Magnesium Supplements

February 22, 2010 Written by JP    [Font too small?]

One of the most frequent questions I’m asked has do with which supplements are the most essential. Many people who inquire are already taking a multivitamin. It’s not always the best multivitamin, but at least it provides the basic nutrients that are often lacking in the modern diet. However, there are certain minerals that are never provided in adequate amounts in a standard one-a-day supplement. They’re simply too bulky to be contained in a single capsule or even a large tablet.

Two minerals fall into this category: calcium and magnesium. This is why doctors will regularly ask patients to take a calcium supplement in addition to a multivitamin. Many calcium products include some added Vitamin D to facilitate calcium absorption and retention. But it’s rather uncommon for non-health food store supplements to contain substantial amounts of magnesium as well.

In my opinion, the current view of calcium and magnesium is a bit off kilter. Calcium is quite easy to obtain by eating foods that are fortified with it. On the other hand, magnesium generally flies under the radar of most dietitians and commercial food manufacturers. This is a shame because the potential of this element is quite impressive indeed. Here are five examples that illustrate some of the reasons why I think you should keep this mineral in your cross hairs.

Magnesium Supports Lung Function – A new study published in the Journal of Asthma examined the effects of supplementing with magnesium over a six month period. Researchers from Bastyr University in Washington State enrolled 55 adult patients with mild-to-moderate asthma into a double blind, placebo controlled trial. Half of the participants were given a placebo and the treatment group received 340 milligrams (170 mg twice daily) of magnesium per day. By the end of the experiment, those receiving the supplemental magnesium exhibited a 5.8% enhancement of lung function as measured by “peak expiratory flow rate”. This same group proved to be 20% more resistant to chemically induced constriction of the lungs. The magnesium test subjects also noted a subjective improvement in quality of life. None of these benefits were similarly reported by the placebo patients. The lead researcher of the trial, Dr. Alexandra Kazaks, suggests that magnesium may assist the expansion of the lungs through anti-inflammatory activity and positively influencing cell membranes. (1)

Magnesium Supports Healthier Pregnancies – The February 2010 issue of the journal Biological Trace Element Research puts the spotlight on pre-eclampsia, “the most common medical complication of pregnancy associated with increased maternal and infant mortality and morbidity”. Fifty expectant mothers with either mild or severe pre-eclampsia (pregnancy induced high blood pressure) and 50 healthy expectant mothers had their serum calcium, magnesium and zinc concentrations analyzed. Here’s what the test results revealed:

  • Healthy Pregnant Women – Calcium: 2.45 mmol/L; Magnesium: .79 mmol/L; Zinc: 15.64 micromol/L
  • Mildly Pre-Eclamptic Women – Calcium: 2.12 mmol/L; Magnesium: .67 mmol/L; Zinc: 12.72 micromol/L
  • Severly Pre-Eclamptic Women – Calcium: 1.94 mmol/L; Magnesium: .62 mmol/L; Zinc: 12.04 micromol/L

The authors of the study made the following comment: “These results indicate that reductions in serum levels of calcium, magnesium, and zinc during pregnancy might be possible contributors in the etiology of pre-eclampsia, and supplementation of these elements to diet may be of value to prevent pre-eclampsia”. (2,3)

Magnesium Supports Bone Mineral Density – A recent Turkish study set out to determine why magnesium appears to strengthen bones. Twenty postmenopausal women took part in a 30 day trial in which half supplemented with 1,830 mg of magnesium citrate (about 200 mg of actual magnesium) or a placebo. Blood urine samples were taken at the start of the trial and on days 5, 10, 20 and 30. The female volunteers in the magnesium group showed significant decreases in deoxypyridinoline and serum parathyroid hormone levels and an increase in osteocalcin concentrations. The researchers conducting the study concluded that “oral magnesium supplementation in postmenopausal osteoporotic women suppresses bone tunover”. Individuals who have a high bone turnover rate are at an increased risk for bone loss and osteoporosis. (4)

Magnesium Improves Bone Density in Adolescent Girls
Source: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism Vol. 91 (link)

