Natural Cancer FightersJanuary 15, 2010 Written by JP [Font too small?]
The other night I found myself at a local card room. I was sitting at a “No-Limit Texas Hold ’em” table playing poker with a motley group of strangers. Poker isn’t your standard form of gambling. It does involve a certain measure of luck, but it mostly requires a particular set of observational and social skills. It so happens that these same skills can be extremely beneficial in parts of life that extend far beyond the confines of the felt table, the clattering chips and shuffling cards. About half way through the evening, a rather gruff looking gentleman took a seat at the table. He looked like the kind of guy you wouldn’t want to upset or even look at the wrong way. But if there’s one lesson that poker teaches you it’s that you should never entirely trust the obvious. So I began chatting with this biker-type fellow as he devoured an enormous ice cream sundae with plenty of peanuts on top. In the course of about 15 minutes, he revealed to me that was suffering from terminal cancer. He didn’t much care about dressing well or shaving because he didn’t expect to be around for much longer. Talk about a punch to the gut!
Under different circumstances I might have suspected that this was just a tall tale to distract me from my primary objective – to play a solid game and win as much money as possible. But it was obvious by his delivery and his lack of relative poker skills that this was no hustler. This was just a man who wanted to have some fun and who needed a distraction from the stinging reality that life had dealt him. It’s highly unlikely that my poker playing comrade will be reading this. But even if he doesn’t know it, he inspired today’s column.
Methylation is a process that affects critical genes that control the development and spread of lung cancer. A study just published in the journal Cancer Research reports that eating plenty of dark, green leafy vegetables and taking a multivitamin/mineral rich in carotenoids, folic acid, lutein and Vitamins A, C & K may slow down gene hyper-methylation and thereby reduce the risk of lung cancer. These findings are based on an examination of 1,101 smokers and ex-smokers. Food frequency questionnaires and sputum samples were used to determine diet, supplement use and “the methylation of eight genes commonly silenced in lung cancer and associated with risk for this disease”. The participants who ate a minimum of 12 portions of dark, green leafy veggies per month were shown to have a 17% reduced risk of gene methylation. The ingestion of 750 mcg or more of folic acid brought about a 16% decline in methylation. But the most impressive finding of all was a 43% methylation drop in those actively using a multivitamin. Another study, presented this week at the Joint Conference on Molecular Origins of Lung Cancer describes a 5.16-fold increased risk of lung cancer in a group of 510 non-smokers and smokers who did not drink any green tea. A more specific examination of current smokers demonstrated an even greater risk increase of 12.71-fold. The researchers conducting the study believe that green tea consumption may affect particular genes that predispose certain people to lung tumorigenesis. (1,2)
The recent passing of the famous actor Patrick Swayze attracted some much needed attention to the issue of one of the most lethal malignancies, pancreatic cancer. Mr. Swayze’s unfortunate demise was a stark reminder that even the most high-tech, conventional interventions are often inadequate. However, there is some preliminary promise in this arena coming from the field of integrative oncology. The intravenous combination of a natural antioxidant (alpha lipoic acid) and a low-dose form of an anti-addiction medication (Naltrexone) may offer new hope in advanced cases of pancreatic cancer. 3 unique case reports on patients with metastatic (spreading) pancreatic cancer found unexpected remissions and survival rates. In one instance, a man whose cancer had spread to his liver was “alive and well” after 39 months. Two other patients were determined as being free of detectable tumors as assessed by a PET scan after 4 and 5 months of this combination treatment. Several modes of action are described by the supervising researchers who presented this information. They include: the promotion of apoptosis (cancer cell death), a reduction in oxidative stress, the regulation of genetic activity via NF(k)B and stimulation of the immune system. (3,4,5)
A new meta-analysis investigated the role of soy food consumption in the prevalence of colorectal cancer. An insignificant reduction in risk was noted when researchers looked for a generalized link between high soy intake and colorectal incidence. However when the United States Department of Agricultural scientists examined the study population by gender, they determined that women alone exhibited a statistically relevant decline in colorectal cancer of 21%. Both genders can rejoice equally in a new report stemming from the Cancer Research Center at the University of Hawaii. An inquiry into the Vitamin D status of a multi-ethnic group of 663 men and women with and without colorectal cancer determined that those with the highest levels of D experienced up to 46% reduced risk or colorectal cancer. (6,7)
