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Natural Sunscreen Options

June 24, 2011 Written by JP       [Font too small?]

This past Tuesday marked the official start of summer in the Northern Hemisphere, otherwise known as the summer solstice. Among other things, this means that you’ll likely encounter seemingly endless ads for sunblocks and sunscreens on billboards, magazines and television. The advisability of using sunscreen is a topic of debate due to questionable efficacy and ingredients and sunblock’s ability to reduce natural Vitamin D synthesis. This lack of consensus confuses many. But there’s also good that can come of it. Cosmetic companies are continually trying to find safer agents that genuinely protect against the photo-aging effects of UV radiation. In some instances, this journey leads them down a natural path. Herb and legume extracts ranging from Ginkgo biloba to soy isoflavones now commonly appear on the labels of topical formulas with additional sun protecting components. In fact, some of these “holistic” ingredients are often used as selling points in the aforementioned advertisements. But something you’re unlikely to find in most ads is any mention of the role that nutrition can play in keeping your skin safe from the sun. (1,2,3,4,5)

The health of your skin is largely a reflection of your overall well being. Genes certainly play a role as well. However, your genetic makeup has no more influence on skin appearance than on any other area of your body. Cardiovascular disease, diabetes and obesity are unlikely parallels in that they all carry genetic influences, but also respond remarkably well to natural interventions such as dietary changes, exercise, proper sleep and stress management. Your largest organ, the skin, is no different.

Increasing your consumption of omega-3 fatty acids is the first place to begin if you’re looking for internal photoprotection. Fatty acids found primarily in fish, DHA and EPA, reduce the inflammatory response to UV radiation and prevent the accompanying immunological suppression. What’s more, fish oil supplementation (4 grams/day) may shield skin from cancer on a genetic level. It’s less certain whether plant based omega-3s such as alpha-linoleic acid provide the same protective activity. My personal food of choice in the omega-3/skin department is wild salmon. It not only provides an excellent source of DHA and EPA, but also contains a powerful antioxidant known as astaxanthin which affords additional protection from phototoxicity. (6,7,8,9,10,11,12)

Astaxanthin belongs to a class of colorful phytochemicals called carotenoids, which form a sort natural sunscreen within the epidermis or outer layer of the skin. Of all the known carotenoids, lycopene appears to be the most abundant in the skin and the most protective against the damaging effects of UV radiation. Cooked tomato based foods are the best source of this red pigment which is documented as making the skin less sensitive to sun exposure. The conclusion of one study summarized the role of lycopene and other carotenoids thusly, “Dietary carotenoids contribute to life long protection against harmful UV radiation”. (13,14,15)

As far as beverages go, green tea tops the list of natural photoprotectants. The June 2011 issue of the Journal of Nutrition reports that supplementing with green tea polyphenols (GTP) at a dosage of 1,402 mg daily, experimentally reduces UV-induced erythema or reddening of the skin by 25%. Other “skin structural characteristics that were positively affected included elasticity, roughness, scaling, density and water homeostasis”. The authors of the study noted that a separate investigation using lower dosages of GTPs resulted in improved blood flow or microcirculation to the skin. Green tea intake appears to exert many of its dermatological benefits via antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. Another positive attribute of green tea extract is that it intercedes with the skin cancer development process by countering photoimmunosuppression and promotes the repair of DNA. (13,14,15,16,17)

If green tea isn’t your “cup of tea”, perhaps you should consider a glass of malbec, pinot noir or syrah. Preliminary data suggests that red wine consumption may prolong the amount of time you can spend in the sun before you “burn”. A German study from January 2009 reports that applying wine topically in the form of “wine baths” is infective as a guard against UVB damage. However, drinking red wine containing high levels of natural polyphenols allowed a significant degree of UV protection as indicated by a skin reaction test known as the “minimal erythema dose” or MED. Animal and in-vitro trials tend to support the only human study I just referenced. Some researchers believe that two antioxidants present in red wine, myricetin and resveratrol, are key to the chemopreventive and photoprotective properties hinted at in the scientific literature.  (18,19,20,21,22)