Magnesium Supports Mental Health – Scientists at St. Paul’s Hospital in Seoul, Korea have recently uncovered a link between mineral status and mental health. The discovery came about while comparing blood levels of calcium and magnesium in a group of 112 women recruited from an outpatient clinic. An assessment was made about the participants degree of anxiety, depression and stress based on the results of two standardized questionnaires: “the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale and the Modified Brief Encounter Psychosocial Instrument Stress Scale”. The researchers looked for patterns between mineral status and the severity of psychological distress. They determined that those with the lowest levels of magnesium were at greater risk for “depressive mood disorder”. Having too high a concentration of calcium and too low a level of magnesium (Ca/Mg ratio) correlated with greater depression and stress scores as well. Theoretically, this type of imbalance could be rather common because of the relative abundance of calcium in the 21st century diet. It’s also interesting to note that stressful events have been documented as prompting an increased excretion of magnesium. (5,6,7)

Magnesium Supports Ocular Health – Magnesium citrate is a form of magnesium that is often utilized in clinical research because it’s highly absorbable. This particular mineral compound is produced by chemically bounding magnesium and citric acid – often referred to as a mineral chelate. A new report in the European Journal of Ophthalmology examined the effects of 300 mg of magnesium citrate on 15 patients suffering from “normotensive glaucoma” (NTG). Fifteen additional NTG patients were provided with an identical looking placebo for 30 days. Serum magnesium levels, a “color Doppler imaging of the orbital vessels” and a visual field test were conducted pre and post intervention. Those receiving the magnesium therapy exhibited improvements in visual field scores, but there was no detectable change in ocular blood flow. More studies are needed to clarify the exact mechanism by which magnesium improves vision in those with glaucoma. In the meantime, it’s at least reassuring to know that this often neglected mineral can enhance visual acuity by means that are currently unknown. (8)

I don’t often discuss the specifics of my own supplement regime. But I can tell you that I consistently include magnesium citrate and/or magnesium taurinate (magnesium bound to the amino acid taurine) in my daily routine. In addition, I consciously seek out magnesium-rich foods. Pumpkin seeds are perhaps my favorite dietary source of magnesium. In closing I want to mention that while magnesium is generally a very safe nutrient, it is not appropriate for those with compromised kidney function nor should it be taken with specific medications such as certain antibiotics, heart medications, and tranquilizers. Please consult your pharmacist and/or physician before beginning magnesium therapy if you think any of these issues pertain to you. (9)

Note: Please check out the “Comments & Updates” section of this blog – at the bottom of the page. You can find the latest research about this topic there!

Be well!


Tags: , ,
Posted in Bone and Joint Health, Mental Health, Women's Health

30 Comments & Updates to “Magnesium Supplements”

  1. Nina K. Says:

    Morning JP 🙂

    great article! i think magnesium is still underrated. most people aren’t aware of that they are deficient in magnesium. Mg is one of my daily staples i can’t live without. Ok there are pumpkin seeds which have higher amounts but i don’t eat them every day. Years ago i had a very stressful time and i took mg after a cramp in my leg. I detected that Mg calmed me down in the evening – it was really relaxing for the mind and the whole body. Since then i know how necessary it is – for me.

    I recommend to everyone to take Mg regularly. Never had any side effects.

    Nina K.

  2. Pumpkin Seed Says:

    Great article. The list of magnesium benefits just seems to go on and on.

    Pumpkin seeds are a great source (about 1mg magnesium per seed). However, there’s just so many one can eat in a day. Almonds pack in about 3mg per nut, so I mix them up.

    A 5oz. halibut filet will have about 150mg. A hot cocoa, with plenty of real cocoa, is also well over 100mg.

    And one cup of spinach is somewhere around 80mg.

    I have also switched to San Pellegrino mineral water. It has 52mg of magnesium per bottle. Nobody else in my family likes the mineral taste, so I get it all to myself.

    There was a study that indicated magnesium might be effective in delaying the onset of type II diabetes. In that case, only dietary magnesium was shown to be effective. Supplements did not have the same effect.

  3. Nina K. Says:

    Hello Pumpkin Seed!

    San Pellegrino isn’t a good choice because this mineral water contains very high amounts of uranium ( ) see page 35! The data given in the file are from official governmental offices in Germany.

    In Europe mineral water must have limited amounts of that (below 2 mcg Uranium / l000 ml water) San Pellegrino is high above that amount ( about 5 – 8 mcg/l!) Uranium is very dangerous for the kidneys.

    Nina K.

  4. JP Says:


    Thank you for sharing your positive experience with magnesium and for the warning us about San Pellegrino. 🙂

    Be well!


  5. JP Says:

    Pumpkin Seed,

    I feel funny calling you that! 🙂 Thank you for your comments. I’m happy you stopped by and shared some additional magnesium info! Good stuff!