Two recent German trials provide additional evidence for the protective role of cruciferous vegetables such as bok choy, broccoli, brussels sprouts, collard greens, cauliflower and kale in men at risk for prostate cancer. A class of phytochemicals found in said vegetables known as glucosinolates were measured as a way determining dietary consumption in a population of 11,405 men. The average follow-up time for this study was 9.4 years. During that period 328 cases of prostate cancer were diagnosed. Men who were in the top 1/4 in terms of glucosinolate consumption were 32% less likely to develop prostate cancer. There also appeared to be a connection between cruciferous vegetable intake and the severity of the malignancies as categorized by localized tumors and “low-grade cancers”. Further analysis in a separate population of 740 men also found a 28% reduced PC risk in those eating higher quantities of cruciferae. A proposed mechanism for this preventive effect may involve an interaction between glucosinolates and “the induction of biotransformation enzymes” which aid in the “elimination of carcinogens from the body”. (8,9)
Prevention is obviously the desired course of action with regard to any cancer. However the unfortunate reality is that malignancies are likely to be a part of modern health care for many years to come. One of the most arduous aspects of dealing with cancer is the treatment itself. Chemotherapeutic drugs can assist in killing cancer cells but can also takes a serious toll on the host of the malignancy. The good news is that there may be a few natural ways to minimize the hardship involved in conventional cancer care. The Mayo Clinic recently completed a study that found that adding 1,000 – 2,000 mg of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolis) into the daily routine of cancer patients safely improved energy/vitality levels and resulted in no toxicity. Researchers at the Department of Internal Medicine at the University of Kansas have also just reported that supplementing with high-dosages of Vitamin D (50,000 IUs per week) is a safe way to improve Vitamin D status and reduce disability and joint pain in women receiving pharmaceutical breast cancer treatment (aromatase inhibitors). However it’s important to note that both of these findings are considered preliminary in nature and warrant further study. Any changes to a cancer treatment protocol should only be made in concert with a knowledgeable health professional. (10,11)
I was posed with a dilemma that night at the card table. Should I try to intervene and offer some healthful suggestions to the poker player with terminal cancer. I thought about giving him my business card that includes this website’s address and my e-mail. I went over in my mind what I’d like to say and exactly how to say it. But ultimately I decided against it. A kind lady sitting between us attempted to offer some emotional and spiritual support to this gentleman first. It was obvious to me that this exchange made him feel uncomfortable. He was there to forget, if only for a short while. It just didn’t feel right to take that away from him. That was yet another lesson that Texas Hold ’em has taught me: pick and choose your battles carefully.
Note: Please check out the “Comments & Updates” section of this blog – at the bottom of the page. You can find the latest research about this topic there!
Tags: B Vitamins, Cancer, Green Tea
Posted in Alternative Therapies, Detoxification, Nutrition
January 16th, 2010 at 4:56 am
wish you and your wife a wonderful extended weekend 🙂
Green Tea: i searched a little bit around and found out that the catechin egcg – the main supercatechin – has a chemical structure which is very similar to methotrexat (a anticancer and anti rheuma drug) but without the side effects. thats amazing!
Alpha lipoic acid: i don’t know how high the bioavailability is but wheat germs flakes (for example noble-house.tk has two different ones)have 800 mg pro 100g wheatgerms flakes. thats a lot! JP what do you think of wheatgerm flakes? i mean those:
January 16th, 2010 at 7:16 am
I thought the opening paragraphs detailing the card room scenes where the prelude to a film script you were writing. Talk about film noir,I think you may have seen too many Humphry Bogart gangster movies!
My advice is keep away from smoke filled card rooms if you want to avoid lung cancer( as well as eating all your greens).
January 16th, 2010 at 2:11 pm
Good day, Nina! 🙂
Green tea is pretty amazing indeed! I take a standardized EGCG supplement each and every day. I also drink organic white tea regularly. Highly recommended!
re: wheat germ
It is a nutritious food but I generally don’t recommend it because it contains gluten – a common allergen.
