxanthin.

    Be well!


  668. Dhan Walrond Says:

    My daughter is 18 years and since last December started having sever mood swings associated with PMS. I started her with Evening Oil of Primrose and after reading your posts added MegaRed as well to her daily supplement of vitamins. What I would like to know is whether or not there are any ill effects that may be associated with the combination of the Krill and Primrose.

  669. JP Says:


    Based on the research that’s presently available, both supplements appear to be quite safe. However, to the best of my knowledge the combination of the two has yet to be tested – though some nutritional supplement manufacturers currently offer blends of the two oils.

    Here’s a relatively recent (scientific) review of evening primrose oil:

    Be well!


  670. Dhan Walrond Says:

    Thank you for your very prompt response. However are you allowed to give me the name of nutritional supplement currently offering blends of both oils, or do you thing I can continue of the same regime of separate soft gels.

  671. JP Says:


    You’re welcome. One such supplement can be found here:

    Be well!


  672. Dhan Says:

    Thank you very much. I live in Trinidad; not sure if it is available here, but I am sure I will find a way to obtain it. Thanks again. God Bless

  673. james Says:

    actually i was looking at Swanson Krill Oil, and looks like there is lots of complains.. burps,rotten smell,after taste,leaking capsules.. i see that schiff mega red/swanson both use Superba lets hope they wont destroy the reputation of Krill Oil to make couple bucks extra !
    i would rather pay little more and get better quality products
    my 2 cents

  674. JP Says:


    The krill oil industry currently has plenty of issues on it’s plate. Aker, the maker of Superba, is doing at least one thing right these days: financing and publishing research to substantiate their claims. I don’t claim that their product is the best krill oil out there, however I have to give them credit for their leadership on the research side of things.

    Be well!


  675. James Says:

    absolutely correct. I hope more studies will come up sooner than later to teach us more about potential other benefits of Krill Oil..For that I think Neptune has done good job and others should be also part too. Also – quality , stability, fresh product is sooo important even more important than anything else in my opinion.. as an illustration, I would rather drink high quality water that is top notch quality and Fresh rather than water that has flaws yet has strong marketing investment behind it. same thinking for me applies to Krill .. i am hoping to see a high standards in freshness, stability , no smell on all Krill products not a hit or miss which is the current enviroment in the market place..

  676. PIXE Says:

    I have a comment on Krill Oil supplements relating to Nature’s Bounty Triple Strength Red Krill Oil 1000 mg. Reading the label shows that this is not krill oil. The phospholipids concentration is listed as 5 mg. This value is incorrect and the product does not contain Phosphatidylcholine the molecule in which either DHA or EPA is attached separately in the sn-1 or sn-2 position on the glycerol backbone. Products of krill oil supplements supplied by NKO (Neptune Technologies) and Superba (AKER) have phospholipids concentrations of 400 mg and 200 mg respectively. The EPA and DHA concentrations in these formulations are less than the phospholipid concentration. In Nature’s bounty, the EPA and DHA concentrations are higher than the phospholipids. This leads me to believe that Nature’s bounty krill oil supplement is really fish oil, triacylglycerol (TAG) form of DHA and EPA with astaxanthin added. The product (Nature’ bounty) does not smell or taste like brands made with NKO and Superba krill oil. Another product I purchased, “Total Nutrition Krill Oil” 1000 mg has the same identical ingredients as Nature’s bounty. Check your labels before you purchase. Several drug store chains in my area are selling krill oil supplements at the price of buy one get one free. This includes MegRed and the same product offered under the name of Walgreens with identical formulation of krill oil supplied by AKER (Superba).

  677. Bill Says:


    Thanks for your warning.

    Nature’s Bounty Krill Oil label

    In addition to the oddities you noted, the label does not state the source of the KO. I make it a rule to buy KO only from companies that state the source on the label (NKO, Superba, Azantis). There’s a phone number on the label if someone wishes to ask some hard questions.

    Good luck,


  678. JP Says:

    PIXE and Bill,

    The nutritional breakdown of the Nature’s Bounty product seems very similar to the krill oil manufactured by Cyvex – which is lower in omega-3s and phospholipids than Aker, Azantis/Enzymotec and Neptune krill oil. The source of the krill (krill meal) and the extraction process appear to be the reason for the difference in the composition.

    I’d volunteer to call Nature’s Bounty but I’m currently away on a business trip. I can give it a shot upon my return.

    Be well!


  679. PIXE Says:

    I just completed the analyses of Puritan’s Pride Krill Oil and Life-Flo Power of Krill. These two krill oil supplements have the same FT-IR spectra as Nature’s Bounty and Total Nutrition. It seems they got the krill oil from the same source but the labels are wrong and the supplements contain an undetected amount of phosphatidylcholine (PC) which contains the head group that is supposed to be compatible with cell structure for uptake.
    Life-flo Power of Krill: phospholipids = 210 mg
    Puritan’s Pride Krill Oil: phospholipids = 5 mg
    Nature’s bounty triple strength red krill oil: phospholipids = 5 mg
    Total Nutrition Krill Oil: phospholipids = 5 mg
    Nature’s bounty, Puritan’s Pride, and Total Nutrition have the same 80 mg EPA and 40 mg DHA per softgel. Life-Flo only lists the combined value of DHA+EPA = 120 mg which would be the same as the sums of the other three brands I mentioned above.
    Someone let me know of other brands stating Phospholipids = 5 mg.
    I purchased 38 krill oil supplements and have tested them for their composition. I was shocked that some of the products labels are totally wrong. It seems that Neptune Technologies (NKO brand) and Aker BioMarine (Superba brand) products that have their trademark seal on them are of high purity with PC. All the products that have NKO and Superba on them do have the PC molecule.
    I purchased VitalRed Wild Antarctic Krill Oil from VitalChoice that has 430 mg of total Phospholipids with 140 mg EPA and 65 mg DHA per 1,000 mg softgel (60 softgels) for $48.00. The FT-IR spectrum shows that this product has more PC than the other brands.
    I am working on a method to see if both DHA and EPA are attached to a single PC molecule which I believe is unlikely. Nature would not make it that way. I will provide evidence for this shortly by doing a mass balance analysis of the amount of phospholipids in the krill oil supplements and the amount of DHA and EPA reportedly found in the supplements. I read several of the patents for extracting the krill oil from Antarctic Krill and I believe the structures they report that the DHA and EPA are simultaneously attached to the same phosphatidylcholine (PC) molecule is incorrect.
    Sorry to be so long on this post but I am bothered by all the wrong information being marketed by Krill oil supplements. It seems every time I visit a local drug store chain, they have a “New” supplement on their shelves with Krill Oil.


  680. Brenda Skinner Says:

    My anxious question about making sure I am purchasing NKO krill oil is if it doesn’t reference NKO on the bottle, is it 100% pure genuine krill oil? I am so excited about the benefits that it can help me with. I am a breast cancer survivor that long story short, like hundreds of women that took the aromatase inhibitor Femara, have had terrible side effects to the medicine resulting in difficulites in walking, constant pain in bones, joints and muscles. Hands and knees and feet have been the worst for me. It has made lots of women disabled and not be able to walk amoungst other terrible symptoms. A glimmer of hope would be awesome. Maybe not a cure but some releif would be so so great.
    I would appreciate it if someone can help my anxiousness over the genuine article or the fake stuff. There are so many scams and it is so expensive. Is Schiff MegaRed Krill Oil a good product? One place it says 100% pure krill oil and others that are cheaper leave that off. This is my confusion Please Help :)

  681. Bill Says:


    Thank you for your investigative efforts. KO is a hot item and I’m not surprised you’re finding substandard products. I’ll be glad to see them exposed.

    I’ve reported here on mislabeled KO, such as companies selling Azantis Krill Oil Blend labeled as Pure Krill Oil but listing the Supplement Facts for the blend.

    Schiff MegaRed is sold as 300 mg. of Superba KO, but that is not enough KO to match the label specs. In an email to me, the VP Technical Affairs claimed that there is more than 300 mg in each softgel and that’s why the label claims are true (more like 400 mg would be needed). I’d love to see this claim tested.

    Another issue that’s been bugging me and begging to be tested is how much of the KO in NKO is bound to PC and how much is in triglyceride or free fatty acid form. Neptune’s patent describes a two-stage extraction process that, to me, has the potential to disassociate PC-bound KO. NKO is a blend of the output from two or more extraction processes.

    Good luck,


  682. JP Says:


    Many thanks for your valuable analysis. Excellent information.


    Neptune Krill Oil (NKO) is not the only source of pure krill oil. It’s simply a patented form of krill oil. There are others on the market made by Aker and Enzymotec.

    One way to determine if a product is 100% krill oil is to check whether or not fish oil is listed as an ingredient on the label. Look at the “Other Ingredients” on the bottom of the label – under the nutritional table. If fish oil is listed there, then the product is a blend of fish oil and krill oil. Some products, such as Source Naturals Arctic Pure Krill Oil, fall into this category.

    Be well!


  683. PIXE Says:

    If it says 100 % krill oil it is correct from the 38 samples that I analyzed. Brands with NKO and Superba that I analyzed were of high purity. One way to determine how pure the product is to see if the sample will dissolve or emulsify in water. A blend will only partially dissolve and if it is really fish oil then it will not dissolve.

    JP thanks for the tip on other manufacturers of KO. What name brand KO does Enzymotec market?

  684. JP Says:


    Enzymotec manufactures krill oil that is used in a variety of products distributed via the (US-based) Azantis.

    A few of the higher profile products that contain Azantis/Enzymotec krill oil include Dr. Mercola’s krill oil and the previously mentioned Source Naturals’ Arctic Pure krill oil.

    Be well!


  685. Bill Says:

    Some companies that sell Azantis krill/fish oil blend have mistakenly labeled the package as pure krill oil. I’ve spotted 2 so far and notified the companies. One company for sure changed the label and added fish oil to the list of ingredients.

    Here’s how to tell: If the box says pure krill oil, but the Supplement Facts match the specs of Azantis KO blend, then there’s something fishy about the product.

    Good luck,


  686. Padmesh Says:

    I received my Mercola krill oil but observed that there was a leak of oil from the capsules and wrote to Mercola and they have sent a free replacement.

  687. PIXE Says:

    I just completed FT-IR analyses of two other krill oil supplements products.
    Healthy Choice Naturals: claims 200 mg phospholipids and I did not detect any.
    Good’n Natural: claims 5 mg phospholipids and I did not detect any. These products seem to be from the same source as:

    Life-flo Power of Krill: phospholipids = 210 mg
    Puritan’s Pride Krill Oil: phospholipids = 5 mg
    Nature’s bounty triple strength red krill oil: phospholipids = 5 mg
    Total Nutrition Krill Oil: phospholipids = 5 mg
    Nature’s bounty, Puritan’s Pride, and Total Nutrition have the same 80 mg EPA and 40.
    These products are just 18:12 fish oil i.e. EPA 180 mg, DHA 120 mg. Why pay $21.00 for these products for 60 capsules for fish oil with astaxanthin added.

    It seems these brands just put their label on the products without checking the contents. The giveaway is the 5 mg of phospholipids in the products. As you know, the reported benefits of krill oil is suppose to be the binding of DHA or EPA to the phospholipid Phosphatidylcholine. The other fatty acid bound to the Phosphatidylcholine is a saturated fatty acid such as 18:0 and 16:0.

    Oh well, these companies need to do their homework.

    J.P.: Did you contact Nature’s bounty about their Triple Strength Red Krill Oil supplement? I sent them an e-mail but no response.

    Bill: Thanks for the tip on Azantis and I just got my sample in the mail and will test it tomorrow.


  688. Ben M. Says:

    I use Mercola’s. I can’t say I trust in him as a person, but the product has worked well for me. I use Amazon and the product is shipped with dry ice in the summer and just bubble wrapped in the winter.

    180 for $80, free shipping. Cheaper than buying direct from him and I’m not sure if he offers the same shipping “niceties.”

    JP do you have any blog on your site that puts the various oils head to head? Like with a graphic chart maybe? (fish oil, krill oil, flaxseed oil, olive oil, castor oil, etc)

  689. JP Says:


    I just spoke to a Nature’s Bounty representative and he confirmed that they do, in fact, source their krill oil from Cyvex.

    He also was adamant that the product contained fatty acids coming only from krill oil – not fish oil.

    Be well!


  690. JP Says:


    I haven’t (yet) created such a chart. It’s a good idea though.

    Be well!


  691. Bill Says:


    “adamant that the product contained fatty acids coming only from krill oil”

    If the fatty acids are disassociated from the phospholipids, I would not consider it krill oil.

  692. PIXE Says:

    Here is a link to a web cam of live krill.


  693. PIXE Says:

    I analyzed the krill oil supplement Advance Physician Formulas (Lot: 1728-002) with KriaXanthin (Cyvex Nutrition Inc.) and it has almost no phosphatidylcholine (PC) that contains EPA and DHA. This product appears to be regular fish oil 18:12 (180 mg EPA, 120 mg DHA) with astaxanthin added. The label is incorrect stating that “Antarctic Krill Oil (Euphasia pacifica)”. Euphasia pacifica is krill from the Northeast Pacific Ocean. As you know, Antarctic krill is Euphausia superba and is harvested from the Southern Ocean. This product is the same as:
    Nature’s Bounty Triple Strength Red Krill oil (Lot 374051-02)
    Good’n Natural Krill Oil (Lot 374051-01)
    Healthy Choice Naturals Purified Krill Oil (Lot C2710)
    Life-flo Power of Krill (Lot 140710)
    Puritan’s Pride Krill Oil (Lot 374280-12)
    Total Nutrition Krill Oil (Lot 9139)

    I would suspect that all these krill oil supplements obtain their krill oil from Cyvex.
    Notice that Good’n Natural and Nature’s bounty have the same prefix lot number (374051). Further reading of these labels shows that they contain 5 mg phospholipids (PL) and 80 mg EPA and 40 mg DHA per softgel. This would suggest that your EPA and DHA are not coming from PL. So, the content of krill oil supplements needs to have the labels written to reflect what is actually in krill oil. Labels should state the amount of EPA and DHA coming from triacylglycerols (TAG) and EPA and DHA coming from phospholipids (PL). If you read US Patent US6800299 (patented Oct 5, 2004), inventors Beaudin and Martin, assigned to the University of Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada, and ended up owned by Neptune Technologies, describes how they extract krill oil from Euphasia pacifica using acetone. This is the patent that Neptune Tech uses to say that their krill oil NKO is patented. Krill oil contains both TAG and PL both of which have DHA and EPA.

  694. JP Says:

    Thank you, PIXE. Your information is invaluable.

    Be well!


  695. PIXE Says:

    Something is fishy about RaiNisa krill oil. Product is basically fish oil and appears it comes from the same source as the others I mentioned including Nature’s Bounty Triple Strength Red Krill Oil. For every analytical test, I also taste the products and this product does not have the characteristic bitter taste as krill oil from Neptune and Aker. Also, it does not smell like krill oil. So far, the best advice I would offer those thinking about purchasing krill oil supplements is to stick to those products that have the NKO (Neptune Tech) and Superba (Aker BioMarine) logos on the bottles. I would not purchase brands with no source listed.

  696. debbie Says:

    This was a grat website to run across with very devoted bloggers!
    I’m a nurse and though I admire your efforts with all your research I do have to agree with JP’s comments way back in post 258 that NONE of these companies are really obligated to put what they say into their products! These are not DRUGS and thus are not regulated by the FDA. They are their own “watch-dogs” and thus can pretty much claims WHATEVER THEY WANT. You can only HOPE you get a reputable company (better chances with a larger organization who might be “checked” by independent labs such as was done> and found NOT to have ideal quality control) Each and every Lot# & bottle can differ with what actual MG amt of ingredients AND contaminants it may contain. It’s rather scary.
    We have to TRUST them and as mentioned – hope they want the best for their customers. But the bottom line is always $$> so if they can cut corners- they will. Plus, if some elements are unstable the risks obviously become even higher that the end product may be less potent than stated on the label. Thankfully, in this case-it seems to be a non-toxic supplement even at higher doses or if a little rancid. But- beware with your other “herbal” and nutraceuticals… What you see is not always what you get.
    Best of luck to all of us seeking healthier lifestyles and treating our disorders! I personally have just started taking
    Nature’s Bounty Brand from my local Walgreen’s 7d ago>
    1,000mg Krill Red. Has all I would want- other than maybe coming in a 500mg dose to take it twice daily- but I will look for that next trip. It’s not cheap or too pricey. I think $10 for 30 softgels (with a seam- so not sure if that makes them capliques?) Sometimes it does cause fishy burping- but if I take it right BEFORE a meal- that seems to help (may push it down into the duodenum faster? which is same principle as enteric coated) I’m not sure… I may try Source Natural or Azantis next time- we’ll see. I don’t completely understand all your source lingo. But I think the benefits outweigh the mild side effects… Will be interesting to see if helps with mental alertness, PMS and backpain from osteoarthritis? Thanks for your work on this!

  697. debbie Says:

    well, guess i missed PIXE’s last posts on this Product (took me almost 2hrs to read all the previous ones and I was getting tired)So, now it has me thinking twice about Nature’s Bounty’s sources! Hmmm. Obviously I want the benefit of the phosphatidylcholine. It’s one thing not to trust their actual “quantities” (back to my earlier point)- now we can’t even trust it’s even pure Krill Oil. (and this company’s been around for a while). So, since I don’t know a lot about the supplement Options or actual BRAND NAMES out there (but I know I don’t want Mercola’s) What do I want to buy that will deliver at least the closest to what we want to get daily? (knowing it WON’T be- but will hopefully be close)
    Much appreciated!
    Pixe R U a chemist?

  698. Tim Says:

    Hi all, thanks for all the info! This is a treasure chest. Has anyone looked at the Everest Nutrition Krill Oil ( They have a daily dose of 1250mg with 500mg of phospholipids and 1.6mg Anaxanthin. I called the phone order line and the person told me it was not NKO or Azantis but their own Anarctic proprietary brand.

    Thanks for any data on this. You can get 6 bottles for $98.00

  699. PIXE Says:

    My FTIR analysis of Everest Nutrition Krill Oil shows that it does have the phospholipid (Pl) phosphatidylcholine(PC). The amount is similar to that in NKO and Superba branded products. Be careful of those crazy labels which some products make it seem their product is more potent than others. Everest states their concentration in taking two Capliques. Each Caplique contains 625 mg of krill oil with 250 mg of phospholipids. By the way, I have been weighing ten random samples from the bottles of 40 different brands of krill oil supplements. It appears that those in Capliques are more consistent (smaller standard deviation) in mass than those in the gel caps.