Fish Oil (EPA) Protects Skin from UV Radiation Damage (MED)

Source: Carcinogenesis. 2003 May;24(5):919-25. (link)

My last suggestion may seem too good to be true, but it’s not. Eating a daily serving of non-alkaline or non-Dutched dark chocolate not only shields the skin from the damaging effects of UV rays, but also increases blood flow and oxygen saturation. The results of these changes include an improvement in skin hydration and thickness. A decline in skin roughness and scaling were also detected in one 12 week study. In order to derive these benefits and more, opt for truly dark chocolate with a cocoa content of at least 70%. Two of the trials I reviewed utilized a cocoa product containing 329 mg of flavanols per serving. This can be approximated by making a strong cup of homemade hot chocolate using pure, organic cocoa powder. At home I add three heaping tablespoons of cocoa in a mug and sprinkle in a little organic cinnamon, sea salt and stevia. Add hot water, milk or cream, stir and enjoy. (23,24,25)

In all honesty, I haven’t used a sunscreen or block in many years, although I have naturally fair skin, I simply don’t burn like I used to. It doesn’t matter where we travel or how much time I spend outdoors. My ardent belief is that my nutrient rich diet and individualized supplementation are the reasons for this welcome change. This is not to say that I sunbathe frequently or go out of my way to exercise outside during peak times of the day. I’m also not recommending that everyone follow my lead in avoiding sunscreen. This is a personal decision that ought to be made in conjunction with your health care team. But regardless of what you decide with regard to topical skin care, you’d do well to harness the power of antioxidant and omega-3 rich foods as part of a comprehensive approach to skin care during the summer months and beyond.

Note: Please check out the “Comments & Updates” section of this blog – at the bottom of the page. You can find the latest research about this topic there!

Be well!

JP

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17 Comments & Updates to “Natural Sunscreen Options”

  1. Kelly Says:

    Hey JP,
    I agree with you again. I think that our diet does play a role in how our skin reacts to the sun. I have fair skin as well and since changing my diet, I do a lot better in the sun and do not burn as easy. If myself or my family is going to be in the sun for an extended period of time, we will use sunblock, but we try to avoid the products with methyl…,propyl…, butyl…, ethyl…, trieth…, dieth…, you know all the chemical names that are bad news for our skin to absorb. My favorite brand has zinc oxide in it and is all natural called “Badger All Natural.”

  2. JP Says:

    Thank you, Kelly. That seems like an excellent strategy to me! :)

    Be well!

    JP

  3. Ted Hutchinson Says:

    I find I don’t need sunscreen/sunblock but as I live in the UK that’s partly we don’t get too much (or indeed enough) strong sunshine.

    While this article is extremely good may I to draw your attention to http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20406189
    Skin protection against UVA-induced iron damage by multiantioxidants and iron chelating drugs/prodrugs.
    and suggest that becoming a blood donor and regularly disposing of surplus iron may be part of the reason why I tend not to burn any more. An excellent iron chelator is MELATONIN and it may be that ensuring a good melatonin secretion ensures iron is properly liganded as less likely to cause trouble. Some of the benefit of wine could be it’s melatonin content (along with resveratrol)(well that’s my excuse) Improving natural melatonin can be done by ensuring bright light exposure during the day, using only subdued light after dusk http://stereopsis.com/flux/ FLUX automatically adjusts your monitor brightness, and stopping PC/TV use well before you want to sleep, along with ensuring your bedroom is as dark as possible.

    One of the benefits of sun exposure is increased vitamin D status but many people find that correcting Vitamin D status BEFORE going on holiday/getting lots of sun exposure actually speeds up the tanning process and this increases their natural sunscreen potential.

    There is also evidence http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16488300 that hardening the skin over winter with regular SHORT NON-BURNING session under a UVB source improved tolerance to sunlight in photosensitive people.