    Be well!


  6. k2c Says:

    Thanks JP! I try to take an additional magnesium capsule everyday. My Multi contains 8mg (oxide). Right now I’m using a Triple Magnesium Complex 400mg (oxide,citrate,aspartate).

    My last bottle was Magnesium Malate. I’m thinking that may be more beneficial to an older person than the other forms. I was diagnosed with Osteopenia several years ago, and instead of increasing my Calcium intake like they suggested, I actually stopped taking Calcium supplements and started taking the Magnesium instead.

    I don’t like the idea that Calcium may block the arteries, and I can’t always afford to have k2 on hand. I’d rather have a broken hip/leg than a major stroke! 😀


  7. k2c Says:

    PS: I forgot to mention using Magnesium Oil transdermally for muscle tightness/cramps…works great!!

  8. Pumpkin Seed Says:

    Hi, JP and Nina

    Ecchh..uranium (and I thought I had a healthy glow)
    I used to export food to Europe, and I know their regulations can be a bit over the top, but I’ll have to look into that. Thanks.

  9. JP Says:


    Thank you! Magnesium malate has its pros and cons. It contains less elemental magnesium (than magnesium oxide) but it’s bioavailability is also greater. The malic acid component may also be useful in terms of promoting cellular energy. Magnesium malate is generally a bit more expensive as well. Ah, trade offs. 🙂

    I’ll cover the topic of dietary calcium and arterial calcium deposits in a future blog. It’s an interesting point of discussion. Thanks for bringing that up!

    PS – Good news about the topical magnesium helping with your muscle cramps!

    Be well!


  10. liverock Says:

    The problem with the different forms of magnesium is the varying amount of elemental magnesium in the various types.
    Mg oxide 60%
    Mg citrate 16%
    Mg orotate 7%
    Mg amino acid chelate 18%

    Peole switching from the usual Mg oxide to another form, should be aware that they may have to take a higher dosage to get the same amount of elemental magnesium.

  11. Sai Says:

    Good Day JP!

    Another Great Article! I take the Xtend life Multivitamin and it has Magnesium Citrate 200 mg. Wonder if that would be OK? I have read a lot of article on Magnesium and positive effects on Blood Pressure too! I will go chasing the pumpkin seeds today 🙂

    Best regards


  12. JP Says:

    Thank you for adding that, Liverock. A good point. 🙂

    Personally, I would prefer to take 3 capsules of magnesium citrate instead of 1 capsule of magnesium oxide – even though they generally contain an equivalent amount of elemental mag.

    Be well!


  13. JP Says:

    Thank you, Sai! 🙂

    That’s about half of the daily recommended intake for magnesium – according to the US RDA. I take quite a bit more than that. You might want to consider including some more magnesium rich foods (like pumpkin seeds) into your diet and/or adding a little bit more magnesium citrate to see what happens.

    Be well!


  14. k2c Says:

    JP, I’ll be looking forward to reading a calcium and artery blog in the future, should you decide to do it!

    Liverock, thanks very much for the breakdown. 😀

  15. Anonymous Says:

    Great Article! Mg energizes me and helps disturbances in bladder control. I also think that the pumpkins seeds are the natural and cost-effective way to attain Mg in the body.

  16. Rosemary Says:

    I read that if you soak your feet (or body) in Epsom salts (magnesium sulfate), your skin will absorb as much of the mineral as you need. I found that soaking in Epsom salts can be as relaxing as it is nourishing. What I have also discovered is a greaseless and unscented EPSOM LOTION which works wonders on sore feet, etc. I haven’t researched the rest of the ingredients in the lotion, though. I hope none of them are ones we should be avoiding.

    INGREDIENTS: Water, Magnesium Sulfate (Epsom Salt), Cyclomethicone, Dimethiconol, PPG/PEG-18/18 Dimethicone, Glycerin, Diazolidinyl Urea, Methylparaben, Propylparaben, Capsicum.

  17. JP Says:


    The epsom lotion does contain some controversial (chemical) ingredients.

    I know of another magnesium gel which has more natural ingredients. But I don’t know how it will compare re: efficacy and greasiness. I can tell you that someone I know found good results with this brand of magnesium products re: muscle cramps.

    Be well!


  18. Rosemary Says:

    Re ingredients in epsom lotion: I was afraid that would be the case.