    If you want details on how these products are made, see the FDA site for Neptune’s krill oil application for GRAS (generally recognized as safe).
    P.S. Yes, I am an analytical chemistry full professor.

  700. Bill Says:


    I’m comfortable with KO products sourced from Neptune (NKO), Aker (Superba) or Enzymotec (Azantis). No matter what company is encapsulating the KO and reselling it (NOW, Swanson, Source Naturals, for example), I look for the symbol or name of the source on the package.

    I believe Neptune allows 3 years to expiration and Aker allows 2-years. I prefer to buy KO within 6 months of production. The Schiff MegaRed (Superba) I recently bought at Costco expires 1/2013, which means it was packaged 1/2011.

    Natural levels of astaxanthin in KO do not exceed 600 ppm (600 mcg astaxanthin in 1 g of KO). For products without added astaxanthin, the label will generally state a number lower than 600 mcg per g KO. All KO products with higher levels of astaxanthin have added astaxanthin, probably from algae, except for NKO which is always enhanced with krill astaxanthin. Superba is never enhanced. Azantis has a pure KO and an enhanced KO.


    The Everest Nutrition Krill Oil webpage bothers me. “Cold-pressed”? Krill aren’t olives; a chemical extraction process is needed to obtain KO from raw krill extract. Astaxanthin has been added, but the label doesn’t mention it. A Delaware company…hmmm. Unless Everest has a factory fleet (doubtful), their KO comes from another company.

    Good luck,


  701. Bill Says:


    A while back I said this to you
    “Schiff MegaRed is sold as 300 mg. of Superba KO, but that is not enough KO to match the label specs. In an email to me, the VP Technical Affairs claimed that there is more than 300 mg in each softgel and that’s why the label claims are true (more like 400 mg would be needed). I’d love to see this claim tested.”

    Have you determined the average weight of the contents of MegaRed softgels?



  702. Bill Says:

    In previous posts I’ve mentioned the percent EPA+DHA by weight in KO products. NKO is 24%, Superba 18% and Azantis Pure 14%. Enzymotec 4014F was recently upgraded to 19%. These numbers speak to extraction efficiency. Neptune uses a secondary extraction to achieve 24% (but at what cost to the integrity of the PL-bonded fatty acids?).

    Everest comes in at 21%. How is that achieved without fish oil supplementation?


  703. Tim Says:

    Thank you PIXE and Bill! I look forward to tracking the progress of the little Krill on this site.

  704. PIXE Says:

    Here is the information for the masses (intact gel cap or Caplique) of the products weighed on analytical balance to 0.00001 gram.

    Dr. Mercola Lot 10018343 (Capliques)
    Mean = 0.60096 +/- 0.00364; Max = 0.60916 g, Min = 0.59667 g N=10

    Twin Labs krill oil
    Mean = 0.96085 +/- 0.01453; Max = 0.98737 g, Min = 0.94277 g N=10

    MegRed 300 mg pure krill oil
    Mean = 0.62979 +/- 0.00611; Max = 0.64024 g, in = 0.62347 g N=10

    I am trying to get a detailed report for more than 40 krill oil supplements that I purchased and analyzed for the stated ingredients. Will have costs and whether or not the product has the stated ingredients on the label.

    Yes, the contents don’t have to be what they say because they are supplements. However, an informed consumer is a smart consumer and the reputations of these companies are at stake. I believe that this year was the first time Aker turned a profit. Seems that selling krill oil supplements is a big cash cow and I want to be sure that we consumers are not being ripped off by hyped up claims. Seems odd that taking 300 mg of krill oil a day with only 75 mg EPA 45 mg DHA will do you any good especially when all the EPA and DHA in the krill oil is not 100% phosphatidylcholine (PC) bound. Some are triacylglycerols (TAGs) bound. Some of the products on the market are just “snake oil”.

  705. JP Says:

    I’m posting this on Brenda’s behalf. For some reason, this comment was sent directly to my e-mailbox. But it was clearly meant to reach Debbie and the rest of the krillers out here. :-)

    Hi Debbie,

    I am just another person trying to figure out which one is going to be the one to take.

    JP is great and he has helped a lot with narrowing them down. PIXEI doesn’t recommend Natures Bounty as a very good option.
    I am thankful for all of everyones help too. I have landed on the Natures Way Krill Oil. They are 500mg for 60 for 29.00 but I am confident now that it is a good choice. I have found most of the 10.00 bottles are not good stuff and our health is worth it.

    Best to all and thanks to all,


  706. CC Says:

    Hello again,
    Earlier in this thread (Feb 9) I wrote about a trial I was going to start with Azantis Krill, 4 mg BioAstin astaxanthin and Jarrow EPA/DHA Balance – as an alternative to using a Krill Oil that had the higher astaxanthin and EPA & DHA – in other words a Krill/FO combo.

    Here is what I ended up using and dosing:
    Jarrow PhosphOmega Krill Oil (labelled as Azantis) THe label on my bottle read: 2 softgel caps = 1000 mg. Krill Oil; 400 mg. Phospholipid Omega 3 Complex; 290 mg Omega 3 Fatty Acids; 180 EPA; 90 DHA; 1.5 mg Asataxanthin. At the time, I deduced this was pure krill ??

    I started with this alone for 30 days and noticed no difference. I was disappointed.

    I then added the 4 mg. BioAstin astaxanthin and noticed that I felt a little better within 2 weeks. Less inflammation, better mood/concentration and a little more energy.

    After another month, I added the Jarrow EPA/DHA Balance and couldn\’t really say I noticed anything different from adding the EPA/DHA.

    My conclusion is that it is the astaxanthin that worked for me. Not a miracle, but noticeable.

    I do think Jarrow is a pretty reputable brand and I put trust in them for a few supplements. Maybe I didn\’t give the KO a long enough trial, but I have since stopped the KO and EPA/DHA Balance and continue with the Astaxanthin (and a small dose of COQ10 in ubquinol form 30 mg/day, which I have been taking for a while) and feel the same.

    I am not saying I won\’t try Krill Oil again. I just wasn\’t that impressed, for now. I do want to try again but I want to do more research.

    BTW: I took a high quality FO for years (Carlson Liquid FO) and I have to say, I stopped about one year ago because one day I just woke up and wondered if it was actually doing anything for me. I finished my last bottle and stopped – as an experiment. After discontinuing, I really did not notice anything different at all. Never went back to it.

    I think because of the high-heat processing that all FO now goes through, it\’s potential is diminished… or may even be harmful. So weird to think I needed it so many years and that it was doing some good. That really makes me wonder. I\’m conservative with supplements now.

    After stopping Fish Oil, I started researching Krill Oil (almost purchased Mercola\’s) and ended up here reading all this very, very good research.

    I am so grateful for all the shared resources and experience.

  707. debbie Says:

    Thank you all for your responses. So interesting and TRUE.
    The Cash Cow is VERY TRUE and does concern me that many may follow suit to try to make a quick buck on this product so it’s important as PIXE mentions for us to be informed consumers…
    I also want to caution those looking to KO or even FO to be realistic in their expectations about its benefits. Not sure it will have dramatic impact on “mood”. Its benefits have really only been well studied for CV (cardio-vascular) health and decreasing inflammation in the body (eg artritic conditons)
    The other “claims” are not proven> it’d be great and theoretically makes sense as it crosses the blood brain barrier so that it “should” affect our brain cells and “make a difference” but it’s more complicated than just replacing some missing lipids there. But- no harm done since there are so many other good asepects and maybe you’ll get lucky and have more than one area of noticeable change. Those changes however are more likely something that would be best measured by blood tests (crp/homocysteine levels, lipid levels, etc) Worth a shot if PMS is an issue- but again- no proof, same with depression.
    There are fringe studies- but not substantial or well controlled.
    Thank you for the advice- I will switch from Nature’s Bounty and go with the others listed OR likely wait for PIXE’s Conclusions!
    (i also wonder sometimes if any of Japan’s leaked radiation will have an effect on the Pacific NW sealife, including krill & algae?) If there was much “fallout”> I just don’t know how dilute the ocean would make it? Guess they can scan for this during production if needed…

  708. Bill Says:

    Krill oil composition

    The Wikipedia article on krill oil
    provides links to two recent studies of KO composition. (2009, abstract only)
    Investigation of Natural Phosphatidylcholine Sources
    “Finally, marine source (krill oil), which was particularly rich in (16:0−20:5)PC and (16:0−22:6)PC, appeared to be an interesting potential source for food supplementation with LC-PUFA−PLs, particularly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA).” (PC = Phosphatidylcholine, the “phospho-” part of a KO phospholipid; LC-PUFA−PL = long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as EPA and DHA, in phospholipid form) (2010, full)
    Elucidation of Phosphatidylcholine Composition in Krill Oil Extracted from Euphausia superba
    Superba KO was used in this study.
    From the introduction:
    “In contrast to traditional omega-3 supplements on today’s market, which are based on omega-3 fatty acids bound to triglycerides (such as cod liver oil and fish oil) or bound as ethyl esters (Omacor/Lovaza), krill oil contains a high proportion of omega-3 fatty acids bound to phospholipids.”
    “Krill oil has been investigated in several preclinical and clinical studies [1–4], and there is growing evidence that the molecular form of the omega-3 fatty acids (i.e. triglycerides, ethyl-esters, phospholipids) might be of importance for their biological effect as well as distribution of the omega-3 fatty acids in the body.”
    The study results aren’t very useful to us lay folk, but do confirm our basic notion of what KO is.

  709. Bill Says:

    My nagging KO product questions:
    1) What’s in the product?
    2) Is it fresh?
    3) Is the amount as stated?

    1) What’s in the product?
    My main concern is the one PIXE has been pursuing: are the omega-3 fatty acids of interest (DHA, EPA) in phospholipid form (desirable) or in triglyceride form (as in fish oil)? The Azantis website has undated info on this topic.
    “Azantis Pure Krill Oil is a natural extract from Antarctic krill Euphausia superba. Pure Krill Oil 40/14 contains at least 40% phospholipids with bonded omega-3, and at least 19% combined EPA and DHA.”
    “For any product to be called “krill oil” it must contain Antarctic krill phospholipids with bonded omega-3 in significant quantities. On the other hand, products which contain more than 20% EPA and DHA combined, must either be a blend with high quality fish oils, such as our 42/25 grade, or contain large amounts of free fatty acids, which most likely result from inefficient extraction processes or degraded biomass.”
    “All krill oils currently on the market contain besides 40-42% phospholipid approximately 50-55% triglycerides. The fatty acid profile of these krill oil triglycerides closely resembles fish oil triglycerides with relatively low omega-3 levels, such as salmon oil.”

    I believe we should expect a high-quality single-extraction pure KO to contain about 40% phospholipids and 18-19% EPA+DHA in phospholipid form. Superba and Azantis Pure KO claim to meet this standard. There’s really no reason to use a lesser quality KO, such as some of the products PIXE has identified.

    At 24% EPA+DHA, NKO, a double extraction KO, raises concerns about how much of the EPA+DHA is in phospholipid form and how much is present as triglycerides. However, as long as the percent in phospholipid form is at least 18%, it meets my basic standard.

    2) Is it fresh?
    PIXE hasn’t touched this subject yet, but it’s been well-discussed here. A KO reseller buys the product in barrels, has it encapsulated, and then packages and sells it. KO must be chilled until encapsulated, not exposed to air, and kept away from heat once packaged. Astaxanthin in the product provides some protection from decay. We consumers should buy as close to the production date as possible.

    We’ve had reports here of rancid-smelling bottles of KO. In Sep 2010 post #349 JP posted the results of the ConsumerLab study of krill oil:
    “Just released ConsumerLab testing reports that the Now Foods NKO (Neptune Krill Oil) contains only:
    + 79.1% of claimed EPA
    + 88.8% of claimed DHA
    + 78.4% of the claimed total omega-3 fatty acids
    It was also found to have an unacceptable spoilage rate: 57.4 TOTOX value. A TOTOX of 26 and under is considered to be fresh.
    The Source Natural’s krill oil (Arctic Pure Krill) [Azantis] passed testing and contains comparable (and accurate) levels of astaxanthin, omega-3s and phospholipids. This appears to be a better option. ”

    In post #377 JP discusses Neptune’s defense of NKO. I would like to know the truth, especially with regard to the freshness of NKO and other KO products.

    3) Is the amount as stated?
    Here, for reasons previously stated, I’m primarily interested in the weight of the contents of MegaRed gelcaps.

    Good luck,


  710. John in Sylvania Says:

    In post #664, 3-8-11, I said I would try KO for and evaluate it for any impact on my (high) blood glucose level (BGL). I selected Source Naturals NKO 500 mg softgels, with a stated content of 150 mg EPA, 90 mg DHA, and 1.5 mg Astaxanthin per 2 softgels. It’s very difficult to isolate all possible variables and hold them all constant, so I wouldn’t call this a closely controlled scientific experiment. However, I DID NOT SEE any impact on my BGL as a result of the KO.

    However, I do have two comments that may be of interest, one of which relates to BGL (type 2 diabetes), and the other to a KO buying club.

    When taking my BGL before and after a run I normally experience a significant rise, say from 140 to 200 or 220. I have reams of data to support this. I have recently taken readings before and after walking. It appears that I experience a BGL drop from say, 140 to 120. This appears to be independent of the distance and the effort that goes into it. I can provide specific details if anyone is interested. Does anyone know what mechanism is at work here? Does this mean that any runner is pre-disposing him (or her) self to type 2 diabetes with attendant high BGLs just by running?

    Also, about 3 or 4 years ago, my company considered becoming a re-seller of KO and entered into discussions with Aker Marine. We eventually rejected the idea due to concerns about liability and unfamiliarity with internet marketing. But I was surprised at the low cost of market entry. Anyone could be in business re-selling KO for about $3,000 (probably higher now), and could obtain gelcaps in heat-sealed 60 count bottles for around 11-12 cents per gelcap. Again, if anyone is interested, I can dig up the records and we can discuss.

  711. PIXE Says:

    We may have to wait a year to get answers about the availability of krill oil vs fish oil supplements. A clinical trial is due to start this month.
    “The main purpose of the study is to evaluate the absorption of omega-3 fatty acids into the blood following consumption of krill oil compared with fish oil and placebo. An additional purpose is to evaluate the lipid-lowering efficacy and safety of consumption of Krill Oil and Fish Oil to a placebo product. It has been shown that the ingestion of Krill Oil leads to better absorption of omega-3 fatty acids compared to ingestion of Fish Oil. It was also shown that consumption of krill oil and fish oil result in a favorable modification of lipid profiles. Therefore, it is anticipated that consumption of these krill oil and fish oil will improve lipid profile, as well as other health-related markers and will be safe and well tolerated.”
    See for details.

  712. Bill Says:


    Are you type 2 diabetic? (My type 1 friend says exercise = insulin.)

    My guess: Glucagon produced by your pancreas when you run causes your liver to convert stored glycogen into glucose thus raising your blood sugar. The mild exercise of walking does not lead to the release of glucagon. A runner who is not type 2 would quickly burn glucose produced from glycogen.

    What part do carbs play in your diet?

    Good luck,


  713. debbie Says:

    Hi John,
    Being a nurse with significant Diabetic Teaching experience (Joslin trained) I cannot figure out why the sudden change in your post exercise BS readings. I would certainly NOT say running is a risk factor for Type II DM (it is typically either genetic, due to the aging process or from obesity/lifestyle practices) Often, we will advise people to eat a little snack pre-exercise to avoid a drop in BS’s (if they are on medications- which typically they are) IF it is strenuous activity like running- and you are “lean”- your body may be releasing Glucagon which is made in the liver and releases BS for immediate use to avoid a drop in your BS (designed for such things like sudden need for running in our ancestors) It can also come from the burning of fat or muscle tissue- not as healthy for the body and can create ketones so drink plenty of water. You also may have had more insulin resistance before and with routine exercise your body has actually become more efficient with its metabolism of BS, hence the lower levels post-exercise> or again could be from certain medications which help with insulin resistance? I don’t know your whole history. Otherwise, I can’t explain the change. Seeing a Nutritionist or Endocrinologist may be reasonable to discuss this but it sure sound like a change in the right direction as a BS of 120-140 is GREAT and more within “normal” guidelines. I suggest you also make sure your kidney function is normal as “sometimes” if it is not ok, the insulin in your system can linger longer- thus giving you what appear to be lower BS’s than you’d expect but not coming from a healthy process…
    All the best.
    and PIXE- do you have a ballpark idea of when YOUR study of the 40 products might be ready? Would that take as long as a year?
    deb (I still need a BRAND NAME of what one might suggest to take NOW?)