I wish you and yours a fantastic weekend too! Hope you get enjoy some music and dancing! 🙂
January 16th, 2010 at 2:17 pm
Ha! I love film noir! But this event actually did happen to me this past week. A true story!
I’m happy to say that the card room/casino in our neighborhood doesn’t allow smoking anywhere near the card tables. They use a closed-off room and an outdoor space to accommodate smokers. In the past, I have played in some stereotypically smoky card rooms … it’s horrible. 🙂
Hope you have a great weekend!
January 19th, 2010 at 5:58 am
This is one great article! Everyone has had relatives succumb to cancer. This brings hope to millions.
January 20th, 2010 at 3:33 pm
Hi Mr. Healthy! Great blog and great post! I plan on posting a link to this one on my blog because we all can use cancer fighting help. Thank you for this advice.
January 20th, 2010 at 8:11 pm
Thanks, Kathie. I’m happy to know you liked it! 🙂
January 26th, 2010 at 8:15 pm
The guy who had terminal cancer has lost hope. He is the exact opposite of my Dad who wants to live until he is 90. 🙂
My 82 year old Dad was diagnosed with Stage 2b lung cancer last April 2009. He used to be a heavy smoker during his younger years but he quit before he was 40. I guess the damage has already been done. Anyway, his oncologist recommended radiation as his treatment since surgery was out due to my Dad’s age. The side effects were nasty. Dad was hospitalized twice during the course of treatment because he contracted pneumonia. His doctor said it was normal because his immune system was compromised.
So my Dad decided not to continue with his treatment. He changed his diet to more fruits and vegetables and is taking ganoderma extract supplements instead. He had an X-ray last December 2009 and his doctor was surprised to see that his tumor didn’t grow a bit. It hasn’t spread also. Lung cancer is one of the most aggressive types. My Dad never said anything about the supplements to his doctor for fear of being scolded or reprimanded. I told him he should have…it’s his body anyway.
January 26th, 2010 at 8:47 pm
Thank you for sharing your hopeful story with us! 🙂
I wish your father all the best in his continued efforts to regain his health. I’m sure that your support is helping a great deal in that regard.
I’ll try to contribute something positive as well by reporting on new lung cancer news as I discover them.
January 30th, 2010 at 9:36 pm
Green tea has great anti cancer properties..
May 4th, 2015 at 2:21 pm
Med Sci Monit. 2015 May 1;21:1249-1255.
Vitamin E Intake and Pancreatic Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies.
BACKGROUND: Some epidemiological studies have suggested that vitamin E intake reduces the risk of pancreatic cancer; however, this conclusion has not been supported by all the published studies. We conducted a meta-analysis to assess the relationship between vitamin E intake and the risk of pancreatic cancer by combining the results from published articles. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We searched the published studies that reported the relationship between vitamin E intake and pancreatic cancer risk using the PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase databases through December 31st, 2014. Based on a fixed-effects or random-effects model, the RR and 95% CI were used to assess the combined risk. RESULTS: In total, 10 observational studies (6 case-control studies and 4 cohort studies) were included. The overall RR (95% CI) of pancreatic cancer for the highest vs. the lowest level of vitamin E intake was 0.81 (0.73, 0.89). We found little evidence of heterogeneity (I2=19.8%, P=0.255). In the subgroup analyses, we found an inverse association between vitamin E intake and pancreatic cancer risk both in the case-control and cohort studies. Additionally, this inverse association was not modified by different populations. CONCLUSIONS: In our meta-analysis, there was an inverse association between vitamin E intake and the risk of pancreatic cancer. A high level of vitamin E might be a protective factor for populations at risk for pancreatic cancer.
June 2nd, 2015 at 12:50 am
J Food Sci. 2014 Sep;79(9):S1756-62.
Consumer acceptability and sensory profile of cooked broccoli with mustard seeds added to improve chemoprotective properties.