    I think also it’s worth pointing out that it takes TIME for the effects of improving natural photoprotection to be effective. The lycopene research used 12 weeks and I expect similar timescale for omega 3. Reducing omega 6 seed/grain oil intake (soy, corn, safflower, sunflower, cottonseed) will speed up the improvement in omega 3 status. Coconut & olive oil make suitable replacements for the industrial seed oils.

  4. JP Says:

    Thank you, Ted. Very interesting information. They’re all well on point, IMO.

    Re: iron – This could partially explain why IP6 (phytic acid) seems to protect against UV related skin cancer.

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2703150/?tool=pubmed

    Be well!

    JP

  5. Grace Says:

    VERY INTERESTING site… do you have a monthly newsletter? Would like to be on your mailing list…gb

  6. JP Says:

    Thanks a lot, Grace!

    I don’t have a newsletter. But, you can receive my new columns sent via e-mail by subscribing (for free) here:

    http://feeds2.feedburner.com/healthyfellow

    Be well!

    JP

  7. JP Says:

    Update 05/14/15:

    http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/php.12375/full

    Photochem Photobiol. 2015 Jan-Feb;91(1):248-50.

    Effective photoprotection of human skin against infrared A radiation by topically applied antioxidants: results from a vehicle controlled, double-blind, randomized study.

    Infrared A radiation (IRA) from solar sunlight contributes to photoaging of human skin, e.g. by upregulating MMP-1 expression in dermal fibroblasts, indicating the need for photoprotection of human skin against IRA. Up to now, however, there has been no controlled study to show that effective protection of human skin against IRA radiation is possible. Here, we have conducted a randomized, controlled, double-blinded prospective study in 30 healthy volunteers to assess the capacity of an SPF 30 sunscreen versus the same sunscreen supplemented with an antioxidant cocktail containing grape seed extract, vitamin E, ubiquinone and vitamin C to protect human skin against IRA radiation-induced MMP-1 upregulation. As expected, exposure to IRA radiation significantly upregulated MMP-1 expression, as compared to unirradiated skin, and this response was significantly reduced, if the SPF30 sunscreen plus the antioxidant cocktail had been applied prior to IRA radiation. In contrast, treatment of human skin with the SPF30 sunscreen alone did not provide significant protection. These results indicate that topically applied antioxidants effectively protect human skin against IRA radiation and that regular sunscreens need to be supplemented with specific antioxidants in order to achieve IRA photoprotection.

    Be well!

    JP

  8. JP Says:

    Update 05/14/15:

    http://online.liebertpub.com/doi/abs/10.1089/jmf.2013.3060

    J Med Food. 2014 Jul;17(7):810-6.

    Supplementating with dietary astaxanthin combined with collagen hydrolysate improves facial elasticity and decreases matrix metalloproteinase-1 and -12 expression: a comparative study with placebo.

    Photoaging accounts for most age-related changes in skin appearance. It has been suggested that both astaxanthin, a potent antioxidant, and collagen hydrolysate can be used as antiaging modalities in photoaged skin. However, there is no clinical study using astaxanthin combined with collagen hydrolysate. We investigated the effects of using a combination of dietary astaxanthin and collagen hydrolysate supplementation on moderately photoaged skin in humans. A total of 44 healthy subjects were recruited and treated with astaxanthin (2 mg/day) combined with collagen hydrolysate (3 g/day) or placebos, which were identical in appearance and taste to the active supplementation for 12 weeks. The elasticity and hydration properties of facial skin were evaluated using noninvasive objective devices. In addition, we also evaluated the expression of procollagen type I, fibrillin-1, matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and -12, and ultraviolet (UV)-induced DNA damage in artificially UV-irradiated buttock skin before and after treatment. The supplement group showed significant improvements in skin elasticity and transepidermal water loss in photoaged facial skin after 12 weeks compared with the placebo group. In the supplement group, expression of procollagen type I mRNA increased and expression of MMP-1 and -12 mRNA decreased compared with those in the placebo group. In contrast, there was no significant difference in UV-induced DNA damage between groups. These results demonstrate that dietary astaxanthin combined with collagen hydrolysate can improve elasticity and barrier integrity in photoaged human facial skin, and such treatment is well tolerated.