  714. debbie Says:

    we’re a bit off point (i think?) for this forum but I’m not sure since I’m new to this Blog. But no, I’m not personally a Diabetic, I just help treat them. Your friend is correct about exercise and insulin- BS’s will typically drop with exercise. This is why we recommend a snack pre-exercise (as your body will use up any circulating glucose for energy) Thus it’s not so much more insulin is produced (though it could if the pancreas is signaled to) but remember- the Diabetic’s pancreas is impaired…And remember it doesn’t manufacture Glycogen, just insulin- (& I mis-spoke earlier and said Glucagon- however, that is a “rescue” med for someone in insulin shock which is used to release Glycogen from the liver and raise their BS)
    There are many differences b/t Type I and Type II and glucose metabolism but much is related to insulin resistance (that being greater in those with Type II). You may have plenty of insulin in your bloodstream but your cells can’t take advantage of it due to cellular “resistance”. A Type I just plain doesn’t make their own insulin and needs to take external injections to have it.
    Carbs play a role in that you are much better off with complex Carbs that are digested SLOWLY (refer to the glycemic index) Technically we ALL are better off avoiding peaks in our BS’s. Habitual intake of concentrated sweets or processed sugars- even too many sweet fruits (fructose) or dried fruits- will cause a rapid release of insulin and then a crash in BS- which in turn causes hunger and too much circulating insulin (not in a type I) it becomes a vicious cycle. This can often lead to weight gain. Proteins/Fats are more slowly digested (as well as some of the complex CHO’s) so they’re good choices in the DM diet with Balance.
    Anything to keep the BS’s level and mimic normal metabolism if you are on insulin (even oral meds). Keeping your sugars within that “normal range” as best you can will help avoid longterm damage to your organs and microcirculation. It is a challenging disease to manage but fascinating and very CONTROLLABLE if you work at it.
    In terms of exercise, typically a slow paced walk won’t use much Glycogen unless you are quite thin, haven’t eaten beforehand, etc.
    Otherwise, your body should burn fat first (but not until about 20-30″ of exercise sadly) then if no more fat to burn it opts for muscle tissue (which you don’t want) Strenuous or “sprint” exercise will grab the stored Glycogen 1st (from the liver & our muscles where it’s stored) A little is always used when we exercise…After it uses up whatever’s available- and if you exercise long enough (>60-90″)- it will go into “anaerobic” metabolism (even though you’re doing an aerobic activity) and use your fat/muscle for fuel. Type I’s need to use caution with byproducts called ketones (breakdown of fat) as longterm it can cause kidney damage. Same with the byproducts of protein and amino acids- they’re just too large to pass through our renal filters safely. Thus drinking lots of fluids and monitoring their urine is important. Weight training is a whole other ball of wax- with obviously more initial muscle breakdown. But it’s necessary in order to rebuild new/stronger muscle tissue.
    All the Best,

  715. John in Sylvania Says:

    Bill, Debbie:

    Thanks for your comments. I agree this is off-topic for this blog. Can you refer me to a diabetic-type blog that’s as good as this one? You can reach me at For the record, I’m 67 yo, height/weight proportional, and a serious runner. Other than high BGLs I’m truly fortunate and blessed to be as healthy as I am.

    Thanks and Peace …


  716. bomoore Says:

    Here’s a basic question: Since food supplements are not regulated, how do we know what is in any of these capsules? It could be olive oil, corn oil, or 40W.

  717. ROB Says:

    Buyer beware, the fact is that you never know for sure whats in anything. Even when you buy prepackaged foods off the shelf that are regulated you still cant be sure if there labels are correct.

    Best best is to be diligent and buy from reputible companies

  718. Andy Lorena Says:

    And how many times has the “regulation” of food and drugs failed? Did you know that iron filings was found in a popular breakfast cereal as the “regulated” form of iron for your daily intake?

  719. Tim Says:

    This cold processed Krill could be better than the heat exctraction processed Krill?

    This is the repy I got back from Nature’s Way (my sister just started on their EFA Gold NKO):

    Dear Tim:

    Thank you for contacting Nature’s Way. I am happy to respond to your question on Krill Oil. You would like to know how this oil is processed.

    Nature’s Way is happy to provide information about how our nutritional supplements and natural medicines can work to support certain organs, systems, functions, and overall good health. The law prohibits us from diagnosing, treating, or making recommendations regarding the treatment of illness. In such cases, patients should consult a licensed health care professional who can work with them to determine appropriate medical treatment.

    Nature’s Ways Krill Oil is cold processed not cold pressed. We use a patented cold-vacuum extraction process that is solvent and heat free.

    Thank you for taking the time to contact us. I am happy to answer any additional questions you may have on any of our great products. Please visit our website for information on Nature’s Ways full line of products.

    Best wishes for good health,

    Kristina Nelson
    Customer Service
    Nature’s Way, Inc
    Schwabe North America

  720. Tim Says:

    I found this article on Consumerlabs. Not so good:

  721. JP Says:

    Ladies and Gents,

    First of all, thank you all for adding so many informative and thoughtful posts over the past few weeks. Amazing.

    I hope you don’t mind but this “catch up” post will jump around a bit. I’ll try to cover as many topics as possible.

    On this end: There’s been a lot of activity going on behind the scenes that I haven’t been able to report here. Namely, back and forth e-mails from interested parties in the krill market that wish to separate themselves from the pack.

    The unfortunate thing about the type of information I often receive is that I can’t pass it along because it would be irresponsible to do so. Not only would it be unfair to certain companies but I also have to be careful not be used as a pawn in the krill oil battles. In short, I’m typically given pieces of information that can’t be confirmed – sometimes even lab results. It’s frustrating.

    What I can tell you is this: one major krill oil company did contact me with an offer to sell a large quantity (10,000 soft gels) of krill oil for about 10 cents/soft gel. This would be a sort of buyer’s group type deal. I’m not 100% sure if this is still available, but I can find out if any of you are interested.

    BTW, the type of krill oil in question is pure krill oil – no added astaxanthin. It’s not Cyvex or an inferior product either. To be clear, if any of you are interested, I would just put you in touch with the source. I have no interest in making money off of this possible arrangement or facilitating it beyond the initial connection.

    The issue of whether krill oil and nutritional supplements in general are regulated is fairly well established. Certificates of analysis are commonplace and most reputable companies don’t want to put out unreliable products because their image is part of their selling advantage. However, some manufacturers do fall short and often can’t offer a good reason why – as is the case with many of the ConsumerLab test results.

    I’m pleased that a study will (hopefully) be published in the future that assesses whether or not Enzymotec krill oil is superior to fish oil. Good to see. However we already have an idea about how krill oil compares to fish oil in terms of increasing plasma omega-3 concentrations – thanks to Aker.

    Another bioavailability study to come:

    John: in terms of diabetes, I’d refer you to the work of Dr. Richard Bernstein:

    Be well!


  722. CC Says:

    Thanks JP, for the info.
    I would be interested in this pure krill oil. Can you say which company it is?

  723. Bill Says:


    Your Nature’s Way message said
    “Nature’s Ways Krill Oil is cold processed not cold pressed. We use a patented cold-vacuum extraction process that is solvent and heat free.”

    I always love it when a company whose only contribution to the product is encapsulation and resale claims that “We” did this or that to make the product. I gotta believe that Nature’s Way buys barrels of finished KO from Neptune, just like every other NKO reseller.

    I’d like to see a document, such as a patent, that describes the production of NKO by solvent-free “cold-vacuum extraction.” The only NKO patent I’ve read uses solvents, twice. Perhaps the solvents are removed by vacuum.

    Please ask Ms. Nelson to document her claims. It’s not unusual in this business for customer service people to be misinformed.

    Of course, I could be wrong.

    Good luck,


  724. CC Says:

    I have read other similar articles on Consumer Labs over the last couple of years.
    I do not trust reviews or anything that comes from Consumer Labs.

    BTW – I am having a hard time posting I have submit the anti-spam word over and over again.
    Does anyone else have this problem?

  725. John in Sylvania Says:

    Thanks, JP

    I have read Dr. Bernstein’s book (and many others) and still cannot adequately describe or control my situation. But, I’m still lookin’. Deb, thanks for your comments, I’ll get back to you directly.

    Regarding the company’s offer to sell you a large quantity of softgels at a price of 10 cents/softgel … that’s not really a large quantity. That’s only $1,000.00 … nothing to sneeze at, but certainly a manageable amount. Very similar to what I cited in post #710. The additional cost I cited was for bottles (didn’t want to just get a large barrel of softgels), heat sealing of bottles, and printing and placing a label on the bottle. In fact, I considered placing a minimum order and distributing it to my immediate family. At 60 or 120 softgels per bottle, that would only be 166 or 83 bottles. I’m surprised this hasn’t been done before.

    The question of exactly what is in this stuff is very interesting. However, I have had a thought: wouldn’t we get the same effect from simply eating shrimp? Besides the fact that shrimp are found in warm water areas and may be more susceptible to contamination, shrimp appear to be quite similar to krill. Whadaya think?

    Peace …

    John in Sylvania

  726. PIXE Says:

    There is something “fishy” about the following krill oil supplements.

    Mason Natural Omega 3 and 6 krill oil (Lot 8850T). Claims 1,000 mg krill oil but only lists 5 mg phospholipids with 80 mg EPA and 40 mg DHA. Total omega-3 listed 130-mg.
    Trident Krill Oil Artic Gold Pfiser Johnson (Lot 24K610). Claims 1,000 mg krill oil but only lists 5 mg phospholipids with no mg EPA and no mg DHA listed. Total omega-3 listed as 130 mg.
    Purified Easy to Swallow Krill Oil (Lot 11802) distributed by Claims 500 mg krill oil with 200-mg phospholipids with 81 mg EPA and 52 mg DHA.

    These krill oil supplements are nothing more than 18/12 fish oils with astaxanthin added. There was just a trace to no phosphatidylcholine in the supplements. These brands are the same as those I mentioned in posts 679, 687, 693, and 695. These products seem to have Cyvex as the supplier of the krill oil.

    As I said previously, I would only purchase krill oil supplement brands that have NKO (Neptune Tech), Superba (Aker Biomarine), and Azantis as the supplier of krill oil on the label. I analyzed over 50 different brands of krill oil and those with these brands are high purity with phosphatidylcholine. Several brands had no listing for the source of the krill oil but their IR spectra are consistent with products with NKO or Superba krill oil.

    A high purity krill oil supplement is Olympian Labs (Lot L110014E) 500 mg krill oil, 60 softgels ($23.95, i.e. 40 cents per softgel). What is interesting about the product is that they list the concentrations of the different phospholipids in the krill oil on their label. For example, they list phosphatidylcholine as 70-75%. The source of their krill oil is not listed.

    Remember that Australia has defined their Euphausia superba oil as being “The above named substance is a solvent-extracted oil derived solely from Euphausia superba (Antarctic Krill), harvested from the Atlantic section of the Austral-Antarctic Circumpolar Ocean. The oil is obtained through crushing the krill biomass (with or without heating up to 90°C) and isolating the lipid fraction using a BP-compliant solvent.” See for detailed composition of krill oil.

    Be careful interpreting those clinical studies because krill oil contains both phospholipids (PL) (40%) and triacylglycerols (TAG) (35%) as sources of EPA and DHA.

    I am working on a method to determine freshness buy looking at the amount of free fatty acids in the products that is a measure of rancidness.

    P.S. My apologies for being detailed and lengthy.

  727. Bill Says:


    Regarding Olympian Labs KO, please read post #489, which I made last October, and then read on here.

    The OL website page for KO, annoyingly, does not have the supplement facts.

    So I looked at the Vitacost page, hoping that the supplement facts there are the same as what OL is currently producing.
    Just as post #489 noted, these supplement facts match Azantis Krill Oil Blend, and yet the ingredients do not include fish oil. This is not pure KO.

    Is the label on your OL box what I’m seeing at Vitacost? And does the label says pure KO without mentioning fish oil?

    If OL is still selling a KO product with added fish oil and labeling it pure KO, then it’s time to call them out.


  728. Tim Says:

    You were right Bill. It’s top secret and I’m going nowhere fast. I don’t think Neptune has changed it’s patent or someone would have heard about it. My request and then her reply:

    Dear Kristina,

    Thank you for getting back to me. I was wondering if you could go into more detail about the cold-processed, non-solvent method that NW uses. From my understanding, the Neptune Krill is all the same (heat extraction and chemicals used)? I would appreciate if you could document your claims.

    Best regards,

    Dear Tim,

    Thank you for your email. I am sorry I wish I had more information to provide for you. This process is considered proprietary.

    Best wishes,

    Kristina Nelson
    Customer Service
    Nature’s Way, Inc
    Schwabe North America

  729. Bill Says:



    Neptune’s extraction patent

    Send this:

    Dear Kristina,

    I’m a bit confused. Neptune’s patent describing its krill oil extraction technology is available to anyone online.

    Is the NKO you sell produced by Neptune using an unpublished or unpatented extraction technique?

  730. PIXE Says:

    A very important source of information is the FDA GRAS applications. (

    In 2008, this is the response from FDA about GRAS (generally recognized as safe) application of Neptune Krill Oil. Nature’s Way krill oil is also mentioned as using Neptune’s krill oil. If they change their method of processing, they will probably have to file an update GRAS application.

    “Neptune describes the manufacturing process for krill oil. Frozen Antarctic krill are crushed and the lipids and
    proteins are extracted using acetone. Following extraction, the krill proteins and lipids are filtered through an
    organic solvent-resistant filter under reduced pressure to enable physical separation of lipids and proteins.
    Excess acetone is evaporated and water is separated from the oil. The oil is subjected to additional filtration
    and purification to remove impurities and is packaged in a modified nitrogen-containing atmosphere and
    stored. The notifier provides product specifications for krill oil, including specifications for fatty acids, total
    phospholipids, esterified astaxanthin, saturated fatty acids, and trans-fat (<0.1 percent). Specifications also
    include limits on residual acetone (<10 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg)"

    For Enzymotec GRAS Notice No. GRN 000311 they use
    "Enzymotec describes the method of manufacture for krill PS. The source material for the production of krill PS is lecithin from krill (Euphausia superba), which is obtained by solvent extraction from krill biomass. Enzymotec notes that solvents are removed by vacuum evaporation." for the raw krill oil. It is further processed to get their krill-based phosphatidylserine (krill PS).


  731. PIXE Says:

    Thanks for the information on Olympian labs. The ingredients on my bottle is the same as that on the Vitacost web site. So far, I found that Bayer’s Arctic Wonder Krill Oil (Lot 6913LK928) has the highest amount of phosphatidylcholine (PC) in their product. What is interesting is that their supplier of krill oil is Neptune (NKO) and Bayer’s PC is higher than other brands with NKO on the bottle. Bayer’s phospholipids (PLs) content is 215 mg whereas other NKO branded products are 200 mg PLs. I gather Bayer got a different lot of higher content.

    Of interest is VitalRed Wild Antarctic Krill Oil (1,000 mg Fish-based Gel Caps) (Lot 102211) list PLs as 430 mg, their PC is less than Bayer’s (Pls listed 215 mg) based on my IR (infrared) analyses.

    IR analyses shows that PC concentration is in the order:
    Twin Labs < Olympian Labs < VitalRed < Natures Way < Azantis <Bayer. Price of Bayer's krill oil supplement will cost $0.50 per gel cap.


  732. JP Says:


    Sorry for the delay. Since posting the original comment about the bulk krill oil, I had to verify that it was still available and if I could disclose the source on here. I just got the go ahead, so here goes …

    The krill oil source is Azantis’ pure krill oil 4014. Again, the quantity involved is 10,000 soft gels. The price is .10 per soft gel.


    One source contacted me privately and mentioned that the data he’s seen on NKO states that about 59% of their phospholipid content comes in the form of choline. According to this source, Enzymotec’s krill oil contains about 78% phosphatidylcholine in their phospholipids. No mention was made re: the figures for Aker’s krill oil. He went on to say that it was highly unusual that the Bayer product would vary from the norm as it should be the same as other NKO-sourced products.

    Be well!


  733. Bill Says:


    Is the bulk 4014 the older 14% or the newer 19% KO and when was it produced? We need to know the usual bulk price for 10,000 soft gels to judge this deal.

    I didn’t understand your comment regarding KO composition. Since I joined this thread, I’ve wanted to know more about the composition of NKO (and, by comparison, Superba and Azantis). We know NKO is more processed. Your comment hints at possible differences.

    I’m amazed that this composition information, and the interpretation thereof, is so hard to come by. Part of the reason is that it’s still not clear why taking KO may have health benefits not found in fish oil and exactly what it is about KO that imparts those benefits. All we have to date is a few trials and some speculation.

    Good luck,


  734. Tim Says:

    Bill, I sent the question you posted from 729. Her reply:


    I sent your concern to our technical team and this is the information they provided- Nature’s Way EFAGold® is the highest quality Krill oil – guaranteed to contain Omega-3 fatty acids: Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), Omega-6 & 9 fatty acids, 40% phospholipids and Astaxanthin from cold extracted Antarctic Krill. Yes, the product does contain NKO™ krill oil.

    Best wishes,

    Kristina Nelson
    Customer Service
    Nature’s Way, Inc
    Schwabe North America

    So Bill, she did not clarify the solvent issue. I will have to assume the cold extration process is just a ginormous vaccum that sucks the krill right out of the COLD ocean thus defining cold extraction. Perfect, I love running in circles, it’s my thing!

    PIXE, thanks for GRAS info. It sounds like there is also a different deal for the dietary supplements:

    Congress defined the term “dietary supplement” in the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) of 1994.

    Here is paragraph from the FDA link below,

    Do manufacturers or distributors of dietary supplements have to tell FDA or consumers what evidence they have about their product’s safety or what evidence they have to back up the claims they are making for them?

    No, except for rules described above that govern “new dietary ingredients,” there is no provision under any law or regulation that FDA enforces that requires a firm to disclose to FDA or consumers the information they have about the safety or purported benefits of their dietary supplement products. Likewise, there is no prohibition against them making this information available either to FDA or to their customers. It is up to each firm to set its own policy on disclosure of such information.

  735. Bill Says:


    Nature’s Way will continue to spin their yarn about solvent-free extraction and thus add to the value of this thread.

    Good luck,


  736. debbie Says:

    Sure sounds like the Fox watching the Hen House! They’ll all go with what is cheapest and “hopefully” safest so avoid lawsuits. But they can CLAIM anything! (because it’s not a food or a drug) They are not accountable to anybody but perhaps their customers and “maybe” their corporate reputations. Unless there is an adverse effect- you just won’t know what you’re getting without the kind of independent analysis that you guys and others are doing. I applaud your efforts- we need folks with your education and dedication to do this kind of thing to keep their feet to the fire. Just consider how many other herbs & supplements there are available now? It’s unreal- as some are. (no pun)
    But the FDA’s no major bargain either> tons of drugs have prematurely reached the public only later to find out post-clinical trials/black box warnings issued re: new side-effects or interactions that were discovered due to their rush to market.
    Big pharmaceutical companies wanting to make money, etc. But at least there are some standards and reviews going on in that arena.
    Pixe> so if I can find some Azantis KO w/astaxanthin that would be a good choice? (not to put you on the spot- sorry)

  737. JP Says:


    I’ve contacted a rep at Azantis in an attempt to answer your questions re: bulk oil pricing and their phospholipid composition. Just waiting on a reply.

    In the meantime, it seems as though Dr. Mercola is strengthening his relationship with Enzymotec:

    Be well!


  738. PIXE Says:


    A nice confidential background information on Enzymote krill oil can be found at: Explains the mechanism of how KO works and their are nice illustrations of cell membranes.
    Dr. Mercola’s labels are wrong for their krill oil for women with evening primrose.