    I tried to find what I could about the ingredients in the epsom lotion that might be controversial. It looks like the -parabens may be of concern. Since they are listed last they are minor ingredients. Since I use no make-up or other products except shampoo and conditioner, exposure to parabens should be minimal.

    Do you consider ANY exposure to “chemical” ingredients to be detrimental?

    Please understand that I am not challenging you, just trying to gain understanding so I can make good decisions about what to put in and on my body.

    Many thanks!

  19. JP Says:


    No. I’m not an absolutist when it comes to chemical avoidance. It’s impossible to side-step every potentially toxic substance out there.

    My philosophy is pragmatic on this topic: Avoid what you can and keep your body healthy as best as possible via diet, exercise, sleep, spiritual pursuits, stress reduction and supplementation. A strong body and mind can handle its fair share of chemical and environmental insults, IMO.

    Be well!


  20. Rosemary Says:


    Thanks for that. That is how I look approach things, too.

    Best regards,
    $ Rosemary

  21. JP Says:

    Update: Magnesium citrate protects against potentially dangerous elevations in blood pressure during pregnancy …

    Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2013 Dec;288(6):1269-74.

    Magnesium supplementation to prevent high blood pressure in pregnancy: a randomised placebo control trial.

    PURPOSE: To assess if hypertension during the last part of pregnancy could be prevented by magnesium supplementation.

    METHODS: Pregnant primagravida women from a local antenatal care unit were given an oral supply of 300 mg magnesium as citrate or placebo from pregnancy week 25 in a randomised double-blind setup. Blood pressure was recorded during pregnancy as well as pregnancy outcome.

    RESULTS: In the magnesium-supplemented group, the average diastolic blood pressure at week 37 was significantly lower than in the placebo group (72/1.4 mean/SEM vs 77/1.4, p = 0.031). The number of women with an increase in diastolic blood pressure of ≥15 mmHg was significantly lower in the magnesium group compared with the women who received placebo (p = 0.011). There was an inverse relation between the urinary excretion of magnesium during pregnancy and the diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.005).

    CONCLUSIONS: Magnesium supplementation prevented an increase in diastolic blood pressure during the last weeks of pregnancy. The relation between diastolic blood pressure and urinary excretion of magnesium suggests that magnesium is involved in the regulation of blood pressure and that the increase in diastolic blood pressure in pregnancy could be due to a lack of magnesium.

    Be well!


  22. JP Says:

    Update 05/06/15:

    Diabetes Metab. 2015 Apr 27. pii: S1262-3636(15)00058-0.

    Oral magnesium supplementation improves glycaemic status in subjects with prediabetes and hypomagnesaemia: A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial.


    This study evaluated the efficacy of oral magnesium supplementation in the reduction of plasma glucose levels in adults with prediabetes and hypomagnesaemia.


    A total of 116 men and non-pregnant women, aged 30 to 65years with hypomagnesaemia and newly diagnosed with prediabetes, were enrolled into a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial to receive either 30mL of MgCl2 5% solution (equivalent to 382mg of magnesium) or an inert placebo solution once daily for four months. The primary trial endpoint was the efficacy of magnesium supplementation in reducing plasma glucose levels.


    At baseline, there were no significant statistical differences in terms of anthropometric and biochemical variables between individuals in the supplement and placebo groups. At the end of follow-up, fasting (86.9±7.9 and 98.3±4.6mg/dL, respectively; P=0.004) and post-load glucose (124.7±33.4 and 136.7±23.9mg/dL, respectively; P=0.03) levels, HOMA-IR indices (2.85±1.0 and 4.1±2.7, respectively; P=0.04) and triglycerides (166.4±90.6 and 227.0±89.7, respectively; P=0.009) were significantly decreased, whereas HDL cholesterol (45.6±10.9 and 46.8±9.2mg/dL, respectively; P=0.04) and serum magnesium (1.96±0.27 and 1.60±0.26mg/dL, respectively; P=0.005) levels were significantly increased in those taking MgCl2 compared with the controls. A total of 34 (29.4%) people improved their glucose status (50.8% and 7.0% in the magnesium and placebo groups, respectively; P<0.0005).


    Our results show that magnesium supplementation reduces plasma glucose levels, and improves the glycaemic status of adults with prediabetes and hypomagnesaemia.

    Be well!


  23. JP Says:

    Update 06/12/15:

    PLoS ONE 10(5): e0127666.

    Association between Dietary Magnesium Intake and Radiographic Knee Osteoarthritis.