    Be well!

    JP

  9. JP Says:

    Update 05/14/15:

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24910279

    J Cosmet Dermatol. 2014 Jun;13(2):151-7.

    Protective effect of red orange extract supplementation against UV-induced skin damages: photoaging and solar lentigines.

    BACKGROUND: Exposure of the skin to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiations causes important oxidative damages that result in clinical and hystopathological changes, contributing to premature skin aging. Hyperpigmented lesions, also known as age spots, are one of the most visible alterations in skin photoaging. Skin is naturally equipped with antioxidant systems against UV-induced ROS generation; however, these antioxidant defenses are not completely efficient during exposure to sunlight. Oral antioxidants are able to counteract the harmful effects of UV radiation and to strengthen the physiological skin antioxidant defenses.

    AIMS: The present study was performed to evaluate the in vivo skin photo-protecting and anti-aging effects of a red orange (Citrus sinensis varieties Moro, Tarocco and Sanguinello) extract supplementation. Previous studies showed that red orange extracts possess strong in vitro free radical scavenging/antioxidant activity and photo-protective effects on human skin.

    MATERIALS/METHODS: The photo-protective effects of red orange extract intake against UV-induced skin erythema and melanin production in solar lentigo was evaluated on healthy volunteers by an objective instrumental method (reflectance spectrophotometry).

    RESULTS: Data obtained from in vivo studies showed that supplementation of red orange extract (100 mg/daily) for 15 days brought a significant reduction in the UV-induced skin erythema degree. Moreover, skin age spots pigmentation (melanin content) decreased from 27% to 7% when subjects were exposed to solar lamp during red orange extract supplementation.

    CONCLUSIONS: Red orange extract intake can strengthen physiological antioxidant skin defenses, protecting skin from the damaging processes involved in photo-aging and leading to an improvement in skin appearance and pigmentation.

    Be well!

    JP

  10. JP Says:

    Updated 12/22/15:

    http://pubs.rsc.org/en/Content/ArticleLanding/2016/FO/C5FO01271F#!divAbstract

    Food Funct. 2015 Dec 21.

    Improvement of green tea polyphenol with milk on skin with respect to antioxidation in healthy adults: a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized crossover clinical trial.

    Green tea polyphenols (GTP) have been widely tested for their effects on several metabolic syndromes and degenerative diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes. The present study was formulated to assess the physiological efficacy of green tea polyphenol infused with milk (GTPM) on skin integrity in correlation with antioxidative status in healthy adults. Forty-four healthy voluntary subjects were recruited and assigned to two groups, who drank 240 ml of mineral water mixed with either an experimental (GTPM) or placebo package (2 packs per day) for the following 6 months. The experimental group then switched to the placebo package, and vice versa, for a further 6 months, with one month of washout period in between. During the initial, 3rd, 6th, 10th, and 13th month anthropometric measurements were performed and fasting blood samples were withdrawn for various biochemical assays. Skin examination was performed at the initial, 6th and 13th month. No significant alterations were observed in any of the anthropometric measurements. Administration of GTPM significantly increased (p < 0.05) the antioxidant index and antioxidant enzyme activities when compared with the placebo group, whereas a concomitant decrease in the levels of lipid peroxidation were noted. Moreover, GTPM intake notably improved skin integrity and texture by markedly lowering (p < 0.05) skin wrinkles and roughness in elderly subjects. GTPM proved to be an effective antioxidant by lowering oxidative stress and thereby ameliorating skin texture and integrity.

    Be well!

    JP

  11. JP Says:

    Updated 1/28/16:

    http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0147056

    PLoS One. 2016 Jan 27;11(1):e0147056.

    Higher Caffeinated Coffee Intake Is Associated with Reduced Malignant Melanoma Risk: A Meta-Analysis Study.

    BACKGROUND: Several epidemiological studies have determined the associations between coffee intake level and skin cancer risk; however, the results were not yet conclusive. Herein, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the cohort and case-control studies for the association between coffee intake level and malignant melanoma (MM) risk.