    Nature’s Way KO uses Neptune’s KO which is cold extracted with acetone. Notice how the rep from Nature’s way left off “with acetone”. As I said before, this information is detailed in the patent that Neptune obtained and they always say their KO is “patented”.

    Also of interest is Aker’s US patent application (applied for in 2008) for extraction of krill oil using supercritical CO2. They compare their composition of KO with Neptune’s and fish oil.

    “This invention discloses new krill oil compositions characterized by having high amounts of phospholipids, astaxanthin esters and/or omega-3 contents. The krill oils are obtained from krill meal using supercritical fluid extraction in a two stage process. Stage 1 removes the neutral lipid by extracting with neat supercritical CO2 or CO2 plus approximately 5% of a co-solvent. Stage 2 extracts the actual krill oils by using supercritical CO2 in combination with approximately 20% ethanol. The krill oil materials obtained are compared with commercially available krill oil and found to be more bioeffective in a number of areas such as anti-inflammation, anti-oxidant effects, improving insulin resistances and improving blood lipid profile.”


  739. JP Says:


    The reply I received was this:

    “The AZ 4014 is 19% Omega’s, usual bulk price is .11 cents per softgel. What makes this special is that we do not sell bulk very often like this. If you buy a bottle of 60 softgels it will cost a lot more.”

    No word on the phospholipid composition part of your question. Will report back with that if I receive additional info.

    Be well!


  740. JP Says:


    Just got a reply from Azantis. I haven’t contacted my sources at Aker or Neptune yet.

    Here’s what I was told:

    “Phospholipids are 40 to 42% w/ 79.8% being PC.”

    Added note: Have you already seen this publication funded by Aker?

    Be well!


  741. Bill Says:


    For price comparison, I’ve been buying MegaRed on sale at Costco for (I think) $14 for 90 or 15.6 cents each. AZ 4014 pure KO at 19% omega-3s is equivalent to MegaRed’s Superba pure KO at 18%. However, there’s perhaps 20% more in each Azantis gel cap, pushing the MegaRed price to about 19 cents. That makes the AZ 4014 bulk price about half the price of a good retail deal…nice, if you know what to do with 10,000 gel caps!

    Good luck,


  742. JP Says:

    Note: I’m posting this on Brenda’s behalf. This arrived via my e-mailbox but I believe it was meant for the comment thread – as it was addressed to Bill as well.

    And the shelf life on the 10,000 . . .

    You guys helped me make my decision on the Natures Way brand @500 mgs. The EPA and DHA’s are a little higher. I have been taking it for 5 weeks now and how I am moving so much better is amazing for someone who could hardly walk at all and wore braces on hands and knees and feet when necessary do to damage done by some cancer treatment medicine.

    Totally so much different. As different as the desert to ice
    I can now ride my 150cc Pink Scooter without two braces on the left knee. I can walk an okay mile to my music in about 28 min. I am not 100% back but compared to the last two years . . .

    I have also been taking the Herbs of Gold – Pain Ease for maybe 3 weeks now. This stuff comes from Australia but it worth it for anyone with bone, joint and muscle pain to do research on it and make your decision. It can help with a lot of things.

    I appreciate all the research and information that is passed along by everyone here

    Hi JP and Bill.

    Thanks for all your help.


  743. JP Says:

    The latest krill oil news:

    Be well!


  744. Tim Says:

    I just bought a new bottle of Source Natural’s NKO. It is very fresh with an expiration date of 02/2015. A lot less stinky than the previoius bottle. Also, the Astaxanthin in no longer 1.5, it is only 480mcg. NKO must have stopped with esterfied Astaxanthin? All of the other values are the same (400mg/300mg/150mg/90mg/20mg and then the new 480mcg).

    I went 5 days without my Krill! I felt like I lost my computer firewall so I ran out and got some for double the price at the local health food store.

    Just felt like sharing.

  745. Bill Says:


    0.480 mg astaxanthin per gram of NKO (2 softgels) from Source Naturals. Very interesting. Product link:

    The similar product from NOW Foods also has revised specs with 1.0-1.5 mg astaxanthin listed per gram of NKO (2 softgels). Product link:

    My guess as to the reason for this discrepancy: Source Naturals made a mistake and listed the single pill amount of astaxanthin.

    It would be interesting to hear what Source Naturals has to say.

    Good luck,


  746. JP Says:


    Here’s the inside scoop from Source Naturals:

    “According to our supplier files, the most recent batch of NKO lists the astaxanthin concentration at approximately 0.24 mg (240 mcg) per capsule or 480 mcg per one gram serving. We are hoping this is a temporary change.”

    I also e-mailed my contact at Neptune but haven’t heard back yet.

    Be well!


  747. JP Says:

    Still no word from Neptune. However I’ve been told by another source that this new, lower-astaxanthin NKO is known as Eco-Krill or EKO and is intended to compete with Aker’s Superba.

    This presentation may be of interest to some of y’all:

    Be well!


  748. Bill Says:


    Thanks for keeping us informed.

    Jan 2011
    “Neptune pre-launched its new product ECO Krill Oil™ (EKO™). EKO™ is a product similar to NKO™ with slightly lower specifications and a lower selling price. Comment: What is important here is that Neptune can not only offer NKO™ (higher spec Krill product but in addition offer EKO™ (lower spec Krill product) to compete at a lower price-point – say up to 30% cheaper.”

    Source Naturals does not have an EKO product on its website, just NKO with the new specs. AFAIK, all of Neptune’s KO studies were done using NKO in the high astaxanthin formulation.

    Good luck,


  749. debbie Says:

    why do you think they would “lower” the Asaxanthin in any of the products? (is there a recommended dosage?- probably not since it’s not regulated- but let’s say an “average dose” one should look for? Is the 1.5mg one often sees reasonable?)

  750. Bill Says:


    According to Azantis, the amount of astaxanthin found naturally in KO tops out at about 600 ppm (0.6 mg per 1000 mg KO). Astaxanthin is gradually “used up” once the KO is encapsulated. Studies of astaxanthin are always done with larger “therapeutic” doses like 2-6 mg per day. On that basis, there isn’t enough astaxanthin in pure KO to be considered therapeutic.

    KO products with more than 600 ppm astaxanthin are enhanced. Most KO products with added astaxanthin, such as Azantis blend, use astaxanthin from algae. Neptune’s NKO is the only product in which the extra astaxanthin comes from krill. Neptune uses patented, and no doubt expensive, techniques to reach astaxanthin levels of up to 1500 ppm. Neptune can reduce production costs by lowering astaxanthin levels.

    Good luck,


  751. JP Says:


    I pretty much agree with Bill. However I’m not yet clear on the impact of lower dosages of astaxanthin (1.5 mg/gram) in combination with omega-3s and phospholipids. If the early clinical results using NKO are to be trusted, they appear to indicate that the added astaxanthin contributed to the noted benefits. Why do I say this? Because the older NKO results are much more impressive than the recent Aker (Superba) studies re: lipid panels, etc.

    Thank you for posting the link to the EKO press release, Bill.

    Be well!


  752. JP Says:

    I received word back from my Neptune source. Essentially, this is what I was told:

    NKO specs still indicate it contains roughly 1250±250 mg/kg.

    EKO specs chime in at a minimum of 1000mg/kg.

    I’ll check it with Source Naturals and see what they have to say about this new information.

    Be well!


  753. Bill Says:


    I’m surprised at the minimal difference in astaxanthin between NKO and EKO. I wonder if there are other differences, such as EKO contains algal astaxanthin or Neptune is using a revised, lower-cost extraction technique for EKO. Otherwise, I don’t get it.

    Good luck,


  754. Corey Says:

    Hey gang,

    I’ve been reading many of these 753 posts and my head is beginning to spin.

    What’s a decent Krill oil to buy for the money.

    I’m Type 2, High Trigs, Low HDL, Smoker working on quitting.

  755. Elizabeth Jesse Says:

    Okay–what have I missed? I have been away, riding the divorce rollercoaster. Can someone sum things up for me? Which krill are we taking now? I am still thinking, Azantis.


    Elizabeth Jesse

  756. iWolf Says:

    Corey-the answer to your question will be subjective. You could start in the grocery store lines like 300mg MegaRed which uses Superba. I would personally recommend you start with a quality NKO made by a trusted brand like NOW. Here is the best deal I have found, you can get 60 or 120 caps and they are 500mg each.

  757. JP Says:

    This comment was sent to me via e-mail. It was intended to be posted here:


    All of the krill oil companies have good products. It depends on what you are looking for. My suggestion is that you try a couple of the krill products and see what feels best for you. Type 2 is rough but it can be controlled with the right diet exercise (I am sure you are working with your Dr.). Smoking is one of the hardest things to quit my step-son and my son have been trying very hard but both are still smoking. I cannot tell you because I never smoked (good luck).

    Mickey Schuett
    Azantis, Inc.

  758. JP Says:

    Hello, Elizabeth. Sorry to hear about the difficult times. Hang in there.

    In terms of substantive krill oil information of late: it seems as though the claimed astaxanthin content in some NKO products is changing (or being interpreted/reported differently). Neptune now has another grade of krill oil known as EKO (EcoKrillOil) that is lower in astaxanthin and less expensive.

    Nothing’s changed in any meaningful way on the Azantis/Enzymotec front. No published research or formulation changes.

    Aker continues to expand it’s market share. Some new research … none of which matches the promise of the original NKO data.

    Be well!


  759. Elizabeth Jesse Says:

    Thanks, JP. I willl keep looking at your “Be well!” and hope that this will manifest in my life :) .

    New question: I have talked a freind out in California into taking krill and he claims his dry skin feels drier, now. Does that make any sense to you? I was thinking it was because he cut down on his fish oil. He also burns easily, so I told him about the ataxanthin benefit. Comments?


    Elizabeth Jesse

  760. Bill Says:

    Some of us take KO and/or astaxanthin because we believe it is a reasonable way to maintain health long term. Others of us want help with specific health issues such as blood lipids, diabetes, mood, etc.

    If you are in the first group, any one of the Neptune (NKO, EKO), Aker (Superba) or Enzymotec (Azantis) KO products sold by a reputable company, fresh based on the expiration date, and taken according to package directions should do the job. Take astaxanthin in addition if desired.

    If you are in the second group, you may wish to take larger daily doses of KO more in line with the various studies. And, if you are taking a low-astaxanthin KO, you will want to consider supplementing with astaxanthin. However, for many conditions the effects of supplements are minor compared to diet. Don’t expect KO to help with your type II diabetes or high triglycerides until you get your diet and exercise regimens in order. JP’s Healthy Fellow articles are full of great information on all of this.

    Good luck,


  761. JP Says:


    I’ve read a few anecdotal reports of dry skin in krill oil users. Your theory is as good as any … an overall reduction in omega-3 fatty acid intake.

    The clinical mention that comes to mind in the dry skin/krill oil department has to due with a minor side effect noted in the NKO PMS trial … some of the participants reported oilier skin:

    As for astaxanthin protecting against UV damage, it probably helps. The evidence is preliminary but promising, IMO.

    Be well!


  762. anthony Says:


    You’re right about the fish oil cutback. I had the same experience. It’s really simple actually: in taking fish oil you’re taking in a ton more OIL than with krill unless you’re doing dose for dose. And the extra oil is what gets to the skin and helps with skin condition. So I take a fish/krill blend now.

  763. Tim Says:

    Hi all,

    OK, so it sounds like Source Natural’s is using EKO and still using the NKO title.

    Is Krill enough or should I make an elixir of Krill, fish oil and Astaxanthin? When it comes to the fish oil, I read that I should not buy Ethyl Ester type and stick with the natural Triglyceride type? If so, can anyone recommend a really good Triglyeride fish oil? I found one product with a high EPA 700 DHA 500 per 2000mg serving (Life Extension Super Omega-3), unfortunately it is in the concentrate Ethyl Ester form.


  764. anthony Says:

    Here ya go-

    Ultimate Omega – Lemon by Nordic Naturals, Natural Triglyceride form

  765. Tim Says:

    Cool, I will check it out, thanks.

  766. JP Says:


    There are quite a few triglyceride form fish oils on the market. Nordic Naturals is a good but rather expensive brand.

    A middle ground option might be Source Naturals’ Arctic Pure Krill Oil. It contains fish oil, krill oil and 1.5 mg/gram of astaxanthin.

    There are all sorts of ways to use these three ingredients. The dosage you ultimately decide on should reflect your desired goal, IMO. One size doesn’t fit all.

    Be well!


  767. JP Says:

    A little industry talk about the present and future of krill oil:

    Be well!


  768. Bill Says:

    Good article, JP. Nicely balanced.

    From the interview, here’s confirmation for what PIXE’s testing implied:
    “A: Krill oil supplements tend to be a premium priced product. The big concern is that there are some very cheap krill oil products out there. The price is so low that it’s impossible to see how they could produce it at that cost. The worry is—and some analytical research has shown this to be true—that these products might be just fish oil with some added soy phospholipids. This is a real challenge and quality issue for the krill space. If it seems too good to be true, it probably is.”

    Don’t buy the cheap stuff!

    Good luck,


  769. Health Oil Guy Says:

    It’s interesting to read how astaxanthin levels have varied across different product brands. I wonder if this could be due to the variety in type of krill used to make the oil? I’m really interested in the health benefits of astaxanthin. While krill oil does contain small amounts of astaxanthin, most of the studies on astaxanthin used minimal amounts of 4 – 6 mg a day; this is a lot higher than the astaxanthin one would get from a single dose of krill oil.

  770. Jeff Patterson Says:


    I personally have tried several of the above brands mentioned and I used Dr.Mercolas product for a few months and was sold on the Krill oil. Especially since I am not a big fish eater. Being so convinced I wanted to market Krill oil to others but Dr. Mercola did not offer any kind of affiliate program to speak of.

    I do now marker everest nutrition’s brand only after taking their product for about 3 months and my cholesterol levels and blood pressure have remained the same. Not only do I market Everest nutrition’s brand I am a firm believer that it does offer a quality product.

    The only down side to all the Krill oil products is the fact that I live in Mexico and for whatever reason they can not ship here. So I have to have someone bring it down periodically.

  771. Nice Says:

    Some smuggle dope, others smuggle krill oil! lol

  772. rob Says:

    Never heard of Everest Nutrition

  773. Rosina Says:

    An excellent, well researched article. I’ve just finished preparing an article on Krill, and have been giving it to my husband to help reduce cholesterol levels. Just found your blog and have marked it for more good reads!

  774. Kameron Says:


    Slightly off subject I know but do you know anything about this company?

    Apparently they do vitamins and the proceeds go to charitable endeavours? Kind of like Newman’s sauces…

    The bottles look strangely similar to Irwin Naturals.

  775. Kameron Says:

    Neptune to almost quadruple krill oil capacity by 2014

  776. Kameron Says:

    Krill oil boom is real

    The combination is quickly coming together to create a sizeable opportunity rivaling some of the few remaining major investment opportunities for investors looking into the krill boom now.

  777. JP Says:

    The latest on Aker/Superba krill oil:

    Preliminary and not all that significant, IMO. Not much use in conducting these kind of experiments.

    Be well!


  778. JP Says:

    Krill oil quality issues are heating up. Azantis has been pressing for similar identification and reform for some time.

    Be well!


  779. PIXE Says:

    Here is another fish oil supplement masquerading as a KO dietary supplement. The product that I purchased is Vitamin World’s Red Omega-3 krill oil. I paid $45.99 for a bottle of 60 1,000 mg soft gels from a Vitamin World store. Label claims 1,000 mg of krill oil that provides 5-mg of phospholipids (PL). My FTIR analysis of this product shows that it is just fish oil to which Astaxanthin has been added. As I mentioned in my earlier posts (676, 679, 687, and 693) the key to purchasing high quality KO is the phospholipid concentration which should be 40% as most of the products are listing on the labels. In addition, if the KO supplement does not mention its source of KO (Neptune, Aker BioMarine, Enzymotec etc.) I would not purchase it. JP’s post 775 with reference to fake KO illustrates what I have been saying about READ YOUR KO LABELS BEFORE YOU PURCHASE.

    Also of note is the incorporation of the term phosphatidylcholine (PC) into the terminology of KO. PC is a subclass of PL that can be a compound that has fatty acids attached to the glycerol (3 carbons) molecule in the sn-1(carbon 1) and sn-2 (carbon 2) positions. As you know, egg yolk and soy is a source of PC but they have no DHA and EPA bound at sn-1 (carbon 1) or sn-2 (carbon 2). What the hype about KO is that the PC in KO has DHA and EPA bound separately at sn-2. The sn-1 position is occupied predominately by palmitic acid C16:0 (a saturated fatty acid). Then in the gut, there is a special enzyme called phospholipase A2 that will only attack (hydrolyze) the sn-2 position of PC to release DHA or EPA located at that position. Therefore, some of the PC, about 31% of the 40% PL in KO will be two important molecules. Of the 31% PC, one molecule (11.9% of the 31%) will be designated as 16:0-22:6 PC (a PC molecule with palmitic acid on carbon 1 and DHA on carbon 2) and the other (32.4 % of the 31%) will be as 16:0-20:5 (a PC molecule with palmitic acid on carbon 1 and EPA on carbon 2). So, just because the KO has phospholipids, not all will have PC that have either DHA or EPA attached. When you do the mass balance (moles of PC to give moles of DHA or EPA) the amount (mg) of DHA and EPA coming from phospholipids (PL) in KO are much less than what is hyped.

    Again, I apologize for this detailed technical jargon but it is important that you the consumer understand what KO is all about, i.e. FACT vs FICTION.

  780. PIXE Says:

    In your post of 708 you mentioned two papers on the content of KO. I spoke to the author of paper “Elucidation of Phosphatidylcholine Composition in Krill Oil Extracted from Euphausia superba” and he was not sure if both DHA and EPA were attached to a single PC molecule. They sighted some 69 PC species in KO and this is being hyped by Aker as a marketing tool to sell more KO. This paper seems suspect in that they only briefly mentioned the second paper you cited “Investigation of natural phosphatidylcholine sources: separation and identification by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry”. This second paper was more informative about the composition of PC in KO and was not funded by any of the KO suppliers.