    Objective: To examine the cross-sectional associations between dietary magnesium (Mg) intake and radiographic knee osteoarthritis (OA), joint space narrowing (JSN), and osteophytes (OST) respectively.

    Methods: A total of 1626 subjects were included in the study. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Radiographic knee OA was defined as Kellgren-Lawrence (K-L) Grade 2 in at least one leg. JSN and OST were assessed individually according to the Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) atlas. A multivariable logistic analysis model was applied to test the various associations after adjusting for potentially confounding factors.

    Results: The relative odds of radiographic knee OA were decreased by 0.53 times in the third quintile of Mg intake [odds ratio (OR) 0.53, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.28–1.01], 0.40 times in the fourth quintile (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.17–0.94) and 0.34 times in the fifth quintile (OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.11–1.00) compared with those in the lowest quintile, while P for trend was 0.111. The relative odds of JSN were decreased by 0.49 times in the third quintile of Mg intake (OR 0.49, 95% CI 0.28–0.88) and 0.37 times in the fifth quintile (OR 0.37, 95% CI 0.14–0.98) compared with those in the lowest quintile, while P for trend was 0.088. There was no significant relationship between dietary Mg intake and the presence of OST.

    Conclusions: The findings of this cross-sectional study indicate that Mg intake is inversely associated with radiographic knee OA and JSN. It supports potential role of Mg in the prevention of knee OA.

    Be well!


  24. JP Says:

    Updated 03/17/16:

    Note: MMFS-01 is magnesium threonate.

    J Alzheimers Dis. 2015 Oct 27;49(4):971-90.

    Efficacy and Safety of MMFS-01, a Synapse Density Enhancer, for Treating Cognitive Impairment in Older Adults: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment is a major problem in elderly, affecting quality of life. Pre-clinical studies show that MMFS-01, a synapse density enhancer, is effective at reversing cognitive decline in aging rodents.

    OBJECTIVE: Since brain atrophy during aging is strongly associated with both cognitive decline and sleep disorder, we evaluated the efficacy of MMFS-01 in its ability to reverse cognitive impairment and improve sleep.

    METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-designed trial in older adult subjects (age 50-70) with cognitive impairment. Subjects were treated with MMFS-01 (n = 23) or placebo (n = 21) for 12 weeks and cognitive ability, sleep quality, and emotion were evaluated. Overall cognitive ability was determined by a composite score of tests in four major cognitive domains.

    RESULTS: With MMFS-01 treatment, overall cognitive ability improved significantly relative to placebo (p = 0.003; Cohen’s d = 0.91). Cognitive fluctuation was also reduced. The study population had more severe executive function deficits than age-matched controls from normative data and MMFS-01 treatment nearly restored their impaired executive function, demonstrating that MMFS-01 may be clinically significant. Due to the strong placebo effects on sleep and anxiety, the effects of MMFS-01 on sleep and anxiety could not be determined.

    CONCLUSIONS: The current study demonstrates the potential of MMFS-01 for treating cognitive impairment in older adults.

    Be well!


  25. JP Says:

    Updated 06/17/16:

    Panminerva Med. 2016 Jun 16.

    Effect of magnesium, probiotic, and vitamin food supplementation in healthy subjects with psychological stress and evaluation of a persistent effect after discontinuing intake.

    BACKGROUND: To describe the changes in subjects’ psychological stress intensity under the effect of dietary supplements of magnesium, probiotics, and vitamins after one month of intake.

    METHODS: Observational cohort study of subject complaining of psychological stress defined by a Perceived Stress Scale (PSS 10) score of more than 21.

    RESULTS: The study covered 242 healthy volunteers, 38.6 ± 13.6 years old, among whom 79.8% were women. Under the effect of the supplementation of magnesium, probiotics, and vitamins, the psychological stress of the subjects decreased significantly from 34.1 ± 4.5 to 26.2 ± 6.1 (p<0.0001), which corresponds to an average reduction of 22.7 ± 16.0%. Fatigue decreased even more significantly from 16.8 ± 6.4 to 8.7 ± 6.2 (p<0.0001), which corresponds to an average reduction of 45.0% ± 38.1%. Analysis showed that the psychological stress level was strictly similar one month after the treatment was discontinued and therefore clearly demonstrated that the psychological benefit was maintained over time.

    CONCLUSIONS: Stress and fatigue are significantly reduced by the intake of a food supplement with probiotics, magnesium, vitamins, and minerals and this effect is fully maintained one month after discontinuing the food supplement intake.