Broccoli, a rich source of glucosinolates, is a commonly consumed vegetable of the Brassica family. Hydrolysis products of glucosinolates, isothiocyanates, have been associated with health benefits and contribute to the flavor of Brassica. However, boiling broccoli causes the myrosinase enzyme needed for hydrolysis to denature. In order to ensure hydrolysis, broccoli must either be mildly cooked or active sources of myrosinase, such as mustard seed powder, can be added postcooking. In this study, samples of broccoli were prepared in 6 different ways; standard boiling, standard boiling followed by the addition of mustard seeds, sous vide cooking at low temperature (70 °C) and sous vide cooking at higher temperature (100 °C) and sous vide cooking at higher temperature followed by the addition of mustard seeds at 2 different concentrations. The majority of consumers disliked the mildly cooked broccoli samples (70 °C, 12 min, sous vide) which had a hard and stringy texture. The highest mean consumer liking was for standard boiled samples (100 °C, 7 min). Addition of 1% mustard seed powder developed sensory attributes, such as pungency, burning sensation, mustard odor, and flavor. One cluster of consumers (32%) found mustard seeds to be a good complement to cooked broccoli; however, the majority disliked the mustard-derived sensory attributes. Where the mustard seeds were partially processed, doubling the addition to 2% led to only the same level of mustard and pungent flavors as 1% unprocessed seeds, and mean consumer liking remained unaltered. This suggests that optimization of the addition level of partially processed mustard seeds may be a route to enhance bioactivity of cooked broccoli without compromising consumer acceptability.
November 6th, 2015 at 7:55 pm
Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Nov 4.
Fish, n-3 PUFA consumption, and pancreatic cancer risk in Japanese: a large, population-based, prospective cohort study.
BACKGROUND: Most previous prospective studies in Western countries found no association between consumption of fish and n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), for which the main source is fish, and pancreatic cancer risk. However, prospective evidence is still lacking among populations who have a relatively higher fish consumption.
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between fish and n-3 PUFA consumption and pancreatic cancer risk in a population-based, prospective study in Japanese men and women.
DESIGN: The Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study (JPHC study) has enrolled 140,420 subjects. We analyzed data on 82,024 eligible participants aged 45-74 y without a history of cancer who responded to a validated food-frequency questionnaire that included 138 items in 1995 for cohort I and in 1998 for cohort II. Participants were followed through 2010. HRs and corresponding 95% CIs for the highest compared with lowest quartile were calculated by using multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models.
RESULTS: During 1,068,774 person-years of follow-up, 449 newly diagnosed pancreatic cancers were identified. After the exclusion of pancreatic cancer cases in the first 3 y of follow-up, we found an inverse association of marine n-3 PUFA (EPA+DPA+DHA) and DHA consumption with pancreatic cancer risk: compared with the lowest quartile, multivariate-adjusted HRs in the highest quartile were 0.70 (95% CI: 0.51, 0.95; P-trend = 0.07) and 0.69 (0.51, 0.94; P-trend = 0.03), respectively. Associations for total fish, n-3 PUFA, EPA, and DPA consumption were similar but were not significant.
CONCLUSION: High n-3 PUFA, especially marine n-3 PUFAs, and DHA consumption was associated with a lower risk of pancreatic cancer in a population with a large variation in fish consumption, although the data apply to only a portion of the JPHC study subjects.
January 28th, 2016 at 11:33 pm
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2016 Jan 25.
Raw garlic consumption and lung cancer in a Chinese population.
BACKGROUND: Evidence of anti-cancer properties of garlic for different cancer sites has been reported previously in in-vitro and in-vivo experimental studies but there is limited epidemiological evidence on the association between garlic and lung cancer.
METHODS: We examined the association between raw garlic consumption and lung cancer in a case-control study conducted between 2005 and 2007 in Taiyuan, China. Epidemiological data was collected by face-to-face interviews from 399 incident lung cancer cases and 466 healthy controls. We used unconditional logistic regression models to estimate crude and adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Adjusted models controlled for age, sex, average annual household income 10 years ago, smoking, and indoor air pollution.
RESULTS: Compared to no intake, raw garlic intake was associated with lower risk of development of lung cancer with a dose-response pattern (aOR for <2 times per week = 0.56, 95% CI: 0.39-0.81 and aOR for ≥2 times per week = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.34 - 0.74; Ptrend = 0.0002). Exploratory analysis showed an additive interaction of raw garlic consumption with indoor air pollution and with any supplement use in association with lung cancer.