    They summarize “As far as krill oil is concerned, to our knowledge, this is the first time the identification of PL molecular species is investigated, although FA profiles have already been determined for phosphatidylethanolamine, PC, and TAG in krill (Euphausia pacifica) (16). The major PC molecular species was determined as (16:0-20:5)-PC and represented 32.4% of all PC. Other species, such as (16:0-22:6)PC (11.9%), (18:1-20:5)PC (7.4%), (18:018:2)PC(6.6%), (16:0-18:1)PC (5.9%), and (16:0-20:4)PC (4.1%), were less abundant. Once again, the patterns of molecular species and FA coincided, because both determinations indicated that EPA, DHA, and 16:0 were the predominant FAs.”

    Labels on KO should be less confusing. Some KO marketing says their KO (2 gel caps) is more potent than another brand where the other brand is based on taking one gel cap. I would like to see labels such as the following:
    One gel cap contains 500 mg Krill Oil
    Provides 200 mg phospholipids
    phosphatidylcholine 100 mg
    Providing 20 mg DHA
    Providing 18 mg EPA
    Provides 100 mg triacylglycerols
    Providing 23 mg DHA
    Providing 14 mg EPA
    Astaxanthin 200 mcg (micro grams)

    This way you will have some idea where your source of DHA and EPA are coming from. Olympian Labs Krill Oil label is by far the best labeling headed in the right direction. Remember the name change for triglyceride is now being called triacylglycerols (TAG).

  781. CC Says:

    Aren’t these companies selling fake KO responsible to anyone. Is it not against the law at all to do this?

  782. Bill Says:


    I too would like to know how much DHA/EPA is in PL form and how much is in TAG form for a KO product. This information will become more relevant once we find out what each type (and astaxanthin) contributes to our health.

    Any reason why DHA/EPA might prefer sn2?

    As I understand you, in the gut phospholipase A2 strips a FA at sn2 from PC. I thought the body absorbed the PLs in KO intact. What are the implications?


  783. PIXE Says:

    Is anyone taking Advance Physicians Formula Krill-Oil supplement pure Antarctic krill? Also, is anyone taking a KO with Kriaxanthin (Cyvex) brand Antarctic pure 100% krill oil?


  784. JP Says:

    Neptune is chiming in on krill oil quality as well:


    I tried Kriaxanthin a long, long time ago. I used the NSI (Vitacost) brand.

    Be well!


  785. PIXE Says:

    I know that Neptune Tech, Aker BioMarine, and Enzymotec supply raw krill oil. Who then takes this KO and turns it into capsules then ships it to the various MegRed, Dr. Mercola, etc retailers? I read the labels and they all say “Manufactured for xyz”. Who are the major manufacturers?

  786. JP Says:


    I don’t know but I can try to find out.

    I’ll contact all three krill sources and report back with what they have to say.

    Be well!


  787. JP Says:


    Just got a reply from my contact at Azantis. He says they’re using a few different sources for soft gel encapsulation. I wasn’t provided with names but was assured that they’re both GMP certified.

    More to come … if/when I hear back from the folks at Aker and Neptune.

    Be well!


  788. JP Says:

    A reply from Aker:

    “We have no capsulation facility in house. Some we contract manufacture and sell as capsules, but most customers buy bulk oil and organize this themselves.”

    Still nothing from Neptune.

    Be well!


  789. JP Says:

    And last but not least, Neptune’s response:

    “Neptune outsources the softgel encapsulation. Certain clients purchase the oil and have it encapsulated themselves others purchase the softgels directly from us.

    Our clients who sell NKO® brand their own product and either have the logo on the bottle or in certain cases have a reference to Neptune Technologies.”

    Be well!


  790. PIXE Says:

    Thanks for the information. It seems then that the information on the labels about the concentrations of omega-3 and others comes from the KO suppliers. The final seller then probably does no QC to verify the contents of the oil they purchased. I see that none of the KO products have the USP label that certifies the contents on the label. It would be nice if the KO sellers would have their products USP certified.


  791. PIXE Says:

    Here is a link to USP Verified Dietary Supplements. There are no KO products and only a few FO products are certified.


  792. JP Says:


    You’re welcome. Some companies do test their completed products. But, just how reliable that testing is is the question, IMO. This has been an issue for this industry for many, many years. The industry doesn’t want government to get involved re: quality or safety but they can’t seem to oversee themselves very well either. Hopefully that will change one day. Some strides have already been made but more is needed.

    Be well!


  793. Tim Says:

    Hello again,

    It sounds like the Krill industry is still wallowing around in the dark.

    Has anyone heard of Omega Q Plus? It is sounds pretty awesome on the surface! It is not Krill but Calamari (triglyceride) along with other potent vitamins, etc. They claim that they are the first to be able to combine two products that were impossible to do until now. Could be hype but it sounds good.

    Here is the presentation link:

    Thanks for any information.

  794. Tim Says:

    Here is the product label too:

  795. PIXE Says:


    Another fake Krill Oil supplement. The product Krill Doctor Professional should be cited for false advertising. I analyzed their KO supplement which claims 500 mg “100 % natural” krill oil with 210 mg phospholipids. Product is just fish oil and the KO supplier is Cyvex even though it is not stated. Contains KriaXanthin as other brands that I pointed out previously. Check out their web cite to see the false advertising for yourselves.

    Rated Leading Brands Krill Oil Per Softgel Daily Cost per 500 Mg 60 Count Price
    #1 Krill Doctor ™ Professional 500 Miligrams $0.16 $9.92
    #2 Mercola 500 Miligrams $0.42 $24.99
    #3 Vitamin Shoppe 500 Miligrams $0.42 $24.99
    #4 GNC 500 Miligrams $0.50 $29.99
    #5 Schiff Mega Red 300 milligrams $0.50 $17.99
    #6 CVS Krill Oil 300 milligrams $0.63 $22.49

    The reason why the KO is so cheap is because it is not krill oil. Someone should contact the other brands listed above to complain of false advertising.
    I know that FDA does not regulate dietary supplements and I hope that the KO suppliers and brands start policing their products. Cyvex should step up to the plate and say that their KriaXanthin labeled KO brands are not krill oil.
    Sorry to complain, but the consumer needs to make their voices known about these outrageous false advertising. “Krill Doctor ™ Professional formula is formulated using the only Krill Oil that has earned Consumer Lab Quality Seal of Approval for purity, potency and freshness.”
    I guess it is all about clever advertising fiction rather than scientific fact.
    I sent Krill Doctor an e-mail and I am awaiting their response. I also sent Consumer Labs a note.

  796. JP Says:

    Hi, Tim.

    The Omega Q Plus products seems like a pretty decent formula. The real question is whether such a product is necessary for most people.

    1) What’s so special about calamari oil? It’s high DHA content? It’s lower EPA concentration? The claim that it’s “sustainable”? I’m unaware of any peer-reviewed evidence showing it’s superiority over fish or krill oil.

    2) Is there any objective evidence that combining the various nutrients in this formula is more effective than taking them separately? A money back guarantee is always welcome, but doesn’t constitute proof.

    If someone was looking for a DHA-heavy heart formula, Dr. Sinatra’s product might be a helpful piece of the puzzle. Otherwise, I don’t think it makes much sense for general, preventive health – especially if you’re already taking other supplements.

    Be well!


  797. JP Says:


    As always, thank you for the heads up. I’d appreciate it if you’d kept us up to date on any replies you receive.

    I think Dr. Tod Cooperman of Consumer Lab may be a good ally in this fight. He’s familiar with me, this site and thread. I don’t know how closely he follows it. But, with a little encouragement, he might be willing to conduct a more thorough expose on krill oil in the coming times. Krill oil manufacturers are working hard to bring their supplements into the mainstream. Profits and public exposure is up and growing. This may represent an opportunity to take a closer look into the claims and quality represented in this sector of the supplement market.

    Be well!


  798. ROB Says:

    So Mercola Krill has no KO?

  799. Tim Says:

    Good points JP. I guess it doesn’t take revolutionary science to put two pills together in my mouth. I kind of liked the way they said the Calamari has a short life cycle therefore less contamination. Then again, the Krill is free of ocean toxins as well. Thanks for your input.

  800. JP Says:


    I don’t think that’s what PIXE was saying.

    Dr. Mercola’s krill oil may not be the best k.o. supplement available. But I’ve recent test results that indicate that it does, in fact, meet it’s label claim – at least the bottles that were tested.

    Be well!


  801. JP Says:


    Calamari oil may end up adding something new and of value in the omega 3 category. Purity and sustainability are important issue to be sure. But, at the moment, there are only questions re: it’s health effects, IMO. I’d like to see at least a few studies comparing the efficacy and tolerability of calamari oil vs. fish and/or krill. Is it a suitable alternative for those that can’t tolerate fish oil? Does it lower triglycerides as well (or better) than fish/krill extracts that contain higher EPA levels? Etc.

    Be well!


  802. PIXE Says:

    The krill oil suppliers and brands never mention the high concentrations of As (arsenic) in their products nor about the PCB concentrations. They always say how contaminated fish oil is. Krill oil is not “pristine” as the marketers make it out to be. See Enzymotec’s GRAS (generally recognized as safe) application in which they show that As concentration in one of their batches is 3.0 ppm and PCB’s are 8.5 ppb. If this was drinking water, the EPA would ban it from consumption. You can read the GRAS application and specs at the FDA’s site: to read the information for yourself. The GRAS document will tell you in detail what is in Enzymotec’s KO as Enzymotec’s own words about their product and analyses. The batch numbers in GRAS application have been blacked out except one that reads 162-29A. Check your KO from Enzymotec (Azantis) lot numbers to see if there is a match. If so, enjoy your As and PCB sandwich.

    Arsenic is not good for you regardless if it is organic or inorganic. Some argue that organic As is not a problem but I know otherwise. It would be interesting to see if NKO and Aker’s KO contain similar levels of As, and PCB’s.


  803. JP Says:


    In the GRAS PDF, I can see that As and PCBs are present. However, isn’t this a question of quantity? Krill oil is typically taken in a 1 – 4 gram/day dosage. Water would appear to be a much different story because of the larger amount consumed. Perhaps this is why some manufacturers (including at least one that uses Enzymotec KO) claim that As, PCBs and other contaminants are not present at any detectable level in the end product?


    To be clear, I’m not trying to minimize your concern. I just want to be sure it applies in a “real world” model.

    Be well!


  804. jaytothakay Says:

    hi there,

    So i have a read few hundred comments here but i still dont know which brand krill oil is best, and THAT is what i wanted to know.

    Which brand(s) are the best and where can i order them cheapest?

  805. JP Says:

    Here’s the latest study on krill oil. This one is actually pretty interesting in that it compares krill to two different fish oil supplements. Also, the krill oil used in the study is Neptune Krill Oil – a rarity of late.

    I would be interested in hearing your thoughts about this. Much like most of the other recent studies, I don’t find the results of this analysis to be all that impressive. Krill’s bioavailability seems to be slightly higher with respect to EPA. But, is it worth the significantly higher expense?

    Please note that you can download a provisional PDF file of the full text of the study.

    Be well!


  806. jaytothakay Says:

    are free fatty acids a good thing?

  807. JP Says:

    Hi, Jay.

    Free fatty acids may be more bioavailable than other forms of (marine-based) omega-3 fatty acids. Please take a look at the “discussion” section of the full text of this study for more info:

    I’ve stopped giving brand and/or merchant advice. Other contributors are still free to do so.

    Be well!


  808. JP Says:

    Bill, a highly esteemed contributor to this thread, has been trying to post this message without success. I’ll check with my webmaster to determine why this glitch is occurring. In the meantime, here’s what Bill e-mailed me directly:

    “I haven’t been receiving emails with KO thread posts lately. Hopefully, this post will get me back in the loop.

    Mercola publishes KO comparison from Dec 2010. Where did it come from?

    New Mercola article (mostly an ad for his KO)…

    …in which he includes a link to this KO comparison from an unnamed source titled “Quality Assurance Report December 2010.”

    The report compares bulk KO from the big 3 (Neptune, Aker and Enzymotec) but names them A, B and C, while disclosing only that C is Mercola’s source (which we know to be Enzymotec). Significant flaws are found in A and B. The pdf is searchable. No mention of arsenic or PCBs.

    Who paid for this report and who conducted it? I haven’t even read it yet, but I wanted to get it to you for analysis and feedback.

    Good luck,


    First of all, I’m sorry for the trouble posting your comments, Bill. I’ll try to get to the bottom of the problem.

    Secondly, if I were a betting man, I’d say that Azantis and/or Enzymotec paid for the analysis. This is not to say that it’s not accurate. It’s just an educated guess on my part.

    I doubt that Aker (most likely “Product B”) or Neptune (most likely “Product A”) will comment on this analysis publicly. Why would they? Profits are up and there’s no industry-wide consensus about what constitutes a high quality krill oil supplement (yet). Sad but true. I hope I’m wrong about this.

    PS – Dr. Mercola’s product is now included in the ConsumerLab omega-3 supplement analysis. I can’t say what the test results indicate. I’m a member of CL and this simply isn’t permitted. However, it appears that Mercola or his people were confident enough in their product to pay to have it tested after the initial report was made public. To the best of my knowledge, this much is accurate. I’m sure I’ll be contacted if any of this is inaccurate.

    Be well!


  809. Sai Says:

    Hello JP

    How are you? I have a question. I currently take fish oil(but it does not seem to help with my trigylcerides and low HDL), but wanted to add krill oil. I looked at this post so it looks like 500mg twice a day would be a good start. I am looking to order this, is this OK?

    Best Regards


  810. Sai Says:

    Dear JP

    Also i looked at this link from costco (but it is 300mg)

    Best Regards


  811. JP Says:

    Hello, Sai. Nice to hear from you.

    How much fish oil are you using daily? I’m specifically interested in the amount of EPA/day. High dosages of EPA are very effective at lowering triglycerides. In fact, there’s a prescription medication of this kind that’s currently on the market – though some report that non-prescriptive alternatives (over the counter fish oil) may work equally well.

    The best natural strategy to lower triglycerides and elevate HDL cholesterol is to adopt a whole food-based carbohydrate restricted diet. Not everyone is open to this type of diet/lifestyle. However, it is very effective. Add some exercise to the mix and you’ve got a winning combo.

    I wouldn’t recommend either of the products you’ve mentioned. The Now Foods product recently tested poorly in a ConsumerLab analysis. MegaRed features Aker krill oil. The published data on this variety of krill oil hasn’t been very impressive as of yet, IMO. The relatively low content of astaxanthin may be the reason why.

    Be well!


  812. Bill Says:


    Thanks for posting my message. I hope you’re able to learn more about the KO report from your sources. I’d like to get PIXE’s POV, too.

    It does look like A is Neptune, B is Aker and C is Enzymotec. I agree with you that it’s likely that “Azantis and/or Enzymotec paid for the analysis.” Seeing as it’s been under wraps for 8 months, it might not have been intended for general release. I can imagine that Mercola has been dying to publish it and was finally allowed to do so in this redacted form.

    We need more info on this:
    “Producer C sent a representative to purchase 9 commercially available krill oil packages. Three different brands for each of the main krill Producers.”
    That sounds like encapsulated consumer products were tested, and if that’s the case, I can believe some were rancid.

    Figure 2 shows Producer C’s product is expected to have 1500 ppm astaxanthin. The Azantis product matching that spec is Azantis Premium Krill Oil Blend, which contains fish oil. Why was that product tested and not pure KO?

    Perhaps Azantis and/or Enzymotec did the testing just to check up on competitors and did not design it with the idea of releasing it to the public.

    Good luck,


  813. Sai Says:

    Dear JP:

    Nice to talk to you after a while!

    I am aware of the prescription fish oil.I am going to try ask my primary to write me that prescription to see if it helps. Here is the amount of fish oil i take currently.

    Fish Oil 2000 mg **
    (a proprietary blend of tuna oil and hoki (NZ whiting) oil)
    Total Omega 3 Fatty Acids 1000 mg **
    (from the proprietary fish oil blend)
    DHA (Docosahexaenoic Acid) 600 mg **
    EPA (Eicosapentaenoic Acid) 260 mg
    DPA (Docosapentaenoic acid) 64 mg
    Total Omega 6 Fatty Acids 120 mg **
    Total Omega 9 Fatty Acids 360 mg **
    Ubiquinol (Kaneka QH™) 48 mg **
    Lycopene 2 mg **
    (33mg LycoMato™)
    (from Tomato)
    Astaxanthin 570 mcg **
    (from 6 mg of Haematococcus pluvialis algal biomass)

    This gives me excellent energy, but not helping with my HDL. My HDL is very low(27). Since i read on this post that Krill oil seems to help with HDL i thought i would try it as an alternate source. So do you recommend Krill oil? if so what would you recommend?

    Best Regards


  814. JP Says:

    Hi, Bill.

    All reasonable questions. I’ll see what I can find out.

    Be well!


  815. JP Says:


    Each 1 gram soft gel of the prescription fish oil provides about 800 mg of omega-3s (mostly EPA). The typical daily dosage for those with very high triglycerides is 4 grams/day. If you opt for a non-prescriptive fish oil: aiming for approximately 3,000 of omega-3s/day (2,000 mg or more should be EPA) might be worth considering / discussing with your doctor.

    Adding higher dosages of astaxanthin (6-12 mg/day) to the fish oil is another viable option, IMO. The amount of astaxanthin contained in the supplement you’re using is probably too low to accomplish much – other than protecting the fish oil from oxidizing to some degree.

    Including more foods that are rich in monounsaturated fats such as avocados and limiting carb-dense foods (grains, refined foods, etc) could also help.

    Be well!


  816. JP Says:


    I just wanted to provide a brief (and uneventful) update. I’ve contacted all of my usual sources. One of the three replied. Why? I can’t say. It could be that the other two are away on vacation.

    Anyhow, I was told that the report was not financed by Azantis. However, to my mind, this doesn’t necessarily mean that it wasn’t financed by Enzymotec. The only detail I was given is that it “was done by someone Mercola works with”.

    If I receive more information, I’ll put post it here.

    Be well!


  817. Donald Ray Says:

    I am a heart patient that was taking statens to lower cholestrol and it was causing meany side efects (example back and hip pain) I stoped taling the medications and started useing CoQ10. It helped. Then I started useing Krill Oil and it helped to lower cholestral and my tryglisorids. There is a research program looking for people to assist in the rewarch, do you know of this program and how I can perticapate?

  818. JP Says:

    Hi, Donald.

    I’m not familiar with any research of this kind – apart from periodic clinical studies. Where did you hear about this program?

    Be well!