    Be well!


  26. JP Says:

    Updated 09/15/16:

    Sleep Breath. 2016 Sep 6.

    Serum levels of magnesium and their relationship with CRP in patients with OSA.

    BACKGROUND: Low levels of magnesium (Mg) are associated with chronic inflammatory stress. Some animal studies have reported that a moderate deficiency of Mg, similar to that which occurs in humans, may increase inflammatory or oxidative stress stimulated by other factors, such as disrupted sleep or sleep deficiency.

    PURPOSE: This cross-sectional study evaluated the relationship between serum levels of Mg and the inflammatory response in patients with a new diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).

    This clinical, retrospective study registered 68 patients with newly diagnosed mild to severe OSA and 30 without OSA. The Apnea-Hypopnea Index (AHI), oxygen desaturation index (ODI), time until blood hemoglobin oxygen saturation <90 % (SpO2 <90 %), and mean blood hemoglobin SpO2 were measured. Serum levels of Mg, plasma C-reactive protein (CRP), and total sleep time (TST) by polysomnography were also measured.

    RESULTS: Mg levels were lower in patients with OSA than those in controls matched for age, sex, and body mass index (BMI). Patients with OSA had substantially higher plasma CRP concentrations than controls. A negative correlation was observed between the AHI and ODI and Mg levels. Significant differences in Mg and CRP levels were observed between patients with AHI scores of 5-15 and scores ≥30 based on OSA severity but independent of BMI. Furthermore, the AHI, ODI, TST <90 %, and mean SpO2 significantly correlated with CRP. A significant negative correlation was observed between Mg and CRP levels (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Our results show that Mg levels changed depending on the presence and severity of OSA. Low levels were associated with a higher CRP concentration in patients with OSA. Be well! JP

  27. JP Says:

    Updated 11/11/16:

    Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2016 Nov 1.

    Dietary magnesium and calcium intake and risk of depression in the general population: A meta-analysis.

    OBJECTIVE: Several epidemiological studies have evaluated the associations between dietary magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca) intake and the risk of depression. However, the results of these studies remain controversial. Thus, we performed a meta-analysis to explore these associations and to investigate the possible dose-response relationship between dietary Mg intake and risk of depression.

    METHODS: MEDLINE, Web of Science, Embase, Cochrane CENTRAL, CINAHL database, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wan fang databases and Databases of Chinese Scientific and Technical Periodicals were searched for eligible publications up to September 2016. Pooled relative risks with 95% confidence intervals were calculated using random-effects model. Publication bias was estimated using Egger’s test and the funnel plot. Dose-response relationship was assessed by restricted cubic spline functions.

    RESULTS: A total of 17 epidemiological studies from 12 articles were included in the present meta-analysis. Among these studies, 11 studies evaluated the association between dietary Mg intake and risk of depression and 6 studies evaluated the association between dietary Ca intake and risk of depression. When comparing the highest with the lowest intake, the pooled relative risks of depression were 0.81 (95% confidence interval = [0.70, 0.92]) for Mg and 0.66 (95% confidence interval = [0.42, 1.02]) for Ca. Dietary Mg intake was significantly associated with a reduced risk of depression among studies conducted in Asia (relative risk = 0.57; 95% confidence interval = [0.44, 0.74]) and in studies adjusting for energy intake (relative risk = 0.73; 95% confidence interval = [0.58, 0.92]). For dose-response analysis, evidence of a nonlinear relationship was found between dietary Mg intake and risk of depression, and the largest risk reductions were observed for 320 mg/day.

    CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis indicated that moderate Mg intake may be inversely associated with the risk of depression, which still needs to be confirmed by larger prospective cohort studies.

    Be wel1!


  28. JP Says:

    Updated 02/05/17:

    J Hum Nutr Diet. 2017 Feb 2.

    Effect of magnesium supplementation on type 2 diabetes associated cardiovascular risk factors: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disorders remain the leading cause of death in type 2 diabetic patients. In the present study, a systematic review and a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were conducted aiming to evaluate the effect of magnesium supplementation on type 2 diabetes (T2D) associated cardiovascular risk factors in both diabetic and nondiabetic individuals.