CONCLUSIONS: The results of the current study suggest that raw garlic consumption is associated with reduced risk of lung cancer in a Chinese population.
IMPACT: This study contributes to the limited research in human population on the association between garlic and lung cancer and advocates further investigation into the use of garlic in chemoprevention of lung cancer.
June 14th, 2016 at 10:58 pm
Cancer Causes Control. 2016 Jun 13.
Dietary inflammatory index, Mediterranean diet score, and lung cancer: a prospective study.
PURPOSE: To investigate prospectively the associations of Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) and Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) with lung cancer.
METHODS: We used data from men and women aged 40-69 years at recruitment in 1990-1994, who were participants in the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study (n = 35,303). A total of 403 incident lung cancer cases were identified over an average 18-year follow-up. Hazard ratios (HR) were estimated using Cox regression, adjusting for smoking status and other risk factors, with age as the time metric.
RESULTS: An inverse correlation was observed between the DII and MDS (ρ = -0.45), consistent with a higher DII being pro-inflammatory and less ‘healthy,’ while a high MDS reflects a ‘healthier’ diet. The DII was positively associated with risk of lung cancer in current smokers [HRQ4 vs Q1 = 1.70 (1.02, 2.82); Ptrend = 0.008] (p interaction between DII quartiles and smoking status = 0.03). The MDS was inversely associated with lung cancer risk overall [HR7-9 vs 0-3 = 0.64 (0.45, 0.90); Ptrend = 0.005] and for current smokers (HR7-9 vs 0-3 = 0.38 (0.19, 0.75); Ptrend = 0.005) (p interaction between MDS categories and smoking status = 0.31).
CONCLUSIONS: The MDS showed an inverse association with lung cancer risk, especially for current smokers. A high DII, indicating a more pro-inflammatory diet, was associated with risk of lung cancer only for current smokers. A healthy diet may reduce the risk of lung cancer, especially in smokers.
November 2nd, 2016 at 11:39 am
Gut. 2016 Oct 14.
Human oral microbiome and prospective risk for pancreatic cancer: a population-based nested case-control study.
OBJECTIVE: A history of periodontal disease and the presence of circulating antibodies to selected oral pathogens have been associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer; however, direct relationships of oral microbes with pancreatic cancer have not been evaluated in prospective studies. We examine the relationship of oral microbiota with subsequent risk of pancreatic cancer in a large nested case-control study.
DESIGN: We selected 361 incident adenocarcinoma of pancreas and 371 matched controls from two prospective cohort studies, the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study II and the National Cancer Institute Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. From pre-diagnostic oral wash samples, we characterised the composition of the oral microbiota using bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene sequencing. The associations between oral microbiota and risk of pancreatic cancer, controlling for the random effect of cohorts and other covariates, were examined using traditional and L1-penalised least absolute shrinkage and selection operator logistic regression.
RESULTS: Carriage of oral pathogens, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, were associated with higher risk of pancreatic cancer (adjusted OR for presence vs absence=1.60 and 95% CI 1.15 to 2.22; OR=2.20 and 95% CI 1.16 to 4.18, respectively). Phylum Fusobacteria and its genus Leptotrichia were associated with decreased pancreatic cancer risk (OR per per cent increase of relative abundance=0.94 and 95% CI 0.89 to 0.99; OR=0.87 and 95% CI 0.79 to 0.95, respectively). Risks related to these phylotypes remained after exclusion of cases that developed within 2 years of sample collection, reducing the likelihood of reverse causation in this prospective study.
CONCLUSIONS: This study provides supportive evidence that oral microbiota may play a role in the aetiology of pancreatic cancer.
January 14th, 2017 at 1:37 am
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2017 Jan 11.
Nut consumption and lung cancer risk: Results from two large observational studies.
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological evidence on the association between nut consumption and lung cancer risk is limited.