  819. Marc Says:

    I would like to ask you your relationship to Aker or Neptune?
    So far most of your comments are seem to be biased and lack of science and probably using very limited technology.
    If you read Aker’s patent (public domain) you will see that TMA/TMAO levels are stated there which are above freshness levels and I have not seen any comment from you regarding this nor Consumer Lab results of Neptune/Now Foods which did not meet specifications in several parameters EPA/DHA/Totox Values.
    If you want to talk about suppliers , please be objective and talk about each parameters of all suppliers rather than focusing on providing limited information on specific suppliers which can lead to confuse the public. So far your comments seem to be suspicious in my opinion as it looks like they are written on certain companies in favor.

  820. PIXE Says:

    Thanks for your comments and concerns. I can assure you that I am not affiliated with any of these companies. I am a professor of analytical chemistry and I specialize in fish oil dietary supplements analyses. For krill oil, we have started a major research effort to set the records straight. I have a state-of-the art laboratory using FTIR, XRF, HPLC, GC, and NMR to analyze the products. I have purchased and tasted more than 60 of the krill oil products and will have some major science to report on shortly. Many of the marketing about KO is totally incorrect. “Phospholipids bound to DHA” for example. Those studies comparing KO with FO have flaws. My student’s PhD thesis was a detailed analysis telling the difference between TAG FO and ethyl esters. We have applied the same methods to analyze the KO. If you don’t understand the science I have been discussing about the fake KO then get yourself a bottle of the products I have mentioned in previous posts and analyze them yourself. In fact, a simple taste test will inform you that the products are not krill oil. Then, just be patient and our web site will be up and running before the end of the year with detailed chemical analysis of more than 60 products.
    Also, the patents granted and applied for are in the public domain as well as the various GRAS applications that describe the KO suppliers products in detail. I was just calling attention to the product from Azantis/Enzymotec about their As content they reported for the FDA GRAS application.

    Many of the brands of KO that I have purchased do not mention the supplier of the KO. My comments have been targeted to brands and not suppliers. The only products that have a limited amount of KO are those that are sourced from Cyvex with KriaXanthin. There must be a disconnect between the supplier the encapsulator and the distributor. As I mentioned above, look at the lot numbers and taste the product.

    As a consumer of dietary supplements I was just pointing out that we should all read the labels carefully. Then, when I purchased these 60 products, I was expecting the products to have the quantity of the ingredients stated on the labels. When the products failed, I just raised a question. I am just trying to separate marketing fiction from scientific fact.


  821. CC Says:

    I am no longer getting any of the email posts. Don’t know why.

  822. JP Says:

    Hi, CC.

    I’ll see what I can find out about this. Bill also reported having issues with the e-mail updates. Hopefully my webmaster can figure out a fix.

    Be well!


  823. JP Says:

    Bill and CC,

    My webmaster looked into the e-mail issue and couldn’t find anything out of sorts on this end. However, he informed me that the e-mail update feature is largely considered to be problematic by many webmasters. Unfortunately, the bottom line is that we don’t have a fix for this problem. I think the only way to stay up-to-date on new comments is to visit this thread from time to time. I’m sorry I can’t offer a better solution.

    Be well!


  824. WhaaaaaT Says:

    nature made krill oil?!?!?!

  825. JP Says:

    I’m not sure exactly what question you’re asking. Price-wise, this isn’t a very good deal. The product itself isn’t the best or worst, IMO. The omega-3 and phospholipid content is adequate, but the astaxanthin level is on the low side. Better deals and products are widely available.

    Be well!


  826. Bill Says:


    This is the first time I’ve check the thread in Sep. Still no email updates.

    You said re Mercola’s KO report that you were told it was “was done by someone Mercola works with.” Might be Valensa International Mercola has a cozy relationship with Dr. Rudi Moerck, CEO and President of Valensa Here’s a Mercola interview with Moerck from a year ago, subject: fish oil and omega-3s. Mercola never let on then or later that Valensa is one of his product sources. Tsk tsk.


    I was so excited to read about that breadth and depth of your KO investigation. Can’t wait! While the KO industry has been busy hyping the benefits of its products, you are the only one taking a good look at what’s really in them at the consumer level. Among other aspects, I’ll be most interested to read your rancidity results. Spoilage has been one of my major concerns all along, but there haven’t been any comprehensive reports.

    Does my bottle of MegaRed really smell fishier than when I opened it 60 days ago, and if so, what does it mean? Perhaps you can explain to us how to tell if KO is still fresh by tasting it.

    Good luck,


  827. JP Says:


    I’m sorry about the e-mail situation. I checked it out with my webmaster and he couldn’t find a technical reason for it … on our end. I wish I knew of another way to proceed, but I don’t.

    I can only speculate about the Mercola report. One of the possible candidates, Enzymotec, just announced their new and improved krill oil product. I’ve known about this addition for sometime, but now it’s official.

    Be well!


  828. jaytothakay Says:

    hi, i’ve been trying to get this quiestion answered without succes so i’ll try here. Does eating coconuts interfere with the uptake of omega 3 since they are full of omega 6? thx

  829. JP Says:

    There isn’t a lot of data on this, but the small amount that exists indicates otherwise.

    Note: MCTs are typically derived from coconut oil.

    Be well!


  830. PIXE Says:

    Just purchased another KO supplement called “Nature Made Krill Oil” and contains 300 mg krill oil with 50 mg EPA 24 mg DHA and 75 mg phospholipids. The content of astaxanthin was not given as well as the KO supplier. What is interesting about this “New” product from Nature Made is the labeling. “Experts suggest about 500 mg of EPA and DHA for heart health. Nature Made Krill Oil offers 518 mg of EPA and DHA in 7 softgels.” Product is expensive to get the recommended American Heart Association dose in that you need to take 7 softgels. This is the first time I have seen this labeling and at least it is honest in letting the consumer know how many softgels are needed for the AHA recommendation. Wouldn’t it be more cost effective to take just one fish oil softgel that provides the AHA recommended dose. I have read all those studies comparing the bio-availability of FO vs KO but the number of softgels taken in the studies are unrealistic in that they are not the recommended serving sizes on the supplements.

    This KO does have a high concentration of phospholipids and is not fake KO.

  831. rob Says:

    Im not so sold on Krill oil. Its a lot pricier than fish oil and its ingredients are very low.

    I think a top notch cod liver oil is probably the best place to spend money for fish oil supplementation

  832. JP Says:

    Hi, PIXE.

    Fish oil is certainly a more economical way of acquiring the recommended quantities of DHA & EPA – both in terms of cost and number of pills.

    Interestingly, the latest study comparing omega-3 bioavailability found that salmon and tuna oil were better absorbed in rats than krill oil.

    Be well!


  833. Sherry Says:

    Hi, JP and everyone! I should get a gold medal. I’ve read this site…especially from September 2010 to the present…three times! Why? I was trying to figure out what krill oil to take. I just purchased five bottles of Azantis Krill Oil (40/14) from Prime Metabolics. They have it in stock now. My difficulty was that I didn’t want any fish oil in the krill oil because I get diarrhea from fish oil.

    My first krill oil was MegaRed. I started taking it a month ago for the cardiovascular capabilities because I do not eat fish. But, about three days later, I noticed I didn’t need as many pain relievers for my fibromyalgia! This caused me to start researching krill and I was thrilled to see that it has some inflammatory properties to it. I know it isn’t heavily proven but what happened with the MegaRed was proof for me. I wanted to pass that along.

    I decideded to go with Azantis because it looks like it has more ingredients in each soft gel. I’m hoping for more of a benefit. Also, I felt the cost of the MegaRed was too much for what I was getting compared to the Azantis. But, MegaRed does have a 500 mg soft gel out now. I guess they are catching up with everyone else. :)

    I do want to thank you, JP, and everyone else too, for the great information on this site. I will let you know if I have greater success with the pure Azantis. Thanks again!


  834. Tim Says:

    Just FYI:

    The biggest players in krill oil are at war again – this time over a US patent awarded to Neptune Technologies & Bioressources, which its arch rival argues should never have been granted, and Neptune has immediately moved to enforce in the courts.

  835. Tim Says:

    This is a good deal on NKO Krill $15.95 – 60 softgels – exp 5/2014 – free shipping.

    460mg Phospholipids per 1000mg and 1.3 Astaxanthin

  836. JP Says:

    Thank you, Sherry. I’m trilled to hear about your initial success with MegaRed. And, I hope you’ll find continued (and hopefully superior) results with Azantis’ krill oil. Please keep us posted! :)

    Be well!


  837. JP Says:

    Hi, Tim.

    The krill oil community has been quite a volatile neighborhood for some time now – both behind the scenes and in public. With more and more money invested and being made, I expect that we’ll continue to see this type of controversy in the near future.

    Be well!


  838. DSK Says:

    Hello JP,

    Thanks for the excellent writeup. I am searching for the best quality krill oil for my 3 year old. Which brand/type would you recommend and how many soft-gels? Can the soft gels be broken down and poured into milk or something so the toddler can eat it completely?

    Thanks much,

  839. JP Says:

    Hi, DSK.

    Why are you considering giving krill oil to your child? Is there a specific health condition involved? Or, do you plan to use krill as a basic source of omega-3 fatty acids? If the latter is the case, I would recommend opting for dietary sources of DHA & EPA whenever possible. Examples – omega-3 enriched eggs, wild salmon, etc. There’s also a palatable (phospholipid bound) fish oil supplement that can be given to children called Coromega. However, the company’s general recommendation states that it’s for children 4 and over.

    Be well!


  840. DSK Says:

    Thanks JP.

    His doctor recommended krill oil instead of fish oil as a source of Omega3 and DHA. I have heard that krill oil is really good for general health, it should be beneficial to a 3 year old too, right? Is there a reason to avoid krill oil at this age? He doesn’t have any health condition except seasonal allergies. No food allergies that I have discovered, although I haven’t given him any sea food so far.

    Thanks again,

  841. JP Says:

    Hi, DSK.

    I’ve not seen any peer reviewed research on krill oil use in young children. However, there’s a considerable amount of (mostly positive) information about fish oil supplementation in this same population. Any reservations about using krill oil in youngsters would likely have to do with the following points:

    1) It’s preferable to supplement children’s diets with products that have a proven track record in their age group. I’m unaware of any published research on krill use in young children.

    2) There’s a small possibility that krill oil may cause a reaction in individuals with shell fish allergies and/or sensitivities.

    3) Not all children are capable of swallowing soft gels. Krill oil is almost always sold in this form.

    If you decide to try krill oil, I would personally opt for a low starting dosage – 500 mg/day. The dosage can always be increased once tolerance is established. That is, if his doctor’s recommends doing so. I would also keep a close eye out for any foreseen and unforeseen reactions that may occur – just in case. In addition, I would make sure all his doctors are aware of what he’s taking, be it a multivitamin, krill oil, probiotics, etc. To be clear, I’m not singling out krill as a particular source of concern. These are basic guidelines that are applicable to virtually any new supplement.

    As far as brands go, I’d probably select Source Naturals’ Arctic Pure Krill Oil.

    Be well!


  842. DSK Says:

    Thank you JP. I will consult with his doctor on what to give him. Maybe old fashion cod liver oil is better for him.

    Thanks again for a comprehensive answer.

  843. Tim Says:

    I found this on the net today:



    Krill oil has once again been demonstrating its superiority over fish oils with regard to its positive effect on obesity. A recent study on mice supplemented with krill oil demonstrated that krill oil could be instrumental in affecting energy levels and appetite. It appears the krill oil also had the capability of altering several metabolic processes that are involved with obesity. The study measured the levels of substances called endocannabinoids that are associated with a high omega-6 rich diet, as these mice were fed a particularly high concentration of omega-6 fatty acids, now thought to be associated with the current rising levels of obesity. These endocannabinoids are claimed to increase appetite, and adversely affect energy, mood, memory and pain perception, all involved with the build-up of fat in the body. Endocannabinoids are synthesised in the body from phospholipids, the components of cell membranes, and act on receptors in the hypothalamus to directly increase appetite. The concentration of endocannabinoids is also inversely related to the levels of leptin in the blood, a hormone that is also involved with energy intake and expenditure. A high level of endocannabinoids is associated with low leptin levels, resulting in much lower energy levels.

      Webmaster Note:

    Post truncated due to length. Full text available at link below.

    Here is the link of the text from above:

    Note to JP, I don’t get activity updates either. I just check back in now and again to stay updated. Thanks for even having this site!

  844. JP Says:

    Hi, Tim.

    I’m sorry about the update malfunction. It seems to be a hit or miss situation. I receive updates regularly, but I know others do not. I wish I had a fix for the problem. Sadly, I do not.

    As far as I’m concerned, here’s the bottom line about most of the recent krill oil studies. The majority of them show some relatively minor advantages over fish oil. However, the differences aren’t that impressive and don’t appear to confer significant real world effects – ex. major shifts in inflammatory markers, lipids or weight. Also, it’s important to factor in the issue of cost in relation to DHA & EPA content. Krill oil tends to be more expensive than fish oil.

    The pertinent questions that remain to be answered are: Is the extra cost warranted? What form and/or formulation of krill oil is best? Would alternate dosages and/or sources of astaxanthin, DHA, EPA and phospholipids provide improved outcomes in a real world setting?

    Be well!


  845. Al Says:

    Thanks for all the info. i got to comment 434 so excuse me if anything i say has been covered.

    The big manufacturers here are missing a trick. How popular do they suppose their product might be if they could print this on their labels;

    -100% pure wild neptune krill oil extracted solely by mechanical means.

    -Fresh Krill oil cold pressed and packaged into gelcaps within <1 hour of harvesting.

    -Guaranteed acidity (or equivalent phospholipid freshness rating) of <0.5%.

    I suspect any consumer who read that might have some kind of internal e.jaculation due the overwhelming sense of relief and excitement experienced. i know i would.

    Owing to the quality of product such a manufacturing process would produce, im sure the resultant tests on its health benefits would far outstrip any (quantitively and qualitatively) scientific findings that have been produced on krill oil so far.

    To do this manufacturers would have to fit a ship with cold presees, centifuges, and packaging facilities on board, the ship design might also be granted a patent (if a modified ship design was required) making the relatively small investment even more worthwhile, they could also harvest other fish oils, and sell them as 'extra virgin' too.

    TBH i could design one standing on one hand, just bolt the machinery in. No new tech needed, how much was spent researching/building NKO extraction process/plant? presses and centrifuges are not complex, plus its what everyone wants??? less outlay more sales. simple, low cost, highly marketable sought after process. "DO IT"

    Consumers search religiously and informatively for quality supplements, but are rarely left impressed with what they are told about (esp. how its made) the product from the manufacturer, the ones who bridge this gap, and bring the real quality are sure to make a killing. i understand a lot dont because they focus on the bottom line, but here it will save them money????? it makes no sense??????

    Costs saved to manufacturer= no plant real estate overhead, no solvents need to be bought, no complicated plant machinery purchasing or maintenance costs, no nitrogen atmosphere costs, it goes on.

    People now avoid cheap (solvent extracted/not fresh) plant oils like the plague do they expect krill/fish oil to go the same way?

    JP if you feel it's appropriate could you show this text or suggest the ideas to your contacts in the industry, encourage them to get it to some decision makers if they arent already, i'd be interested to see if they could come up with a sound reason as to why it shouldnt be done.

    Shelf life is not a legitimate excuse. unfiltered extra virgin olive oils with water and plant material left in have great shelf life, because they are packaged shortly after harvesting. were they to cold press krill much later after harvesting in a plant on land the superior quality, shelf life, cost savings and great marketing opportunities would be lost.

    even if a shorter shelf life does result, perhaps 6 months worst case, this is not a consideration for consumers, they buy fresh food everyday that can go off in a week, they want fresh supplements too. people these days rightly equate freshness and lack of 'long life' properties as indicators of quality in food and supplements.

    bottom line, huge production cost savings, more potent product (results in more marketable health benefits), highly sought after low cost currently unexploited manufacturing process, healthier people, large profit margins. get the equipment on the boat!!! dont let the status quo scare you into not listening to novel viable profitable ideas

  846. JP Says:

    Hi, Al.

    I’m quite certain that reps from the major krill oil distributors & manufacturers frequent this thread. If any of them contact me about your post, I’ll alert you via e-mail – based on the e-mail address you provided when posting this message.

    Be well!


  847. debbie Says:

    i think i just saw a new article come out re: a new KO product from Azantis on 10/31 containing high amts of Astaxanthin- Astakrill? I’ve not read its label yet to check out its source or ‘lipid’ formulation- but
    R U familiar with this/advocate trying it? Cost?
    thanks for the input.

  848. JP Says:

    Hi, Debbie.

    Yes, there is a new product by Azantis called AstaKrill. It’s lower in omega-3s/gram, slightly lower in phospholipids and significantly higher in (algae-dervied) astaxanthin.

    Not sure about the current availability or cost. I haven’t seen any major manufacturers picking up on it yet.

    Would I advocate trying it out? It would largely depend on the cost.

    Be well!


  849. atul Says:

    good source of information.

    thank you

  850. geos1991 Says:

    u guys are amazing, i just passed all of ur commnets and all i have 2 say is that u made excellent job though i actually didnt fully undesrtand how u made some of ur conclusions or why are companies risking so much giving u infos about a yet growing market which hasnt stabilized yet her fixed and variable costs..quite naive from their side..concerning me i am a 21 year old marketing and management student and an intensive exercise fan (weight training ,swimming,long distance running) although i make sure i take most of my macronutrients from my average meditteranean diet (i am greek) i take some supplements in order to be safe for the unexpected than sorry.before facing all those awsome infos u gathered about krill oil i was using and i will continue to do so for the next 6 months carlson labs: the very finest fish oil. a good product for my opinion after a very long market research and comparing many value for money brands.the thing is that i want to give a try to this new promising product but i dont seem to find enough time to start researching so i was very lucky to find u guys and i kindly request your advice for who is the best brand outhere nowadays?i saw a previous suggestion of urs about Source Naturals’ Arctic Pure Krill Oil. is it still active?thx

  851. JP Says:

    Hi Geos1991,

    My previous comments about Source Naturals’ Arctic Pure Krill Oil still stand. The pros: apparent quality and a higher level of astaxanthin (than comparable products by Aker and Neptune). The con: no independent (published) research to establish it’s efficacy in humans.

    Be well!