    METHODS: Studies were identified through searching the PubMed and MEDLINE databases (to November, 2015). Study-specific risk estimates were pooled under the random-effects model.

    RESULTS: Two case-control studies (846 MM patients and 843 controls) and five cohort studies (including 844,246 participants and 5,737 MM cases) were identified. For caffeinated coffee, the pooled relative risk (RR) of MM was 0.81 [95% confidential interval (95% CI) = 0.68-0.97; P-value for Q-test = 0.003; I2 = 63.5%] for those with highest versus lowest quantity of intake. In the dose-response analysis, the RR of MM was 0.955 (95% CI = 0.912-0.999) for per 1 cup/day increment of caffeinated coffee consumption and linearity dose-response association was found (P-value for nonlinearity = 0.326). Strikingly, no significant association was found between the decaffeinated coffee intake level and MM risk (pooled RR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.81-1.05; P-value for Q-test = 0.967; I2 = 0%; highest versus lowest quantity of intake).

    CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis suggested that caffeinated coffee might have chemo-preventive effects against MM but not decaffeinated coffee. However, larger prospective studies and the intervention studies are warranted to confirm these findings.

    Be well!

    JP

  12. JP Says:

    Updated 07/11/16:

    http://www.foodandnutritionresearch.net/index.php/fnr/article/view/31871

    Food Nutr Res. 2016 Jul 1;60:31871.

    Skin photoprotective and antiageing effects of a combination of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) polyphenols.

    BACKGROUND: Plant polyphenols have been found to be effective in preventing ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced skin alterations. A dietary approach based of these compounds could be a safe and effective method to provide a continuous adjunctive photoprotection measure. In a previous study, a combination of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) extracts has exhibited potential photoprotective effects both in skin cell model and in a human pilot trial.

    OBJECTIVE: We investigated the efficacy of a combination of rosemary (R. officinalis) and grapefruit (C. paradisi) in decreasing the individual susceptibility to UVR exposure (redness and lipoperoxides) and in improving skin wrinkledness and elasticity.

    DESIGN: A randomised, parallel group study was carried out on 90 subjects. Furthermore, a pilot, randomised, crossover study was carried out on five subjects. Female subjects having skin phototype from I to III and showing mild to moderate chrono- or photoageing clinical signs were enrolled in both studies. Skin redness (a* value of CIELab colour space) after UVB exposure to 1 minimal erythemal dose (MED) was assessed in the pilot study, while MED, lipoperoxides (malondialdehyde) skin content, wrinkle depth (image analysis), and skin elasticity (suction and elongation method) were measured in the main study.

    RESULTS: Treated subjects showed a decrease of the UVB- and UVA-induced skin alterations (decreased skin redness and lipoperoxides) and an improvement of skin wrinkledness and elasticity. No differences were found between the 100 and 250 mg extracts doses, indicating a plateau effect starting from 100 mg extracts dose. Some of the positive effects were noted as short as 2 weeks of product consumption.

    CONCLUSIONS: The long-term oral intake of Nutroxsun™ can be considered to be a complementary nutrition strategy to avoid the negative effects of sun exposure. The putative mechanism for these effects is most likely to take place through the inhibition of UVR-induced reactive oxygen species and the concomitant inflammatory markers (lipoperoxides and cytokines) together with their direct action on intracellular signalling pathways.

    Be well!

    JP

  13. JP Says:

    Updated 08/02/16:

    http://bmccancer.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12885-016-2586-5

    BMC Cancer. 2016 Jul 29;16(1):562.

    Coffee consumption and the risk of malignant melanoma in the Norwegian Women and Cancer (NOWAC) Study.

    BACKGROUND: Coffee contains biologically-active substances that suppress carcinogenesis in vivo, and coffee consumption has been associated with a lower risk of malignant melanoma. We studied the impact of total coffee consumption and of different brewing methods on the incidence of malignant melanoma in a prospective cohort of Norwegian women.