    METHODS: PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane, Web of Science and Google Scholar databases were searched from inception to 30 June 2016 aiming to identify RCTs evaluating the effect of magnesium supplementation on T2D associated cardiovascular risk factors. The data were analysed using a random effect model with inverse variance methodology. Sensitivity analysis, risk of bias analysis, subgroup analysis, meta-regression and publication bias analysis were also conducted for the included studies using standard methods.

    RESULTS: Following magnesium supplementation, a significant improvement was observed in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) [weighted mean difference (WMD) = -4.641 mg dL-1 , 95% confidence interval (CI) = -7.602, -1.680, P = 0.002], high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (WMD = 3.197 mg dL-1 , 95% CI = 1.455, 4.938, P < 0.001), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (WMD = -10.668 mg dL-1 , 95% CI = -19.108, -2.228, P = 0.013), plasma triglycerides (TG) (WMD = -15.323 mg dL-1 , 95% CI = -28.821, -1.826, P = 0.026) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) (WMD = -3.056 mmHg, 95% CI = -5.509, -0.603, P = 0.015). During subgroup analysis, a more beneficial effect of magnesium supplementation was observed in diabetic subjects with hypomagnesaemia. CONCLUSIONS: Magnesium supplementation can produce a favourable effect on FPG, HDL, LDL, TG and SBP. Therefore, magnesium supplementation may decrease the risk T2D associated cardiovascular diseases, although future large RCTs are needed for making robust guidelines for clinical practice. Be well! JP

  29. JP Says:

    Updated 04/19/17:

    Magnes Res. 2017 Feb 1;30(1):28-34.

    Oral magnesium supplementation reduces the incidence of gastrointestinal complications following cardiac surgery: a randomized clinical trial.

    Gastrointestinal complications are common after coronary artery bypass graft surgery. These complications are ranged from nausea and vomiting to mesenteric ischemia and liver failure. It seems that nausea, vomiting, and constipation are related to magnesium deficiency. This study was designed to examine the effect of oral magnesium supplementation on the incidence of gastrointestinal complications in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. In a single blinded randomized clinical trial, 102 patients who were undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery were randomly allocated into two groups, 52 patients in the intervention and 50 patients in control group. Patients in the experimental group received 800 milligram magnesium oxide (2 tablets each of them containing 240 mg elemental magnesium) daily from the admission to discharge from hospital. The incidence of post-operative nausea and vomiting, constipation, and atrial fibrillation was compared between the groups. Our results showed that postoperative hypomagnesemia is present in 41.20 and 70.80 percent of the patients in the intervention and control group patients, respectively. The overall incidence of constipation was 62%. Patients who received magnesium supplementation experienced less atrial fibrillation, nausea, vomiting, and constipation. Our data showed that oral magnesium supplementation could reduce the postoperative complications. Despite the better status in the intervention group, the hypomagnesemia was present in many of intervention group patients. It seems that supplementation with higher doses is needed.

    Be well!


  30. JP Says:

    Updated 07/08/17:

    J Med Biochem. 2016 Nov 2;35(4):375-384.

    ACTH, Cortisol and IL-6 Levels in Athletes following Magnesium Supplementation.

    BACKGROUND: Physical exercise activates the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and induces the body’s inflammatory response. Due to contemporary dietary habits and increased energy expenditure, athletes are susceptible to depletion of magnesium ions. The aim of our study was to investigate, through assessment of plasma ACTH, serum IL-6, and salivary/serum cortisol levels, if chronic magnesium supplementation might reduce damaging stress effects in amateur rugby players.

    METHODS: Rugby players (N=23) were randomly assigned to intervention and control group. Basal samples were collected before intervention group started a 4-week-long supplementation with magnesium (500 mg Mg/d). Blood and saliva sampling were done a day before the match (Day-1), on the morning of competition (Game), and during a six-day-long recovery period (Day1, Day3 and Day6). ACTH, serum/salivary cortisol, IL-6 and total/differential leukocytes counts were determined at each time point.

    RESULTS: There was a statistically significant increase in ACTH concentration in intervention group compared to control group, while reductions in cortisol concentrations between the two groups were the greatest at Day-1 (p < 0.01) and at the day of competition (Game) (p < 0.01). Our results revealed that magnesium completely abolished the increase in IL-6 level noted in control group on Day1 and Day3 vs. Day-1 (p < 0.01) and also diminished the rise in neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio in intervention group vs. control group (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest the possibly important influence magnesium supplementation might have on the change of parameters of HPA axis activity and reduction of immune response activation following strenuous physical exercise such as a rugby game. Be well! JP

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