  852. geos1991 Says:

    every time i enter this forum i get stunned by the devotion of your research guys. seriously i rly cant understand what motivates you to research so much about a market which hasnt even become mainstream and is still testing its products but i really admire you.that’s the way consumers are supposed 2 beand not some bunch of sheeps.

    HI Jp, took me 3 days to see all of ur comments but worth it definitely.i see many reviews about krill oil brands but what i dont see is a review about life extension krill oil brand which has a pretty good expectation as a brand itself so do u have any clues about that ? also i wanted to ask what is the average epa/dha daily dose anyway ?some say 3g with 2 g epha and 1 g dha.guys how can u afford 2 pay for such a dose? i use a mix of carlson labs the very finest fish oil and ascenta neutrasea liquid fish oil and i cant afford as a student to buy such a quantity to fullfil this dosage.. what type of premium quality fish oils do u use?(i am rly interested in quality) also could u propose me a decent multivitamin since i doubt most mainstream multivitamins like centrum are likely to be absorved properly (i use life extension one per day) i wanted to buy a brand like xtendlife total balance premium but it is too costy for me.actually, i am greek and i follow a mediterranean diet (lots of fruits and veggies) so vitamin deficiency is not likely to happen but is better to be safe than sorry..good luck guys

  853. Ron00 Says:

    For Arctic Pure Krill Oil (Enzymotec Ltd. Krill Oil+), I don’t know how many their omega-3 came from fish oil. From VRP’s krill oil ingredients(seems to from same source), “Approximately 2/3 of Omega-3 is bonded to phospholipids”. What the ratio of NKO and Superba? Any data?

  854. Ron00 Says:

    to PIXE: have you tested the Naptune KO from Nutrigold? It claims 460mg of Phospholipids per 1000mg, much higher than the normal 400mg. Is that real?

  855. JP Says:

    Hi, Geos.

    The Life Extension Foundation offers it’s own krill oil arthritis formula and also features Aker and Neptune krill oils distributed by different manufactures (Jarrow and Source Naturals). The LEF healthy joint formula provides a higher level of astaxanthin than standard krill oil. But, it also contains lower levels of omega-3s and phospholipids.

    The recommended dosage of daily omega 3s varies widely depending on what issues you’re trying to address. The typical range is between 500 mg – 4,000 mg of DHA + EPA. The higher end of the dosage range is difficult to attain using krill oil – even factoring in its bioavailability advantage.

    Life Extension’s one-a-day multi is a pretty solid option, IMO.

    Be well!


  856. JP Says:

    Hi, Ron.

    I think this link should answer your Arctic Pure / VRP question:

    Here’s the info. on Aker/Superba krill oil:

    I believe the NKO data is available as well. I just don’t recall how to track it down at the moment. Maybe someone else can post a link with the information. If it’s not publicly available, I can contact someone at Neptune to see if they’re willing to comment on the issue.

    Be well!


  857. Ron00 Says:

    Thank you for the two links.

    I also find here
    omega-3 fatty acids as a percentage of total fatty acids in the composition, wherein from about 70% to 95%, or preferably from about 80% to 90% of the omega-3 fatty acids are attached to the phospholipids.

    Maybe the other pure KOs also contain 70-95% propotion?
    the triglyceride FA might be the same with FO.

  858. JP Says:

    Hi, Ron.

    Thank you for posting the patent link. As you probably noted, the patent pertains to Aker’s Superba krill oil.

    To my mind, the most important question is how well krill oil performs vs. fish oil. Over the past few years, Aker has (commendably) financed several krill oil studies. In them, pure krill oil was used. Unfortunately, the results haven’t been very impressive. The relative bioavailability (of krill oil) is superior to fish oil. But, the cost is higher and the difference in the study end-points (such as cholesterol and triglyceride levels) do not justify the added cost.

    What we really need is for Enzymotec and Neptune to publish current data to support the efficacy of their products, IMO.

    Be well!


  859. PIXE Says:

    How can we post images to this site? I would like to show the differences between the different brands of KO by their infrared spectra.

  860. JP Says:

    Hi, PIXE.

    If you send me the files/images, I’ll consult with my webmaster about the best way to put them up.

    Be well!


  861. JP Says:


    If you’d prefer posting it online yourself (on another site) and linking to it here, that would be fine too.

    Be well!


  862. Erik Says:

    Is it true that you have financial gain from a Krill Oil manufacturer to research?
    Merry Xmas to all

  863. Melissa Says:

    Hi JP -what a fantastic resource – your hard work and objectivity is so rare and greatly appreciated!

    I just wanted to say what I think the current summary of the Krill Oil subject appears to be from what I have gathered here, and if I am wrong on any point, I’d love to be corrected.

    Basically, Krill Oil started out as being the next best thing to liquid gold. “Hats off, gentlemen – a genius!” But over the past few years, the studies showing the superiority of Krill Oil to Fish Oil are singing a different tune. “Hats back on, gentlemen. A bit o’ hype.”

    Is that true? I have a sad history of depression in my family – mom severely bipolar, brother killed himself last summer, and I am living on SSDI for anxiety and depression/bipolar disorder. I came here looking for the amount of EPA/DHA (NOT the overall mg per capsule) of Krill Oil that have been tested to help with depression/bipolar/anxiety as compared to fish oil benefits. But it sounds like perhaps I should stick with my disgusting Cod Liver Oil? I use Nordic Naturals, which is very high quality and provides high amounts of EPA/DHA in the correct ratios for mental health issues, but the OILY consistency . . . GAG! It really is the best I have tried, and only slightly smells fishy, but holy guacamole!

    Anyway, any comments of yours would be appreciated. :)

    Melissa in Portland, Oregon, USA

  864. JP Says:

    Thank you, Melissa. :)

    First and foremost, I’m very sorry to hear about your brother and your family’s struggle with bipolar disorder. I wish it were not so.

    Here’s a brief summary of my current thoughts about krill oil.

    The early research, using Neptune Krill Oil, delivered excellent results. The more recent trials, mostly using Aker’s Superba krill oil, have been less impressive, IMO. The other main player in the krill oil arena, Enzymotec, has yet to deliver much evidence to support its krill oil products.

    The bottom line re: krill oil, is that I believe it has merits. But, it requires additional research to clarify precisely what it can and cannot do for the average user.

    I rarely recommend cod liver oil to my clients. Concentrated, purified fish oil is a better way to go, IMO. Adding some Vitamin D3 to the mix is often warranted as well – based on blood test results. Also, many fish oil supplements don’t taste bad! Seriously! Many manufacturers add natural flavors such as lemon oil to mask the fishy taste. Some Nordic Naturals’ fish oil soft gels are flavored in this manner.

    To the best of my knowledge, there isn’t any peer-reviewed, published data on krill oil with regard to anxiety, bipolar disorder or depression. Is it possible that it helps with these conditions? I think so. But, my assumption is based on a significant amount of data using fish oil. Therefore, until direct evidence verifies this assumption, I would personally stick with fish oil.

    Here are a few recent columns of mine that may be of interest:

    Be well!


  865. jaytothakay Says:

    does astaxanthine decrease libido? why is it that a lot of claims get spread around without pure scientific research? What i need are scientific based facts.

  866. Joe Mosty Says:

    Would someone be so kind as to let me know what the “shelf life” of Ubquinol is?

    I have recently isolated my diarrea issues to my Ubiquinol supplementation of some years. I am disappointed to have to discontinue it until I learn a little.

    any other advice or links would also be appreciated.


  867. JP Says:

    Hi Jay.

    I’m unaware of any specific research re: astaxanthin and libido. However, here are a few studies that may be relevant: < --- full text available via a PDF file at this URL

    Also, here's a recent column I wrote about astaxanthin:

    Be well!


  868. JP Says:

    Hi Joe.

    It really depends on the composition of the product in question. For instance, lipid-based ubiquinol products (usually sold in soft gels) have a shorter shelf life than dry, encapsulated forms (in capsules).

    Most soft gels I’ve seen have a shelf life of approximately 2 years.

    According to one study, diarrhea is one of the most common adverse reaction to ubiquinol supplementation:

    Be well!


  869. geos1991 Says:

    i wish a good year to all of u full of success and wellness in constrast with what we expect here in greece..
    hi JP,
    my grandfather was diagnosed with parkinson’s disease symtoms.his doctor highly proposed a solid ubiquinol supplement choice along with the common treatment. after some research i found healthy origins line of products which has some good values of ubiquinone and ubiquinol but i seem to be unable to find some good review source of this brand and i dont trust the consumer lab when it comes to reviews so i came straight here >_< .have u heard anything about that brand and do u have in mind a better one with a value of 400 mg or more?rly thx!!

  870. JP Says:

    Hi Geos.

    As far as I can tell, the Healthy Origins CoQ10 products seem fine. They use reliable sources of ubiquinol and ubiquinone and the test results I’ve come across haven’t raised concerns in my mind.

    Be well!


  871. TJ Says:

    Great Blog, very informative.

    I’ll be searching for a new online shop as the one I used to purchase my krill oil from shut down.

  872. Jazz Says:

    Hi, everyone,

    This is such a great blog, I have been reading thru but haven’t finish reading yet! I am very now in this krill oil world but can’t wait to join the group, hope I can have contribution to this too!

    JP, may I have your email? so that I can email to you a comparison table I made on NKO & Superba Krill Oil, and be posted to the site?

    Really appreciate all the works that you guys have done!

  873. JP Says:

    Hi Jazz,

    Thank you for your kind words and welcome to the discussion.

    I’ve received the table and will respond to it shortly via e-mail.

    Be well!


  874. George Evans Says:

    After using krill oil for a week I found very great benefit to my knee joints – I play a lot of sport – however I found that I was very calm and flat mood, also I then started to have palpitations.
    On finding out more about krill oil I found that others are having palpitations to varing degrees, and also that the oil interferes with thyroid medication for those who are hypothyroid. Note that very many people are hypothyroid and do not know it!!!!
    I have stopped using the oil and am now back to normal, with sore knees and palpitations stopped within two days.
    It demonstrates the importance of stating the side effects of all substances as well as the good effects.

  875. JP Says:

    Hi George.

    Thank you for sharing your experience with krill oil. I’m sorry to hear about the adverse reactions you’ve encountered.

    The side effects you and others have reported aren’t listed on krill oil supplements because of the anecdotal nature of the accounts. Please understand that I’m not questioning your version of the facts. But, until these adverse reactions can be documented in a scientific manner, it’s unlikely that product labels will be changed. To date, there doesn’t appear to be any peer-reviewed, published evidence of similar side effects – i.e. case reports, clinical trials, etc. Perhaps this will change in the future.

    In the meantime, this is a valuable reminder that it’s possible to have a reaction to virtually any food or supplement. That’s why we must all be our own health advocates. And, personal detective work is a key component in that game plan. Any time you start any new diet, drug or supplement pay close attention to any discernible changes that alarm you. This is supremely important.

    Be well!


  876. George Evans Says:

    Thanks for your reply. Do you remember about fifteen years ago the headline news a was that scientists have discovered that codliver oil is good for your joints. All sports people knew that for years and were using it. So forget the political correctness and mention side effects and note that they are not well documented. You also forgot to mention the contraindication with thyroid treatment, which I found to my cost during recent strenous competitions. I thought the oil was marvellous when I took it, but unfortunately had to stop. You do your entusastic readers a grave disservice by refusing to acknowledge that there could be any side effects.

  877. Rob Says:

    Cod liver oil is a great thing

  878. JP Says:

    Hi George,

    I’ve never said that krill oil (or any other supplement) is side effect free. All supplements are capable of inducing side effects. Every single one – even cod liver oil. All beverages and foods are likewise capable of initiating adverse reactions. Something that’s health promoting for some or many, such as broccoli, fish oil or krill oil, can be contraindicated or otherwise toxic for others. But, if the reactions are rare enough, you won’t find a disclaimer on a package of broccoli florets. However, if the risk is documented and prevalent enough, it will be listed (example: peanut allergies).

    I support your decision and right to share your experience with others. I understand you’re doing so in an attempt to protect others. But, it’s just not possible or right for me to list every conceivable adverse reaction based on anecdotal evidence alone. Anyone who visits this site can take your warning into account. I encourage them to do so and to monitor their reaction to krill oil if they’re on any medication. This is a wise thing to do – regardless of what medication or supplements they’re taking.

    Be well!


  879. Jazz Says:

    Sorry for not being able to come back here for discussion!

    I had a quite unhappy experience with NKO, would like to draw your attention to this. I pointed out on Feb 17 to Ms Angela(Asia representative of NKO) on GNC Krill Oil product that I bought: “With rancid smell & omega content of only 75 mg per 500 mg softgel”. In the beginning, they have doubt whether GNC krill oil supply is from NKO (Isn’t it funny that they themselves are not sure whether they are supplying krill oil to GNC?!)

    I urged for quality assurance again on 31 MArch. there is no response until yesterday. This is their answer:
    “GNC in US confirmed with Neptune’s head office that the krill oil selling In Malaysia is not Neptune’s krill oil. We are in the process to ask GNC to remove all NKO claims”

    I sent the photo to the person for proving that the GNC Malaysia krill oil is EXACTLY the same bottle/product from GNC in US, because there are 2 layers of label, when you peel off the first layer of label, the second layer reveal “Ultra Omega Krill Oil” , the same label used by GNC in US.

    And she answered after that:
    “I am very sure that GNC’s product is not Neptune’s krill oil. I already got the confirmation from my head office.
    We also know there are two layers of label too.
    Apparently, we are talking to GNC on the issue. Thank you for your information.”

    BUT in the first answer, the impression that I’ve got is “GNC Malaysia krill oil is not from NKO, and this has got nothing to do with GNC in US” or do I got it wrong?

    “The total omega content is 75 mg per 500 mg softgel”. This information I got it from GNC staff who has been very kind to make a photocopy for me from their file.

    My conclusion: you just cannot trust all these business people! the registered trade mark doesn’t guarantee you anything!

  880. Ernest Says:

    Calamari oil and higher DHA is some of the latest good news. Calamari omega 3 fish oil is the newest omega 3 supplement on the market. It is obtained from the calamari (squid). Because it is so new, there isn’t much information or research on calamari omega 3 supplements available yet. However, what’s unique about calamari oil is the fact that it contains more DHA than EPA – other fish oils all contain more EPA than DHA. I also like NOW 1000mg krill.


  881. Iggy Dalrymple Says:

    I just noticed that you now can purchase smaller quantities of krill oil capsules from bulk oil wholesaler J Edwards International. When I made my opening comment back in 2009, the minimum order was 10,000 gelcaps. Now you can order as few as 250 gelcaps.

  882. JP Says:

    Thank you for your contribution, Ernest. I’m keeping my eye on the calamari oil market as well. I’ll report back as new information/research comes to light.

    Iggy: Thank you for updating us about this new bulk option. I just contacted J.E. International in an attempt to learn more about their product. I’ll share anything I learn based on that exchange. Their price point is certainly attractive!

    Be well!


  883. JP Says:

    I just wanted to briefly update on what I’ve learned about the bulk krill oil product. Essentially, the composition is most similar to Neptune re: astaxanthin, DHA, EPA and phospholipids. However, the price is much lower.

    Per 1 Gram Serving:

    Astaxanthin 1 mg

    DHA 75 mg

    EPA 130 mg

    400 mg Phospholipids

    Be well!


  884. David Shields Says:

    Hi JP,

    I was wondering if you or your readers have read about any alternatives or benefits of natural remedies for depression. I have been taking Bupropion (Wellbutrin) for over 7 years now with good success in managing my mood. I have been reluctant to ween off of it for fear of relapse. I am no proponent of experimenting too much with medication without a true understanding of pharmacology, however I would like to get your thoughts on the matter. Any research you know of? In regards to krill oil, will freezing the pills destroy some of the benefits of krill? Thanks a lot J

    - D

  885. JP Says:

    Hi David,

    IMO, it’s important to ween off of antidepressant medications with the assistance of ones doctor (or a new doctor, preferably an integrative physician, that’s receptive to the idea). There are many natural alternatives that have strong evidence to support their use. Chief among them are: daily aerobic exercise; eating a diet that keeps blood sugar levels in a healthy range; fish oil (and perhaps other sources of omega-3 fatty acids); identifying food sensitivities and eliminating/minimizing exposure to the offending foods or ingredients; mind-body techniques such as breathing exercises, meditation or yoga which promote mindfulness and stress reduction; taking a multivitamin/mineral to ensure adequate levels of essential nutrients such as magnesium, Vitamin D and zinc. Here are some columns that I’ve written on the subject that may be of interest.

    Be well!


  886. Ikram Says:

    Very interesting – Spring valley Krill oil tablets use superbra krill oil and has the same DPA/EPA levels as Schiff Megared (which also uses Superbra) but is virtually half the price! Anyone know the justification for this or is the premium purely based on the brand name.

  887. JP Says:

    Hi Ikram,

    I haven’t seen any independent testing on Walmart’s Spring Valley Krill Oil. However, based on the label alone, it appears comparable to Schiff’s MegaRed product.

    Be well!


  888. Cheryl Says:

    I read everything here, amazing information. I have been taking krill oil for 2 years now with great results, I took several brands and they were not all equal. My back pain would increase on some brands. The best one that I found was the Azantis brand with the added 12mg aztaxanthin. I found it on amazon, it is called astrakrill, The seller was (drop the rx) (funny name to me). It says azantis on the bottle. I liked that I could look at the ingredients. That is how I was able to find the krill oil with added aztaxanthin (12mg). This brand works the best for my pain. I was born with a rib birth defect and had to have many surgeries. I worked hard to get better and the krill oil has changed my life. I think the added aztaxanthin slowed down the inflammation that was all over my upper back/ neck area. I feel so much better. I just thought I would share my story as I was miserable before I found the krill oil! I still have pain but nothing like it was before taking the astrakrill kind. I did not see the astrakrill by azantis mentioned anywhere here and just wanted to share my story about how it helped me.


  889. JP Says:

    Thank you for sharing your experience with us, Cheryl!

    Be well!


  890. Elizabeth Jesse Says:

    Hi JP,
    It has been a long time since I have checked in, and I am about to make a krill purchase. What do you think of the Astakrill, by Azantis? I was thinking of trying it, but I am not sure if I want to give up the higher EPA in the “old” Azantis krill.
    I hope you are well.