    METHODS: We had baseline information on total coffee consumption and consumption of filtered, instant, and boiled coffee from self-administered questionnaires for 104,080 women in the Norwegian Women and Cancer (NOWAC) Study. We also had follow-up information collected 6-8 years after baseline. Multiple imputation was used to deal with missing data, and multivariable Cox regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) for malignant melanoma by consumption category of total, filtered, instant, and boiled coffee.

    RESULTS: During 1.7 million person-years of follow-up, 762 cases of malignant melanoma were diagnosed. Compared to light consumers of filtered coffee (≤1 cup/day), we found a statistically significant inverse association with low-moderate consumption (>1-3 cups/day, HR = 0.80; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.66-0.98) and high-moderate consumption of filtered coffee (>3-5 cups/day, HR = 0.77; 95 % CI 0.61-0.97) and melanoma risk (p trend = 0.02). We did not find a statistically significant association between total, instant, or boiled coffee consumption and the risk of malignant melanoma in any of the consumption categories.

    CONCLUSIONS: The data from the NOWAC Study indicate that a moderate intake of filtered coffee could reduce the risk of malignant melanoma.

    Be well!

    JP

  14. JP Says:

    Updated 09/26/16:

    http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bjd.15080/abstract

    Br J Dermatol. 2016 Sep 23.

    Molecular evidence that oral supplementation with lycopene or lutein protects human skin against ultraviolet radiation: Results from a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, cross-over study.

    BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence suggests photo-protection by oral supplementation with ß-carotene and lycopene.

    OBJECTIVES: We examined the capacity of lycopene rich tomato nutrient complex (TNC) and lutein, to protect against UVA/B- and UVA1 radiation at a molecular level.

    METHODS: In a placebo-controlled, double blinded, randomized cross over study two actives containing either TNC or lutein were assessed for their capacity to decrease the expression of UVA1 radiation-inducible genes including heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1). 65 healthy volunteers were allocated to 4 treatment groups and subjected to a 2-weeks wash-out phase, followed by two 12-weeks treatment phases separated by another 2-weeks wash-out. Volunteers started either with active and switched then to placebo or vice versa. At the beginning and at the end of each treatment phase skin was irradiated and 24 hours later biopsies were taken from untreated, UVB/A- and UVA1 irradiated skin for subsequent RT-PCR analysis of gene expression. Moreover, blood samples were taken after the wash out and the treatment phases for assessment of carotenoids.

    RESULTS: TNC completely inhibited UVA1 as well as UVA/B induced upregulation of HO-1, ICAM-1 and MMP1 mRNA no matter of sequence (ANOVA, p<0.05). In contrast, lutein provided complete protection if it was taken in the first period, but showed significantly smaller effects in the second sequence compared to TNC.

    CONCLUSION: Assuming the role of these genes as indicators of oxidative stress, photo-dermatoses and photo-aging these results might indicate that TNC and lutein could protect against solar radiation-induced health damage.

    Be well!

    JP

  15. JP Says:

    Updated 11/09/16:

    http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bjd.15080/epdf

    Br J Dermatol. 2016 Sep 23.

    Molecular evidence that oral supplementation with lycopene or lutein protects human skin against ultraviolet radiation: Results from a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, cross-over study.

    BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence suggests photo-protection by oral supplementation with ß-carotene and lycopene.

    OBJECTIVES: We examined the capacity of lycopene rich tomato nutrient complex (TNC) and lutein, to protect against UVA/B- and UVA1 radiation at a molecular level.

    METHODS: In a placebo-controlled, double blinded, randomized cross over study two actives containing either TNC or lutein were assessed for their capacity to decrease the expression of UVA1 radiation-inducible genes including heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1). 65 healthy volunteers were allocated to 4 treatment groups and subjected to a 2-weeks wash-out phase, followed by two 12-weeks treatment phases separated by another 2-weeks wash-out. Volunteers started either with active and switched then to placebo or vice versa. At the beginning and at the end of each treatment phase skin was irradiated and 24 hours later biopsies were taken from untreated, UVB/A- and UVA1 irradiated skin for subsequent RT-PCR analysis of gene expression. Moreover, blood samples were taken after the wash out and the treatment phases for assessment of carotenoids.