METHODS: We investigated this relationship in the Environment And Genetics in Lung cancer Etiology (EAGLE) study, a population-based case-control study, and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) American Association of Retired Persons (AARP) Diet and Health Study, a prospective cohort. We identified 2098 lung cases for EAGLE and 18,533 incident cases in AARP. Diet was assessed by food frequency questionnaire for both studies. Multivariable odds ratios (ORs) and hazards ratio (HRs) and respective 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using unconditional logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards regression for EAGLE and AARP, respectively.
RESULTS: Higher frequency of intake of nut consumption was inversely associated with overall lung cancer risk (highest-versus-lowest quintile, OREAGLE=0.74, 95% CI=0.57-0.95; HRAARP=0.86, 95% CI=0.81-0.91), regardless of smoking status. Results from the prospective cohort showed similar associations across histological subtypes, and a more pronounced benefits from nut consumption for those who smoked 1-20 cigarettes/day (OREAGLE=0.61, 95% CI=0.39-0.95; HRAARP=0.83, 95% CI=0.74-0.94).
CONCLUSIONS: Nut consumption was inversely associated with lung cancer in two large population-based studies, and associations were independent of cigarette smoking and other known risk factors.
IMPACT: To our knowledge, this is the first study that examined the association between nut consumption and lung cancer risk by histologic subtypes and smoking intensity.
March 1st, 2017 at 8:19 pm
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2017 Mar;26(2):271-277.
Association of dietary vitamin E intake with risk of lung cancer: a dose-response meta-analysis.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Several epidemiological studies investigating the association between dietary vitamin E intake and the risk of lung cancer have demonstrated inconsistent results. Hence, a meta-analysis was conducted to summarise evidence of the association of dietary vitamin E intake with the risk of lung cancer.
METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: In this meta-analysis, a systematic literature search of PubMed and Web of Science was conducted to identify relevant studies published from 1955 to April 2015. If p<0.05 or I2 >50%, a random effect model was used to estimate overall relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Otherwise, a fixed effect model was applied. Publication bias was estimated using the funnel plot and Egger’s test. The doseresponse relationship was assessed using the method of restricted cubic splines with 4 knots at percentiles 5, 35, 65, and 95 of the distribution.
RESULTS: The pooled RR of lung cancer for the highest versus lowest categories of dietary vitamin E intake was 0.84 (95% CI=0.76-0.93). With every 2 mg/d increase in dietary vitamin E intake, the risk of lung cancer statistically decreased by 5% (RR=0.95, 95% CI =0.91-0.99, plinearity=0.0237).
CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis suggests that higher dietary vitamin E intake exerts a protective effect against lung cancer.
March 16th, 2017 at 7:46 pm
Front Oncol. 2017 Feb 28;7:23.
Inverse Association between Dietary Intake of Selected Carotenoids and Vitamin C and Risk of Lung Cancer.
While diets rich in fruit and vegetables appear to reduce lung cancer risk, the evidence for individual carotenoid and vitamin intakes has been judged too limited to reach firm conclusions. Data from a case-control study of lung cancer (Montreal, QC, Canada, 1996-2002) were used to investigate the role of dietary intakes of β-carotene, α-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein/zeaxanthin, lycopene, and vitamin C in lung cancer risk. In-person interviews elicited dietary information from 1,105 incident cases and 1,449 population controls. Usual frequency of consumption of 49 fruits and vegetables 2 years prior to diagnosis/interview was collected. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) between intake variables and lung cancer were estimated using logistic or polytomous regression, adjusting for potential confounding factors including a detailed smoking history. ORs associated with upper versus lower tertiles of intake were 0.66 (95% CI = 0.51-0.84) for β-carotene, 0.70 (95% CI = 0.55-0.90) for α-carotene, 0.65 (95% CI = 0.51-0.84) for β-cryptoxanthin, 0.75 (95% CI = 0.59-0.95) for lycopene, and 0.74 (95% CI = 0.58-0.96) for vitamin C. ORs suggestive of a protective effect were found for elevated intakes of β-carotene, α-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, and lycopene in male heavy smokers and of vitamin C in female heavy smokers. Selected antioxidants were also associated with a lower risk of lung cancer in female moderate smokers, and of squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and small cell carcinoma. These results suggest that several dietary antioxidants found in common food sources may protect against lung cancer, even among heavy smokers.