  891. JP Says:

    Hi Elizabeth,

    I think it’s one of the better krill oil supplements currently available. Of late, published studies on krill oil have been decidedly underwhelming. On the other hand, recent research on astaxanthin has been promising. AstaKrill has a substantially higher/therapeutic dosage of astaxathin than any pure krill oil. And, while there has yet to be any published research on it, it’s quite possible that the added astaxanthin will make the product more effective.

    Please review:

    Latest Info. on High-Dose Astaxanthin: &

    The real question is: Are you satisfied with the krill oil you’re currently taking? If the results have been positive, I’d stick with it. If not, perhaps a trial of AstaKrill is warranted. One thing to note is the higher price of the latter product. Astaxanthin isn’t cheap!

    I hope you’re well also. Nice to hear from you.

    Kind regards,


  892. Kimberley Says:

    Hi there,

    I have just started using krilloil from Nutristart. It is a canadian based company. krill oil 500mg, EPA 76mg,DHA 33mg,astaxanthin 69mg. Do you have any info to share on this product?

  893. JP Says:

    Hi Kimberley,

    The krill extract used in the Nutristart product is Superba krill oil. I can’t speak to the quality of this particular supplement, as I’ve not seen any lab analysis on it. Having said that, Superba krill oil generally hasn’t yielded very positive results in the human studies I’ve reviewed.

    I don’t mean to discourage you. If you’re already trying the product, give it a fair shot. See if it helps you objectively (cholesterol levels, inflammatory markers, etc.) and/or subjectively (mood improvement, pain relief, etc.). If it does, it makes sense to stick with it. Otherwise, I’d consider a higher potency omega-3 supplement (concentrated, purified fish oil) or krill oil with added astaxanthin instead.

    Be well!


  894. Jason Says:


    Great article! I’m new to omega 3 oils and was planning to start off with krill oil. I was reading through the posts with great information, but it’s quite long. What brands do you recommend?

    Also is it good to take both krill and fish oil or is that counter productive? Does fish oil have benefits that krill doesn’t?

    Thanks for the wonderful article, I’ve been emailing the link around.

  895. JP Says:

    Hi Jason,

    My opinion about krill oil has evolved since writing this column (and a few subsequent columns). I’m sad to say that I’m less enthusiastic and more suspicious about many krill oil claims these days.

    The most recent batch of research hasn’t been nearly as promising as the initial studies. Below, I’ll post a link to one study that illustrates my point:

    *If* I were to use a krill oil supplement, I would opt for one that is rich in naturally occurring phospholipids and is enriched with a therapeutic amount of astaxanthin (6 mg or more). Then, I’d pay close attention to any objective (blood test results) and subjective signs of health benefits associated with the krill oil supplementation. If it helps to improve your well being, then it may be worth the expense.

    I’m not aware of any contraindication of taking both fish and krill oil. In fact, some supplements contain both omega-3 sources.

    There haven’t been many head-to-head comparisons of fish vs krill oil. The few that have been done generally indicate that krill oil *may* be better absorbed and, possibly, more potent re: inflammation, lipid levels, etc. Having said that, not every study has confirmed this. And, frankly I’ve become quite skeptical about it.

    The primary benefit of fish oil is that you can attain higher levels of omega-3 fatty acids for less money (than krill). Also, many more studies have been conducted on fish oil. So, we have a better idea about what fish oil is and is not capable of accomplishing.

    I hope this helps. Happy Holidays!


  896. Lee Says:

    Any word from Pixie on the results of the 60 brands she was testing?

    It seemed that many opinions move toward the source natural product with added fish oil and now to Astrakrill. Would that be accurate? Did Pixie test these?

  897. JP Says:

    Hi Lee,

    I haven’t heard from Pixie in quite some time. If I were still using krill oil, I’d probably opt for the two products you mentioned. Another way to go is emulsified or purified fish oil with added (higher dose) astaxanthin.

    If Pixie is still out there, I’d be happy to learn of any updates. Also, here’s a link to a column that explains my relative loss of enthusiasm re: krill oil of late.

    Be well!


  898. JP Says:

    Another lackluster performance by Aker’s Superba krill oil:

    Be well!


  899. JP Says:

    Update 05/31/15:

    Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 May 27.

    Supplementation with a blend of krill and salmon oil is associated with increased metabolic risk in overweight men.

    BACKGROUND: Krill is an increasingly popular source of marine n-3 (ω-3) PUFA that is seen as a premium product. However, to our knowledge, the effect of krill-oil supplementation on insulin sensitivity in humans has not been reported.

    OBJECTIVE: We assessed whether supplementation with a blend of krill and salmon (KS) oil [which is rich in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] affects insulin sensitivity in overweight men.

    DESIGN: The design was a randomized, double-blind, controlled crossover trial. A total of 47 men with a mean ± SD age of 46.5 ± 5.1 y, who were overweight [body mass index (in kg/m2) from 25 to 30] but otherwise healthy, received 5 1-g capsules of KS oil or a control (canola oil) for 8 wk and crossed over to another treatment after a 8-wk washout period. The primary outcome was insulin sensitivity assessed by using the Matsuda method from an oral-glucose-tolerance test. Secondary outcomes included lipid profiles, inflammatory markers, 24-h ambulatory blood pressure, and carotid artery intimamedia thickness.

    RESULTS: Unexpectedly, insulin sensitivity (per the Matsuda index) was 14% lower with the KS oil than with the control oil (P = 0.049). A mediation analysis showed that, after controlling for the likely positive effects of blood EPA and DHA (i.e., the omega-3 index), the reduction in insulin sensitivity after KS-oil supplementation was more marked [27% lower than with the control oil (P = 0.009)].

    CONCLUSIONS: Supplementation with a blend of KS oil is associated with decreased insulin sensitivity. Thus, krill-oil supplementation in overweight adults could exacerbate risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

    Be well!


  900. Sam Says:

    Hi JP,
    I’ve just finished reading the discussion thread, and am hoping you can help me with a couple of follow-ups please?

    My purpose for researching KO is a little different to other’s in this forum; I’m looking for the most suitable KO product for inclusion in the domestic feline diet. I am particularly interested in sourcing the “cleanest” product in terms of solvent residue. While GRAS notifications detail the “acceptable” levels of solvents and other toxins in terms of KO for human consumption, I am concerned that these levels may well prove toxic to domestic cats; especially considering that the amount of O3′s required to provide an optimal O6:O3 ratio in a domestic cat’s diet can be upwards of 1g daily. Then there’s also the metabolism differences to consider.

    Re. comment #56 from Elizabeth (and I realise this dates back a few years now), a discussion she’d had with a company called Tharos who planned to release a solvent-free krill by 2011. I didn’t see much further discussion about this, so have tried contacting this company myself. I’m awaiting their reply, but wondered whether anyone else has done any research on their product please?

    Also I remember seeing mention of a comparison chart to be drawn up between the three major brands. Was this ever done, and if so, how may I access it please?

    From what I can interpret from the GRAS Notices of the three majors, I believe that Neptune utilises both acetone and ethanol during their multi-stage extraction process, Aker uses CO2 plus a “co-solvent” (whatever that is?), and then ethanol, and Enzymotec uses Ethanol, Hexane, and Ethyl acetate, (although this latter information is from the “GRAS Determination for Krill-based Phosphatidylserine in Food”, so possibly differs from their raw krill product??) Am I on the right track?

    I am not out to find the cheapest product, nor the best value for money. I simply want to find the best all-round product.

    Thanks to this discussion group, I now understand the importance of the inclusion of a sufficient level of astaxanthin to ‘stabilise’ the oil and prevent degredation. What I haven’t really grasped yet is the part of the discussion about esterified vs actual astaxanthin….

    “All three have what appears to be a small amount of astaxanthin at just 50 mcg. BUT, that could be actual astaxanthin since it does not say “esterified” on the label, even though the astaxanthin is almost certainly esterified and the amount measured as esterified would be much higher.”

    Could someone please explain a little more about this?

    So far as I’ve been able to research in terms of astaxanthin in the feline diet, it would appear to be as beneficial to cats as it is to humans. What I have not yet been able to establish, is whether astaxanthin from microalgae is safe and species-appropriate for cats, therefore I’m leaning toward a KO product which offers good amounts of astaxanthin from krill, but not at the expense of additional solvent residues…

    Many cat owners I’ve spoken with have seen significant improvements in their arthritic cat’s mobility when supplementing with KO, and I also know of those who incorporate it with supplements such as curcumin for feline asthma, IBD, and certain cancers. Many people opt to try fish oils for their cats, but not all cats can tolerate or will eat fish oils.

    Many thanks for such an informative discussion on a vey interesting topic!

    Regards, Sam

  901. JP Says:

    Hi Sam,

    I doubt I’ll be able to address all of your thoughtful questions. I’m juggling quite a lot at the moment. But, I’ll try to offer up some useful information.

    As far as I know, there haven’t been any peer-reviewed, published studies on krill oil in felines.

    Here’s a recent review (with contributions from Aker – makers of Superba krill oil) that summarizes the current state of research re: krill and animals.

    There’s some promising, but preliminary data on astaxanthin in cats:

    Other sources of omega-3, besides krill, may be useful:

    I’d be interested in hearing what Tharos has to say. If you can, please share it here. In the meantime, I can tell you that there have been two brands of krill oil tested in relation to arthritis: NKO and Superba.

    Unless something has changed, I believe that NKO adds some algae-derived astaxanthin to their product. Superba only contains, a small amount, of krill-derived astaxanthin.

    Lastly, you might find the following blogs of interest:

    Be well!


  902. Sam Says:

    Thankyou for all the links JP.

    I certainly will let you know more if Tharos get back to me.

    Through reading this thread, I was of the understanding that NKO\’s astaxanthin content was solely derived from krill, and that the reason it was higher than the others was due to an additional extraction method they employed? If this is not the case, do you know how much of their astaxanthin is from KO, and how much from microalgae please?

    Regards, Sam

  903. JP Says:

    Hi Sam,

    I may be mistaken, but I think NKO adds algae-derived astaxanthin to their krill oil. I suspect the majority of the astaxanthin in NKO (and other brands such as K-Real) is from algae. This is a more cost effective way to maintain consistent levels of the carotenoid.

    Primarily, I’m basing this on conversations I had a long while back with several krill insiders. IMO, it’s unlikely much has changed.

    Be well!


  904. JP Says:

    Updated 11/06/15:

    Lipids Health Dis. 2015 Nov 4;14(1):142.

    Supplementation of krill oil with high phospholipid content increases sum of EPA and DHA in erythrocytes compared with low phospholipid krill oil.

    BACKGROUND: Bioavailability of krill oil has been suggested to be higher than fish oil as much of the EPA and DHA in krill oil are bound to phospholipids (PL). Hence, PL content in krill oil might play an important role in incorporation of n-3 PUFA into the RBC, conferring properties that render it effective in reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The objective of the present trial was to test the effect of different amounts of PL in krill oil on the bioavailability of EPA and DHA, assessed as the rate of increase of n-3 PUFA in plasma and RBC, in healthy volunteers.

    METHODS AND DESIGN: In a semi randomized crossover single blind design study, 20 healthy participants consumed various oils consisting of 1.5 g/day of low PL krill oil (LPL), 3 g/day of high PL krill oil (HPL) or 3 g/day of a placebo, corn oil, for 4 weeks each separated by 8 week washout periods. Both LPL and HPL delivered 600 mg of total n-3 PUFA/day along with 600 and 1200 mg/day of PL, respectively.

    RESULTS: Changes in plasma EPA, DPA, DHA, total n-3 PUFA, n-6:n-3 ratio and EPA + DHA concentrations between LPL and HPL krill oil supplementations were observed to be similar. Intake of both forms of krill oils increased the RBC level of EPA (p < 0.001) along with reduced n-6 PUFA (LPL: p < 0.001: HPL: p = 0.007) compared to control. HPL consumption increased (p < 0.001) RBC concentrations of EPA, DPA, total and n-3 PUFA compared with LPL. Furthermore, although LPL did not alter RBC n-6:n-3 ratio or the sum of EPA and DHA compared to control, HPL intake decreased (p < 0.001) n-6:n-3 ratio relative to control with elevated (p < 0.001) sum of EPA and DHA compared to control as well as to LPL krill oil consumption. HPL krill oil intake elevated (p < 0.005) plasma total and LDL cholesterol concentrations compared to control, while LPL krill oil did not alter total and LDL cholesterol, relative to control.

    CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that krill oil with higher PL levels could lead to enhanced bioavailability of n-3 PUFA compared to krill oil with lower PL levels.

    Be well!


  905. JP Says:

    Updated 12/15/15:

    Lipids in Health and Disease 2015, 14:163

    Krill oil reduces plasma triacylglycerol level and improves related lipoprotein particle concentration, fatty acid composition and redox status in healthy young adults – a pilot study

    Background: Lipid abnormalities, enhanced inflammation and oxidative stress seem to represent a vicious circle in atherogenesis, and therapeutic options directed against these processes seems like a reasonable approach in the management of atherosclerotic disorders. Krill oil (RIMFROST Sublime®) is a phospholipid-rich oil with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA): docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) ratio of 1.8:1. In this pilot study we determined if krill oil could favourable affect plasma lipid parameters and parameters involved in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis.

    Methods: The study was conducted as a 28 days intervention study examining effect-parameters of dietary supplementation with krill oil (832.5 mg EPA and DHA per day). 17 healthy volunteers in the age group 18–36 (mean age 23 ± 4 years) participated. Plasma lipids, lipoprotein particle sizes, fatty acid composition in plasma and red blood cells (RBCs), plasma cytokines, antioxidant capacity, acylcarntines, carnitine, choline, betaine, and trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) were measured before and after supplementation.

    Results: Plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) and large very-low density lipoprotein (VLDL) & chylomicron particle concentrations decreased after 28 days of krill oil intake. A significant reduction in the TAG/HDL cholesterol resulted. Krill oil supplementation decreased n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) ratio both in plasma and RBCs. This was due to increased EPA, DHA and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and reduced amount of arachidonic acid (AA). The increase of n-3 fatty acids and wt % of EPA and DHA in RBC was of smaller magnitude than found in plasma. Krill oil intake increased the antioxidant capacity, double bond index (DBI) and the fatty acid anti-inflammatory index. The plasma atherogenicity index remained constant whereas the thrombogenicity index decreased. Plasma choline, betaine and the carnitine precursor, γ-butyrobetaine were increased after krill oil supplementation whereas the TMAO and carnitine concentrations remained unchanged.

    Conclusion: Krill oil consumption is considered health beneficial as it decreases cardiovascular disease risk parameters through effects on plasma TAGs, lipoprotein particles, fatty acid profile, redox status and possible inflammation. Noteworthy, no adverse effects on plasma levels of TMAO and carnitine were found.

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  906. JP Says:

    Updated 06/13/16:

    Arch Med Sci. 2016 Jun 1;12(3):507-12.

    Lipid-lowering and anti-inflammatory effects of omega 3 ethyl esters and krill oil: a randomized, cross-over, clinical trial.

    INTRODUCTION: Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) derived from different sources could have different lipid-lowering effects in humans. The main aim of our study was to compare the short-term triglyceride-lowering efficacy of krill oil and purified omega 3 ethyl ester PUFAs in mildly overweight hypertriglyceridemic subjects.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: This double-blind, randomized clinical trial was carried out in 25 moderately hypertriglyceridemic subjects (TG = 150-500 mg/dl). After a 4-week run-in, participants were allocated to treatment with similar pills containing omega 3 ethyl ester PUFAs 1000 mg twice a day vs. krill oil 500 mg twice a day. After 4 weeks of treatment, participants were asked to observe a 4-week wash-out period, and they were then assigned to the alternative treatment for a further period of 4 weeks.

    RESULTS: Although both PUFA sources were able to improve TG plasma levels, esterified omega 3 PUFAs were more efficacious than krill oil (p < 0.05). Nonetheless, only krill oil treatment was able to significantly improve high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein AI levels, compared to both baseline (p < 0.05) and end of treatment with esterified omega 3 PUFAs (p < 0.05) values. Both treatments were able to significantly reduce high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels from the baseline (p < 0.05), but krill oil improved it more efficaciously than esterified omega 3 PUFAs (p < 0.05).

    CONCLUSIONS: Krill oil has lipid-lowering effects comparable with those obtained through a 4-fold higher dose of purified omega 3 ethyl ester PUFAs in mildly overweight hypertriglyceridemic subjects, while more efficaciously reducing hs-CRP.

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  907. JP Says:

    Note: The krill oil used in this study is manufactured by Aker and is sold by the trade name, Superba.

    Updated 10/26/16:

    PLoS One. 2016 Oct 4;11(10):e0162769.

    Krill Oil Improves Mild Knee Joint Pain: A Randomized Control Trial.

    BACKGROUND: Krill oil is an edible oil extracted from krill, a small red-colored crustacean found in the Antarctic Ocean. The administration of krill oil is reported to mitigate inflammation in patients with cardiac disease, rheumatoid arthritis, or osteoarthritis. However, the effect of krill oil on mild knee pain has not yet been determined.

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of krill oil on mild knee pain.

    DESIGN: A randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled trial of fifty adults (38-85 years old) with mild knee pain attending the Fukushima Orthopedic Clinic (Tochigi, Japan) between September 2014 and March 2015.

    INTERVENTIONS: Participants were randomized to receive 2 g per day of either krill oil or an identical placebo for 30 days.

    OUTCOMES: The primary outcome was improvement in subjective symptoms of knee pain as assessed by the Japanese Knee Osteoarthritis Measure (JKOM) and Japanese Orthopaedic Association score (JOA). Secondary outcomes included blood and urine biochemical parameters.

    RESULTS: Both the placebo and krill oil groups showed significant improvements in the questions in the JKOM and JOA questionnaires after administration. After the intervention, krill oil group showed more improvements than placebo group in two questions regarding the pain and stiffness in knees in JKOM. Controlling for age, sex, weight, and smoking and drinking habits, krill oil significantly mitigated knee pain in sleeping (P < 0.001), standing (P < 0.001) and the range of motion of both right and left knees (both P = 0.011) compared to placebo. Krill oil administration raised plasma EPA (P = 0.048) and EPA/AA ratio (P = 0.003).

    CONCLUSION: This study indicates that krill oil administration (2 g/day, 30 days) improved the subjective symptoms of knee pain in adults with mild knee pain.

    Be well!


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