    RESULTS: TNC completely inhibited UVA1 as well as UVA/B induced upregulation of HO-1, ICAM-1 and MMP1 mRNA no matter of sequence (ANOVA, p<0.05). In contrast, lutein provided complete protection if it was taken in the first period, but showed significantly smaller effects in the second sequence compared to TNC.

    CONCLUSION: Assuming the role of these genes as indicators of oxidative stress, photo-dermatoses and photo-aging these results might indicate that TNC and lutein could protect against solar radiation-induced health damage.

    Be well!

    JP

  16. JP Says:

    Updated 09/09/17:

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28884844

    Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed. 2017 Sep 8.

    An open label clinical trial assessing the efficacy and safety of Bend Skincare Anti-Aging Formula on minimal erythema dose in skin.

    BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Sunburn and other health risks associated with excess sun exposure place huge economic burdens on societies, and create discomfort and disease within susceptible individuals. Oral supplements that reduce sunburn may be advantageous. This study evaluated the safety and efficacy of Bend Skincare Anti-Aging Formula to ameliorate sunburn induced with a solar simulator.

    METHODS: Subjects (n= 28) with Fitzpatrick skin phototypes I, II or III took four capsules daily of the supplement providing 1400 mg of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)+ docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), 120 mg of gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), 5 mg of lutein, 2.5 mg of zeaxanthin, and 1000 IU of vitamin D3 for 8 weeks. Skin on each subject’s back was exposed to a progressive sequence of timed ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure doses at baseline, and after 4 and 8 weeks treatment to determine their minimal erythema dose (MED). Results were compared before and after treatment using three paired t-tests and subsequently three linear mixed models.

    RESULTS: Treatment significantly improved tolerance to UV exposure as evidenced by increased MED at 4 and 8 weeks compared to baseline (p<0.001). This protection increased with prolonged use of Bend Skincare Anti-Aging Formula as demonstrated by progressively increased MED between baseline and 4 weeks, and again between 4 and 8 weeks (p<0.001). Nearly 86% of patients responded to treatment within 4 weeks and 100% of patients responded by the end of the study, resulting in a 39% mean increase in MED at 4 weeks, and an 84% mean increase in MED at 8 weeks compared to baseline. Treatment was well tolerated with no product associated adverse events (AE) and only a few mild and expected side effects.

    CONCLUSION: Bend Skincare Anti-Aging Formula safely and effectively provides significant skin photo-protection that increases with continued use.

    Be well!

    JP

  17. JP Says:

    Updated 11/07/17:

    http://www.jaad.org/article/S0190-9622(17)30138-X/fulltext

    J Am Acad Dermatol. 2017 Jul;77(1):33-41.e1.

    The impact of oral Polypodium leucotomos extract on ultraviolet B response: A human clinical study.

    BACKGROUND: There is a rationale for adding systemic photoprotective agents to the current photoprotection regimen.

    OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to objectively evaluate the molecular and photobiologic effects of oral administration of Polypodium leucotomos extract (PLE).

    METHODS: In all, 22 subjects with Fitzpatrick skin phototype I to III were enrolled. On day 1, subjects were irradiated with visible light, ultraviolet (UV) A1, and UVB (using 308-nm excimer laser). Evaluation was done immediately and 24 hours after irradiation. On days 3 and 4, irradiation and evaluation process was repeated after ingestion of PLE.

    RESULTS: Clinical assessments and colorimetry data showed a decrease in UVB-induced changes in 17 of 22 subjects post-PLE administration; histology findings demonstrated such a decrease in all 22 subjects.

    LIMITATIONS: Only 2 doses of PLE were given. Furthermore, subjects with skin phototypes I to III only were studied.

    CONCLUSION: The results suggest that PLE can potentially be used as an adjunctive agent to lessen the negative photobiologic effects of UVB.

    Be well!

    JP

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